Lifting the burden of headache in China: managing migraine in a SMART way.
ABSTRACT: With support from Lifting The Burden , a UK-registered charitable organization, a nationwide survey of headache disorders in the Chinese adult population was conducted in 2008-2009. This project, which was within the Global Campaign against Headache, showed that headache disorders have a major adverse impact on public health in China. Subsequently, as essential support for implementing headache services around the country, an enactment of stage 3 (intervention) of the Global Campaign against Headache - the continuing medical education (CME) program Headache Schools - was established. 'SMART' (Screen, Migraine, Aura, Red flag and Treatment), a systematic and operational disease management model, was introduced with the aims of enhancing neurologists' knowledge of migraine, standardizing their diagnostic and treatment approaches, and improving their practices and outcomes. To date, 615 neurologists have been trained and 135 headache clinics have been established. In future, as we promote SMART in CME, we can use the database of our computerized clinical decision support systems to evaluate the impact on treatment outcomes.
Project description:The Aids to Management are a product of the Global Campaign against Headache, a worldwide programme of action conducted in official relations with the World Health Organization. Developed in partnership with the European Headache Federation, they update the first edition published 11 years ago.The common headache disorders (migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache) are major causes of ill health. They should be managed in primary care, firstly because their management is generally not difficult, and secondly because they are so common. These Aids to Management, with the European principles of management of headache disorders in primary care as the core of their content, combine educational materials with practical management aids. They are supplemented by translation protocols, to ensure that translations are unchanged in meaning from the English-language originals.The Aids to Management may be individually downloaded and, as is the case for all products of the Global Campaign against Headache, are available without restriction for non-commercial use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many different preventatives have showed efficacy in the treatment of migraine. National guidelines differ in their recommendations and patients' characteristics are usually taken into account in their selection. In Spain, real life use of preventive therapies seems to be heterogeneous. We aimed to evaluate differences in clinical practice and adherence to national guidelines among Spanish neurologists. METHODS:Observational descriptive study. A survey was conducted among neurologists ascribed to the Spanish Society of Neurology. Participants were differentiated in accordance with their dedication to headache disorders. We analysed socio-demographic parameters and evaluated 43 questions considering migraine management as well as therapeutic choices regarding migraine sub-types and finally, neurologists' personal perception. RESULTS:One hundred fifty-five neurologists participated from 17 different regions, 43.4% of them female and 53.3% under 40?years of age. 34.9% confirmed headache disorders as their main interest. The first choice for preventive therapy in chronic migraine among participants was topiramate (57%) followed by amytriptiline (17.9%) and beta-blockers (14.6%). However in episodic migraine, the preferred options were beta-blockers (47.7%), topiramate (21.5%) and amytriptiline (13.4%). Regarding perceived efficacy, topiramate was considered the best option in chronic migraine (42.7%) followed by onabotulinumtoxinA (25.5%) and amitryptiline (22.4%). Where episodic migraine was concerned, surveyed neurologists perceived topiramate (43.7%) and beta-blockers (30.3%) as the best options. When we evaluated the duration of treatment use with a view to adequate therapeutic response, 43.5% of neurologists preferred 3?months duration and 39.5% were in favour of 6?months duration in episodic migraine. However, considering the preferred duration of treatment use in chronic migraine, 20.4% recommended 3?months, 42.1% preferred 6?months and 12.5% and 22.4% opted for 9 and 12?months respectively. When considering onabotulinumtoxinA therapy, the number of prior therapeutic failures was zero in 7.2% of neurologists, one in 5.9%, two in 44.1%, three in 30.9% and four or more in 11.9%. Following an initial treatment failure with onabotulinumtoxinA, 49% of subjects decided against a second treatment. The number of OnabotA procedures before considering it as ineffective was two in 18.9% of neurologists, three in 70.8% and four in 10.4%. CONCLUSIONS:The initial management of migraine among Spanish Neurologists is in line with most guidelines, where first choice preventative drugs are concerned. The Management of episodic migraine differed from chronic migraine, both in terms of neurologist preference and in their perceived efficacy.
Project description:Objective To examine treatment utilization patterns and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine in routine clinical practice. Background Clinical trials support onabotulinumtoxinA for the prophylaxis of headache in patients with chronic migraine, but real-world data are limited. Design/methods A prospective, observational, post-authorization study in adult patients with chronic migraine treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. Data were collected at the first study injection and approximately every three months for ?52 weeks for utilization and ?64 weeks for safety data, and summarized using descriptive statistics. Results Eighty-five physicians (81% neurologists) at 58 practices in the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and Sweden participated and recruited 1160 patients (84.2% female, median age 46.6 years). At baseline, 85.8% of patients had physician diagnoses of chronic migraine/transformed migraine and reported an average of 11.3 (SD?=?6.9) severe headache days per 28 days; 50.6% had previously used onabotulinumtoxinA for chronic migraine. A total of 4017 study treatments were observed. The median number of injection sites (n?=?31) and total dose (155 U) were consistent across all treatment sessions, with a median 13.7 weeks observed between sessions. At least one treatment-related adverse event was reported by 291 patients (25.1%); the most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was neck pain (4.4%). Most patients (74.4%) were satisfied/extremely satisfied with onabotulinumtoxinA treatment. Conclusions Patient demographics/characteristics are consistent with published data on the chronic migraine population. Utilization of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for chronic migraine appears to be consistent with the Summary of Product Characteristics and published PREEMPT injection paradigm. No new safety signals were identified.
Project description:Migraine is a common form of headache and has a significant genetic component. Here, we report linkage results from a study in Iceland of migraine without aura (MO). The study group comprised patients with migraine recruited by neurologists and from the registry of the Icelandic Migraine Society, as well as through the use of a questionnaire sent to a random sample of 20,000 Icelanders. Migraine diagnoses were made and confirmed using diagnostic criteria established by the International Headache Society. A genome-wide scan with multipoint allele-sharing methods was performed on 289 patients suffering from MO. Linkage was observed to a locus on chromosome 4q21 (LOD=2.05; P=.001). The locus reported here overlaps a locus (MGR1) reported elsewhere for patients with migraine with aura (MA) in the Finnish population. This replication of the MGR1 locus in families with MO indicates that the gene we have mapped may contribute to both MA and MO. Further analysis indicates that the linkage evidence improves for affected females and, especially, with a slightly relaxed definition of MO (LOD=4.08; P=7.2 x 10(-6)).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Headache is a common symptom of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we aimed to characterize the phenotype of headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to test the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) phenotypic criteria for migraine and tension-type headache. METHODS:The study design was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort. We screened all consecutive patients that were hospitalized and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. We included patients that described headache if the headache was not better explained by another ICHD-3 diagnosis. Patients were interviewed by two neurologists. RESULTS:We screened 580 patients and included 130 (mean age 56 years, 64% female). Headache was the first symptom of the infection in 26% of patients and appeared within 24 hours in 62% of patients. The headache was bilateral in 85%, frontal in 83%, and with pressing quality in 75% of patients. Mean intensity was 7.1, being severe in 64%. Hypersensitivity to stimuli occurred in 57% of patients. ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to systemic viral infection were fulfilled by 94% of patients; phenotypic criteria for migraine were fulfilled by 25% of patients, and tension-type headache criteria by 54% of patients. CONCLUSION:Headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized patients has severe intensity, frontal predominance and oppressive quality. It occurs early in the course of the disease. Most patients fulfilled ICHD-3 criteria for headache attributed to systemic viral infection; however, the phenotype might resemble migraine in a quarter of cases and tension-type headache in half of the patients.
Project description:To educate physicians about appropriate acute migraine treatment guidelines by determining (1) where headache patients were first prescribed opioids and barbiturates, and (2) the characteristics of the patient population who had been prescribed opioids and barbiturates.Several specialty societies issued recommendations that caution against the indiscriminate use of opioids or barbiturate containing medications for the treatment of migraine. These medications are still being prescribed in various medical settings and could put headache specialists in a difficult position when patients request these agents.Patients presenting to a headache center comprised of eight physicians were asked to complete a survey that assessed headache types, comorbid conditions, and whether they had ever been prescribed opioids or barbiturates. If they responded affirmatively to the latter question, they were asked about the prescribing doctor, medication effectiveness, and whether they were currently on the medication. Data collection took place over a one month period.Two hundred forty-four patients were given the survey and 218 of these patients completed it. The predominant diagnosis was migraine (83.9%). More than half of the patients reported having been prescribed an opioid (54.8%) or a barbiturate (56.7%). About one fifth were on opioids (19.4%) or barbiturates (20.7%) at the time of completing the survey. Most patients reported being on opioids for more than 2 years (24.6%) or less than one week (32.1%). The reasons most frequently cited for stopping opioids were that the medications did not help (30.9%) or that they saw a new doctor who would not prescribe them (29.4%). Among patients who had previously been on barbiturates, 32.2% had been on these for over 2 years. Most patients (61.8%) stopped barbiturates because they did not find the medication helpful, while 17.6% said they saw a new doctor who would not prescribe them. The physician specialty most frequently cited as being the first prescriber for opioids was emergency medicine (20.2%) with family doctors and general neurologists the next groups at 17.7% each. General neurologists were the most frequent (37.8%) first prescribers of barbiturates.Approximately 20% of patients presenting to a headache center reported current use of opioids and/or barbiturates. ED physicians were reported to be the most frequent first prescribers of opioids and general neurologists were the most frequent first prescribers of barbiturates. Taken as a whole, these data provide a useful snapshot of the wide variety of physician specialties that might benefit from additional education on the appropriate use of opioids and barbiturate-containing medications in patients with headaches.
Project description:Many new medications for the treatment of migraine are now available on the market. In the current evolving migraine treatment landscape, an individualized treatment approach is needed. This review provides practical recommendations on how to obtain a correct diagnosis and then engage in a long-term partnership with patients with the most severe form of migraine: chronic migraine (CM). Given the need to effectively treat this complex neurological disease, clinicians in primary care, general neurologists, and headache specialists are at the forefront to ease the burden of this disease for their patients. This manuscript will review how to discuss the currently available treatment options to help control migraine attacks, manage expectations, and, together with the patient, determine the most effective and appropriate treatment. The goal is to create an environment where the clinician partners with the patient in shared decision-making to choose the most effective appropriate treatment for the individual patient.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Migraine is a chronic, disabling neurological disease characterized by moderate-to-severe headache pain with other symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Triptans, while generally effective, are insufficiently efficacious in 30-40% of patients and poorly tolerated by or contraindicated in others. We assessed the impact of insufficient response to triptans on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity in patients currently receiving any prescribed triptan formulation as their only acute migraine medication. METHODS:Data were from the 2017 Adelphi Migraine Disease Specific Programme, a cross-sectional survey of primary care physicians, neurologists, and headache specialists and their consulting patients with migraine in the USA, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK. Triptan insufficient responders (TIRs) achieved freedom from headache pain within 2?h of acute treatment in ?3/5 migraine attacks; triptan responders (TRs) achieved pain freedom within 2?h in ?4/5 attacks. Multivariable general linear model examined differences between TIRs and TRs in HRQoL and work productivity. Logistic regression identified factors associated with insufficient response to triptans. RESULTS:The study included 1413 triptan-treated patients (TIRs: n?=?483, 34.2%; TRs: n?=?930, 65.8%). TIRs were more likely to be female (76% vs. 70% for TIRs vs TRs, respectively; p?=?0.011), older (mean age 42.6 vs. 40.5?years; p?=?0.003), and had more headache days/month (7.0 vs. 4.4; p?<?0.001). TIRs had significantly more disability, with higher Migraine Disability Scores (MIDAS; 13.2 vs. 7.7; p?<?0.001), lower Migraine-specific Quality of Life scores, indicating greater impact (Role Function Restrictive: 62.4 vs. 74.5; Role Function Preventive: 70.0 vs. 82.2; Emotional Function: 67.7 vs. 82.1; all p?<?0.001), and lower EQ5D utility scores (0.84 vs. 0.91; p?=?0.001). Work productivity and activity were impaired (absenteeism, 8.6% vs. 5.1% for TIRs vs. TRs; presenteeism, 34.3% vs. 21.0%; work impairment, 37.1% vs. 23.3%; overall activity impairment, 39.8% vs. 25.3%; all p?<?0.05). CONCLUSION:HRQoL and work productivity were significantly impacted in TIRs versus TRs in this real-world analysis of patients with migraine acutely treated with triptans, highlighting the need for more effective treatments for patients with an insufficient triptan response. Further research is needed to establish causal relationships between insufficient response and these outcomes.
Project description:The aim of this study was to record the demographic and epidemiological data on adult patients with headache who attend the emergency department (ED) and the diagnoses that made by the neurologists in the ED of a tertiary care hospital in metropolitan Thessaloniki (Greece). In an open prospective study, demographic and epidemiological data were collected on all patients who reported headache (as chief complaint or not) and presented to the ED of Papageorgiou Hospital between August 2007 and July 2008. Headache patients accounted for 1.3% of all ED patients and for 15.5% of patients primarily referred to the ED neurologist. Tension type headache was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by secondary headaches and migraine. The large number of patients without final ED diagnosis and ward admission for further evaluation sheds a light on the immense workload of Greek ED physicians. Furthermore, we found evidence for the misuse of Emergency Medical Services by chronic headache patients. These findings indicate shortcomings in the pre-hospital (primary care) management of headache patients in the Greek National Health System to an extent unreported so far.
Project description:Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder associated with a high socioeconomic burden. Effective migraine management depends on adequate patient education: to avoid unrealistic expectations, the condition must be carefully explained to the patient soon as it is diagnosed. The range of available acute treatments has increased over time. At present, abortive migraine therapy can be classed as specific (ergot derivatives and triptans) or non-specific (analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Even though acute symptomatic therapy can be optimised, migraine continues to be a chronic and potentially progressive condition. In addition to the drugs officially approved for migraine prevention by international governmental regulatory agencies, numerous different agents are commonly used for this indication, showing various levels of evidence of efficacy and tolerability. Guidelines published in recent years, based on evidence-based medicine data on migraine prophylaxis, are a useful source of guidance, especially for primary care physicians and neurologists without specific expertise in headache medicine. Although the field of pharmacological migraine prevention has seen few advances in recent years, potential novel approaches are now being developed. This review looks at emerging pharmacological strategies for acute and preventive migraine treatment that are nearing or have already entered the clinical trial phase. Specifically, it discusses preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the serotonin 5-HT1F receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers.