ABSTRACT: From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.
Project description:Organized physical activity (OPA) is an important contributor to physical, social, and emotional health and well-being; however, young people with disabilities are participating at lower rates than their peers without disabilities. This study aimed to (1) compare facilitators and barriers to OPA for young people with disabilities who currently do and do not participate in OPA and (2) to assess whether groups differed in the type of internal and external assets they reported. Parents of 218 young people (41% with a primary diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder) with a diverse representation of disabilities completed an online survey. Young people were categorized as either participants in OPA (n = 131) or non-participants (n = 87) by parent report. Non-participation was significantly predicted by the barrier "there are no activities my child enjoys" and by a lack of children's motivation and happiness during OPA. Significant internal assets differentiating participants from non-participants were the ability to understand simple instructions, love of sport, and meeting physical activity guidelines. Significant external assets were parent and sibling participation in OPA, school type, and household income. The findings from this study have important implications for the design of public health interventions that aim to promote OPA in young people with disabilities, highlighting the need to make activities enjoyable, promote participation of siblings and parents, and support low-income families to participate.
Project description:Importance:The apparent genetic penetrance of macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) is important for gene discovery studies and for clinical risk assessment of affected individuals' family members. Objective:To determine the genetic penetrance of MacTel. Design, Setting, and Participants:Descriptive cross-sectional study of patients with MacTel at a tertiary referral eye center. From 2008 to 2016, consecutive patients with MacTel were independently identified, and all of their available siblings and parents were recruited. Seventeen probands with MacTel were included in the study who satisfied the requirement of having at least 1 parent or sibling willing and able to participate. Data from these 17 families were included for the analysis of apparent genetic penetrance. Main Outcomes and Measures:Determination of MacTel genetic penetrance in probands' parents and siblings. Results:Of 80 study participants, 50 (62.5%) were women. The mean (SD) age of study participants with MacTel was 61.2 (14.0) years (range, 23-81 years) and without MacTel was 60.7 (16.4) years (range, 24-92 years). There were 17 MacTel probands, and there was a high rate of enrollment of living siblings and parents: 52 of 71 living siblings (73%) and 11 of 12 parents (92%). Of 52 enrolled siblings, 9 (17%) were affected. Of 11 enrolled parents, 3 (27%) had MacTel. Apparent genetic penetrance was calculated to be 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.6) by sibling analysis and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.02-1.00) by parent analysis. Combining the sibling and parent analyses, the apparent penetrance was calculated to be 0.38 (95% CI, 0.19-0.57). Conclusions and Relevance:The genetic penetrance of MacTel in rigorously phenotyped multiple large families is described. Families such as these could be critical for successful identification of MacTel genes.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Although siblings represent central members of the networks of caregivers and their parents, there has been limited attention to how siblings affect one another's well-being during caregiving. In this article, we draw from theories of identity and stress to examine the impact that siblings have on caregivers' psychological well-being. Specifically, we employ a mixed-methods approach to explore whether caregivers' perceptions that their siblings are critical of the care they provide their mother are associated with higher depressive symptoms and the mechanisms underlying this association.<h4>Methods</h4>Using quantitative data collected from 404 caregivers nested within 231 families as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, we conduct mediation analyses to examine whether perceived sibling criticisms are associated with caregivers' depressive symptoms (a) directly and/or (b) indirectly through sibling tension. We then analyze qualitative data collected from the same caregivers to gain insight into the processes underlying statistical associations.<h4>Results</h4>Quantitative analyses revealed that there was no direct relationship between perceived sibling criticisms and depressive symptoms; there was, however, an indirect relationship such that perceived sibling criticisms were associated with greater sibling tension, which in turn was associated with higher depressive symptoms. These quantitative findings were corroborated by qualitative analyses, which demonstrated that, in an effort to mitigate the negative impact of sibling criticisms, caregivers often employed strategies that may have fueled sibling tension.<h4>Discussion</h4>These findings demonstrate how identity processes, as well as the family networks in which caregiving takes place, shape the experiences and consequences of parent care.
Project description:In this paper we aim to reach beyond the dyadic perspective on intergenerational contact and examine the influence of the sibling network on parent-child contact. We include aggregate sibling network characteristics as well as the adult child's position in the network vis-à-vis siblings, and use data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (2002-2004 NKPS; N = 4,601 dyads). Regarding aggregate network characteristics results show that having sisters, having stepsiblings, increasing geographical distance between siblings, and decreasing levels of network cohesion are associated with less contact per parent-child dyad. Regarding the position of the adult child vis-à-vis his or her siblings, results show that having geographically or emotionally closer siblings has a negative effect on parent-child contact. The impact of differences in emotional distance among siblings is stronger when the analyses are limited to parents in poor health. Suggestions for future research are made.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Siblings and parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders are at risk of mental health problems and poorer family communication. Some group interventions for siblings exist, but few have clearly described parent components and none are considered evidence-based. METHODS:We are conducting a randomized controlled trial comparing a five-session manual-based group intervention for siblings (aged 8 to 16?years) and parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders to a 12-week waitlist, called SIBS-RCT. The intervention comprises three separate sibling and parent group sessions and two joint sessions in which each sibling talks to their parent alone. The intervention aims at improving parent-child communication and covers themes such as siblings' understanding of the neurodevelopmental disorder, siblings' emotions, and perceived family challenges. Participants are recruited through municipal and specialist health centers across Norway. The primary outcome is sibling mental health. Quality of life and family communication are secondary outcomes. Participants are block-randomized to the intervention or 12-week waitlist in groups of six. Measures are collected electronically at pre- and post-intervention/waitlist, as well as 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. The main effect to be examined is the difference between the intervention and waitlist at 12 weeks post. All outcomes will also be examined using growth curve analyses. We plan to include 288 siblings and their parents by the end of 2022. DISCUSSION:SIBS-RCT represents a major contribution to the research and practice field towards establishing an evidence-based intervention for siblings. In the event that intervention and waitlist are no different, the impact of SIBS-RCT is still substantial in that we will aim to identify participant subgroups that show positive response and effective components of the SIBS manual by examining group leader adherence as an outcome predictor. This will allow us to continue to re-engineer the SIBS manual iteratively to improve outcomes, and avoid the promotion of a less-than-optimal intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04056884 . Registered in August 2019.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent negative interactions on adolescents' externalizing problems, while examining and controlling for similar linkages with friends and parents.<h4>Methods</h4>Questionnaire data on externalizing problems and negative interactions were annually collected from 497 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.03 years, SD = 0.52, at baseline), as well as their siblings, mothers, fathers, and friends.<h4>Results</h4>Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed modest unique longitudinal paths from sibling externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, for male and female adolescents, and for same-sex and mixed-sex sibling dyads, but only from older to younger siblings. Moreover, these paths were above and beyond significant paths from mother-adolescent negative interaction and friend externalizing problems to adolescent externalizing problems, 1 year later. No cross-lagged paths existed between sibling-adolescent negative interaction and adolescent externalizing problems.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, it appears that especially older sibling externalizing problems may be a unique social risk factor for adolescent externalizing problems, equal in strength to significant parents' and friends' risk factors.
Project description:We seek to identify factors that facilitate or inhibit transmission of drug abuse (DA) from high-risk parents to their children. In 44,250 offspring of these parents, ascertained from a Swedish national sample for having a mother and/or father with DA, we explored, using Cox models, how the prevalence of DA was predicted by potentially malleable risk factors in these high-risk parents, their spouses and the rearing environment they provided. Analyses of offspring of discordant high-risk siblings and offspring of discordant sibling-in-laws and step-parents aided causal inference. Risk for DA in the children was associated with high-risk and married-in parental externalizing psychopathology, a range of other features of these parents (e.g., low education and receipt of welfare), and aspects of the rearing environment (e.g., neighborhood deprivation and number of nearby drug dealers). Offspring of discordant high-risk siblings, siblings-in-laws and step-parents suggested that nearly all these associations were partly causal. A multivariate analysis utilizing offspring of discordant high-risk siblings identified the six most significant potentially malleable risk factors for offspring DA: (1) criminal behavior (CB) in married-in parent, (2) community peer deviance, (3) broken family, (4) DA in high-risk parent, (5) CB in high-risk parent and (6) number of family moves. Children in the lowest decile of risk had a 50% reduction in their DA prevalence, similar to that seen in the general population. We conclude that transmission of DA from high-risk parents to children partly results from a range of potentially malleable risk factors that could serve as foci for intervention.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Demonstrating the impact that parents have on the fitness of their children is a crucial step towards understanding how parental investment has affected human evolution. Parents not only transfer genes to their children, they also influence their environments. By analyzing reproductive patterns within and between different categories of close relatives, this study provides insight into the genetic and environmental effects that parents have on the fitness of their offspring.<h4>Methods</h4>We use data spanning over two centuries from an exceptionally accurate Icelandic genealogy, Íslendingabók, to analyze the relationship between the fertility rates of close relatives. Also, using genetic data, we determine narrow sense heritability estimates (<i>h</i><sup>2</sup>) to further explore the genetic impact on lifetime reproductive success. Finally, we construct four simulations to model the expected contribution of genes and resources on reproductive success.<h4>Results</h4>The relationship between the reproduction of all full sibling pairs was significant and positive across all birth decades (<i>r</i> = 0.19) while the reproductive relationship between parents and offspring was often negative across many decades and undetectable overall (<i>r</i> = 0.00) (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Meanwhile, genetic data among 8,456 pairs of full siblings revealed a narrow sense heritability estimate (<i>h</i><sup>2</sup>) of 0.00 for lifetime reproductive success. A resources model (following the rule that resources are transmitted from parents to children, distributed equally among siblings, and are the only factor affecting reproductive success) revealed a similar trend: a negative relationship between parent and offspring reproduction (<i>r</i> = - 0.35) but a positive relationship among full siblings (<i>r</i> = 0.28). The relationship between parent and offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and full sibling LRS was strongly and positively correlated across time (<i>r</i> = 0.799, <i>p</i> < 0.001). Similarly, the LRS among full siblings was positively correlated with both the LRS among half siblings (<i>r</i> = 0.532, <i>p</i> = 0.011) and the relationship between the LRS of aunts and uncles with their nieces and nephews (<i>r</i> = 0.438, <i>p</i> = 0.042).<h4>Discussion</h4>We show that an individual's lifetime reproductive success is best predicted by the reproduction of their full and half siblings, but not their parents, grandparents or aunts and uncles. Because all siblings share at least one parent, we believe parental investment has had an important impact on fitness. Overall, these results indicate that direct parental investment, but not genes, is likely to have had an important and persistent impact on lifetime reproductive success across more than two centuries of Icelandic history.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Pancreatic cancer (PC) risk is increased in families, but PC risk and risk perception have been understudied when both parents have cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>An unbiased method defining cancer triads (proband with PC and both parents with cancer) in a prospective registry estimated risk of PC to probands' siblings in triad group 1 (no parent with PC), group 2 (1 parent with PC), and group 3 (both parents with PC). We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) reference. We also estimated the risk when triad probands carried germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in any of the 6 PC-associated genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, MLH1, and TP53). PC risk perception/concern was surveyed in siblings and controls.<h4>Results</h4>Risk of PC was higher (SIR = 3.5; 95% CI = 2.2-5.2) in 933 at-risk siblings from 297 triads. Risk increased by triad group: 2.8 (95% CI = 1.5-4.5); 4.5 (95% CI = 1.6-9.7); and 21.2 (95% CI = 4.3-62.0). SIR in variant-negative triads was 3.0 (95% CI = 1.6-5.0), whereas SIR in variant-positive triads was 10.0 (95% CI = 3.2-23.4). Siblings' perceived risk/concern of developing PC increased by triad group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Sibling risks were 2.8- to 21.2-fold higher than that of the general population. Positive variant status increased the risk in triads. Increasing number of PC cases in a triad was associated with increased concern and perceived PC risk.
Project description:Drawing from an ecological systems framework, we qualitatively explored how Confucian-heritage Asian American emerging adults compared with non-Hispanic European American emerging adults on views of sibling relationships and birth order. Thematic analysis of 48 semi-structured interviews revealed positive sibling relationship themes for both ethnocultural groups: mutual support, companionship, and appreciation; comfort from shared burden of negative parental interactions; and pride in one another. Birth-order themes were also similar across the groups. First-borns overall reported a strong pressure to be a role model to later-borns, provide sibling care, assume family responsibilities, and not expect to rely on younger siblings. Despite these similarities, Asian American first-borns were unique in taking comfort in having siblings who shared a less traditional Asian cultural perspective than their parents. They also described additional pressure from being the oldest within an immigrant family.