Mechanism of Photodamage of the Oxygen Evolving Mn Cluster of Photosystem II by Excessive Light Energy.
ABSTRACT: Photodamage to Photosystem II (PSII) has been attributed either to excessive excitation of photosynthetic pigments or by direct of light absorption by Mn4CaO5 cluster. Here we investigated the time course of PSII photodamage and release of Mn in PSII-enriched membranes under high light illumination at 460?nm and 660?nm. We found that the loss of PSII activity, assayed by chlorophyll fluorescence, is faster than release of Mn from the Mn4CaO5 cluster, assayed by EPR. Loss of PSII activity and Mn release was slower during illumination in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors. Recovery of PSII activity was observed, after 30?min of addition of electron donor post illumination. The same behavior was observed under 460 and 660?nm illumination, suggesting stronger correlation between excessive excitation and photodamage compared to direct light absorption by the cluster. A unified model of PSII photodamage that takes into account present and previous literature reports is presented.
Project description:In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven splitting of water at a protein-bound Mn4CaO5-cluster, the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). In the photosynthetic organisms, the light-driven formation of the WOC from dissolved metal ions is a key process because it is essential in both initial activation and continuous repair of PSII. Structural information is required for understanding of this chaperone-free metal-cluster assembly. For the first time, we obtained a structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus without the Mn4CaO5-cluster. Surprisingly, cluster-removal leaves the positions of all coordinating amino acid residues and most nearby water molecules largely unaffected, resulting in a pre-organized ligand shell for kinetically competent and error-free photo-assembly of the Mn4CaO5-cluster. First experiments initiating (i) partial disassembly and (ii) partial re-assembly after complete depletion of the Mn4CaO5-cluster agree with a specific bi-manganese cluster, likely a di-µ-oxo bridged pair of Mn(III) ions, as an assembly intermediate.
Project description:The Mn4CaO5 cluster site in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) undergoes structural perturbations, such as those induced by Ca2+/Sr2+ exchanges or Ca/Mn removal. These changes have been known to induce long-range positive shifts (between +30 and +150 mV) in the redox potential of the primary quinone electron acceptor plastoquinone A (QA), which is located 40 Å from the OEC. To further investigate these effects, we reanalyzed the crystal structure of Sr-PSII resolved at 2.1 Å and compared it with the native Ca-PSII resolved at 1.9 Å. Here, we focus on the acceptor site and report the possible long-range interactions between the donor, Mn4Ca(Sr)O5 cluster, and acceptor sites.
Project description:Photosynthetic water oxidation is catalyzed by the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II. The assembly of the Mn4O5Ca requires light and involves a sequential process called photoactivation. This process harnesses the charge-separation of the photochemical reaction center and the coordination environment provided by the amino acid side chains of the protein to oxidize and organize the incoming manganese ions to form the oxo-bridged metal cluster capable of H2O-oxidation. Although most aspects of this assembly process remain poorly understood, recent advances in the elucidation of the crystal structure of the fully assembled cyanobacterial PSII complex help in the interpretation of the rich history of experiments designed to understand this process. Moreover, recent insights on the structure and stability of the constituent ions of the Mn4CaO5 cluster may guide future experiments. Here we consider the literature and suggest possible models of assembly including one involving single Mn(2+) oxidation site for all Mn but requiring ion relocation.
Project description:The binding of the substrate analogue methanol to the catalytic Mn4CaO5 cluster of the water-oxidizing enzyme photosystem II is known to alter the electronic structure properties of the oxygen-evolving complex without retarding O2-evolution under steady-state illumination conditions. We report the binding mode of (13)C-labeled methanol determined using 9.4 GHz (X-band) hyperfine sublevel-correlation (HYSCORE) and 34 GHz (Q-band) electron spin-echo electron nuclear double resonance (ESE-ENDOR) spectroscopies. These results are compared to analogous experiments on a mixed-valence Mn(III)Mn(IV) complex (2-OH-3,5-Cl2-salpn)2Mn(III)Mn(IV) (salpn = N,N'-bis(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane) in which methanol ligates to the Mn(III) ion ( Larson et al. (1992) J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 114 , 6263 ). In the mixed-valence Mn(III,IV) complex, the hyperfine coupling to the (13)C of the bound methanol (Aiso = 0.65 MHz, T = 1.25 MHz) is appreciably larger than that observed for (13)C methanol associated with the Mn4CaO5 cluster poised in the S2 state, where only a weak dipolar hyperfine interaction (Aiso = 0.05 MHz, T = 0.27 MHz) is observed. An evaluation of the (13)C hyperfine interaction using the X-ray structure coordinates of the Mn4CaO5 cluster indicates that methanol does not bind as a terminal ligand to any of the manganese ions in the oxygen-evolving complex. We favor methanol binding in place of a water ligand to the Ca(2+) in the Mn4CaO5 cluster or in place of one of the waters that form hydrogen bonds with the oxygen bridges of the cluster.
Project description:Light damages photosynthetic machinery, primarily photosystem II (PSII), and it results in photoinhibition. A new photodamage model, the two-step photodamage model, suggests that photodamage to PSII initially occurs at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) by light energy absorbed by manganese and that the PSII reaction center is subsequently damaged by light energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments due to the limitation of electrons to the PSII reaction center. However, it is still uncertain whether this model is applicable to photodamage to PSII under visible light as manganese absorbs visible light only weakly. In the present study, we identified the initial site of photodamage to PSII upon illumination of visible light using PSII membrane fragments isolated from spinach leaves. When PSII samples were exposed to visible light in the presence of an exogenous electron acceptor, both PSII total activity and the PSII reaction centre activity declined due to photodamage. The supplemental addition of an electron donor to the PSII reaction centre alleviated the decline of the reaction centre activity but not the PSII total activity upon the light exposure. Our results demonstrate that visible light damages OEC prior to photodamage to the PSII reaction center, consistent with two-step photodamage model.
Project description:In Photosystem II (PSII), YZ (Tyr161D1) participates in radical transfer between the chlorophyll donor and the Mn4CaO5 cluster. Under flashing illumination, the metal cluster cycles among five Sn states, and oxygen is evolved from water. The essential YZ is transiently oxidized and reduced on each flash in a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. Calcium is required for function. Of reconstituted divalent ions, only strontium restores oxygen evolution. YZ is predicted to hydrogen bond to calcium-bound water and to His190D1 in PSII structures. Here, we report a vibrational spectroscopic study of YZ radical and singlet in the presence of the metal cluster. The S2 state is trapped by illumination at 190 K; flash illumination then generates the S2YZ radical. Using reaction-induced FTIR spectroscopy and divalent ion depletion/substitution, we identify calcium-sensitive tyrosyl radical and tyrosine singlet bands in the S2 state. In calcium-containing PSII, two CO stretching bands are detected at 1,503 and 1,478 cm-1 These bands are assigned to two different radical conformers in calcium-containing PSII. At pH 6.0, the 1,503-cm-1 band shifts to 1,507 cm-1 in strontium-containing PSII, and the band is reduced in intensity in calcium-depleted PSII. These effects are consistent with a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the calcium site and one conformer of radical YZ. Analysis of the amide I region indicates that calcium selects for a PCET reaction in a subset of the YZ conformers, which are trapped in the S2 state. These results support the interpretation that YZ undergoes a redox-coupled conformational change, which is calcium dependent.
Project description:Photosystem II (PSII), a unique membrane-bound oxidoreductase, catalyzes light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Although high-resolution structures of PSII are known, the exact path of the substrate water molecules to the catalytic Mn4CaO5 center within the PSII complex remains poorly understood. PSII produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), responsible for the frequent damage and turnover of this megacomplex that occur under physiological conditions. Such ROS are known to specifically modify PSII proteins. Using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we identified oxidative modifications on 36 amino acid residues on the lumenal side of PSII, in the core PSII proteins D1, D2, and CP43 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Remarkably, these oxidized residues clustered into three nearly continuous formations, tracking the pathways of ROS diffusion from the manganese center all the way out to the surface of PSII. We suggest that these profiles of oxidized residues reveal the locations of water channels within PSII. Our results provide the most comprehensive experimental evidence to date of physiologically relevant oxidized residues in PSII and illuminate three possible channels for water between the catalytic Mn cluster in the PSII complex and the bulk medium around it.
Project description:Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth's oxygenic atmosphere. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 Å resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the 'dangler' Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.
Project description:During photosynthesis, the light-driven oxidation of water performed by photosystem II (PSII) provides electrons necessary to fix CO2, in turn supporting life on Earth by liberating molecular oxygen. Recent high-resolution X-ray images of PSII show that the water-oxidizing center (WOC) is composed of an Mn4CaO5 cluster with six carboxylate, one imidazole, and four water ligands. FTIR difference spectroscopy has shown significant structural changes of the WOC during the S-state cycle of water oxidation, especially within carboxylate groups. However, the roles that these carboxylate groups play in water oxidation as well as how they should be properly assigned in spectra are unresolved. In this study, we performed a normal mode analysis of the WOC using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to simulate FTIR difference spectra on the S1 to S2 transition in the carboxylate stretching region. By evaluating WOC models with different oxidation and protonation states, we determined that models of high-oxidation states, Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2, satisfactorily reproduced experimental spectra from intact and Ca-depleted PSII compared with low-oxidation models. It is further suggested that the carboxylate groups bridging Ca and Mn ions within this center tune the reactivity of water ligands bound to Ca by shifting charge via their ? conjugation.
Project description:Photosynthetic water oxidation in plants and cyanobacteria is catalyzed by a Mn4CaO5 cluster within the photosystem II (PSII) protein complex. Two Cl(-) ions bound near the Mn4CaO5 cluster act as indispensable cofactors, but their functional roles remain to be clarified. We have investigated the role of the Cl(-) ion interacting with D2-K317 (designated Cl-1) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the D2-K317R mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in combination with Cl(-)/NO3(-) replacement. The D2-K317R mutation perturbed the bands in the regions of the COO(-) stretching and backbone amide vibrations in the FTIR difference spectrum upon the S1 ? S2 transition. In addition, this mutation altered the (15)N isotope-edited NO3(-) bands in the spectrum of NO3(-)-treated PSII. These results provide the first experimental evidence that the Cl-1 site is coupled with the Mn4CaO5 cluster and its interaction is affected by the S1 ? S2 transition. It was also shown that a negative band at 1748 cm(-1) arising from COOH group(s) was altered to a positive intensity by the D2-K317R mutation as well as by NO3(-) treatment, suggesting that the Cl-1 site affects the pKa of COOH/COO(-) group(s) near the Mn4CaO5 cluster in a common hydrogen bond network. Together with the observation that the efficiency of the S3 ? S0 transition significantly decreased in the core complexes of D2-K317R upon moderate dehydration, it is suggested that D2-K317 and Cl-1 are involved in a proton transfer pathway from the Mn4CaO5 cluster to the lumen, which functions in the S3 ? S0 transition.