An abbreviated German version of the Sense of Competence Questionnaire among informal caregivers of relatives who had a stroke: development and validation.
ABSTRACT: Caregiver burden is a main outcome domain in caregiver intervention research. A recommended instrument for measuring burden is the Sense of Competence Questionnaire (SCQ). In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the German version of the SCQ with informal caregivers of stroke patients. Baseline data of a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) and survey data (n = 76) of caregivers of stroke patients were used. Data were collected at the caregiver's or the care receiver's home or over the telephone. We evaluated the homogeneity, the construct validity, and the clinical validity of the German version and the homogeneity of a new abbreviated version. The homogeneity of the SCQ indicates good reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.89). The three-factor structure of the SCQ was mostly confirmed through principal components analyses using oblimin rotation. Clinical validity was supported through correlations between sense of competence and burden (r = -0.51), depression (r = -0.52), and care recipient's cognitive function (r = 0.36). Sixteen items with consistent factor loadings were extracted and proposed as a new abbreviated version of the SCQ (Cronbach's alpha: 0.84). The abbreviated German rendition of the SCQ version that was validated in this study offers a consistent version that can be applied across different languages and among caregivers of stroke survivors or people with dementia.
Project description:The Schizophrenia Caregiver Questionnaire (SCQ) was developed to assess the impact on caregivers of caring for patients with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to develop a scoring algorithm for the SCQ, and evaluate its measurement properties.The SCQ was administered to 358 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia included in the observational PATTERN study of stabilized patients with persistent symptoms of schizophrenia receiving outpatient care. SCQ item selection and creation of scores were based on exploration of item response distribution, factor analyses, and Rasch model. Construct validity, reliability, and ability to detect change of the SCQ scores were investigated.The final questionnaire comprised a 'Humanistic impact' supra-domain composed of a global score and four subdomain scores ('Physical'; 'Emotional'; 'Social'; 'Daily life'), and eight other domain scores related to the caregiving role ('Exhaustion with caregiving'; 'Feeling alone'; 'Patient Dependence'; 'Worries for the patient'; 'Perception of caregiving'; 'Financial dependence of the patient'; 'Financial impact of caregiving'; 'Overall difficulty of caregiving'). Two items from the SCQ were deleted. SCQ scores showed very good construct validity: Item convergent/discriminant validity were satisfactory; SCQ scores of caregivers of patients with more severe symptoms were higher indicating more impact (p?<?0.05 for all scores); SCQ scores were meaningfully associated with measures of schizophrenia severity (PANSS and PSP) and caregivers' Health-Related Quality of Life (Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 items). The SCQ Humanistic impact supra-domain scores demonstrated very good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas between 0.80 and 0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Coefficient correlations ranging from 0.75 and 0.87); Other SCQ domain scores showed lower but still acceptable reliability coefficients. SCQ scores clearly increased for caregivers of patients whose schizophrenia worsened.Overall, the 30-item SCQ demonstrated very good measurement properties supporting its relevance to comprehensively measure the experience of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:The Adult Carer Quality of Life questionnaire (AC-QoL) is a reliable and valid instrument used to assess the quality of life (QoL) of adult family caregivers. We explored the psychometric properties and tested the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the AC-QoL with reliability and validity testing in 409 Chinese stroke caregivers. We used item-total correlation and extreme group comparison to do item analysis. To evaluate its reliability, we used a test-retest reliability approach, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), together with Cronbach's alpha and model-based internal consistency index; to evaluate its validity, we used scale content validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) via principal component analysis with varimax rotation. We found that the CFA did not in fact confirm the original factor model and our EFA yielded a 31-item measure with a five-factor model. In conclusions, although some items performed differently in our analysis of the original English language version and our Chinese language version, our translated AC-QoL is a reliable and valid tool which can be used to assess the quality of life of stroke caregivers in mainland China. Chinese version AC-QoL is a comprehensive and good measurement to understand caregivers and has the potential to be a screening tool to assess QoL of caregiver.
Project description:Pre-death grief (PDG) is a key challenge faced by caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD). Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI) and its abbreviated MM-CGI-Short-Form (MM-CGI-SF) are among the few empirically-developed scales that detect PDG. However, they have not had a Mandarin-Chinese version even though Chinese-speaking populations have among the largest number of PWD. We produced a Mandarin-Chinese version of MM-CGI and evaluated whether it had equivalent scores and similar psychometric properties to the English version.We produced the Chinese MM-CGI through the methods of forward-backward translation and cognitive debriefing. Then, we recruited family caregivers of PWD (n?=?394) to complete either the Chinese (n?=?103) or English (n?=?291) version. The two versions were compared in their score-difference (adjusting for potential confounders using multiple linear regression), internal-consistency reliability (using Cronbach's ?) and test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation-coefficient), known-group validity (based on the relationship with the PWD and stage of dementia) and construct validity (using Spearman's correlation-coefficient).The two versions showed similar mean scores, with the adjusted score-difference of 1.2 (90% CI -5.6 to 7.9) for MM-CGI and?-?0.4 (90% CI -2.9 to 2.1) for MM-CGI-SF. The 90% CI for adjusted score-difference fell within predefined equivalence-margin (±8 for MM-CGI and?±?3 for MM-CGI-SF) and indicated equivalence of the scores. The two versions also demonstrated similar characteristics in reliability and validity.The Chinese MM-CGI opens the way for PDG assessment and intervention among Chinese-speaking caregivers. Establishing its measurement equivalence with the English version paves the way for cross-cultural research on PDG in dementia caregiving.
Project description:Coping with predeath grief (PDG) is an unmet need in caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD). The Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI) and its abbreviated MM-CGI-Short-Form (MM-CGI-SF) are among the few empirically developed scales that detect PDG, yet they have not been substantially validated outside United States. We evaluated the reliability and validity of the PDG scales in a multiethnic Asian population distinct from that of United States.Family caregivers of community-dwelling PWD (n = 300) completed self-administered questionnaires containing MM-CGI and other scales of related construct. Sixty percent of the participants repeated the questionnaires 1 week later for test-retest reliability. Internal-consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's ?, test-retest reliability by intraclass-correlation-coefficient, construct validity by Spearman's correlation-coefficient, and factorial validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cohen's ? was used to compare the agreement between MM-CGI and a commonly-used caregiver burden scale (Zarit Burden Interview).MM-CGI and MM-CGI-SF demonstrated internal-consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. In CFA, MM-CGI showed modest model-fit (comparative-fit-index, CFI = .80; Tucker-Lewis-index, TLI = .79), whereas MM-CGI-SF showed better model-fit (CFI = .91; TLI = .90). Eighty-six percent of the caregivers reported average or high levels of PDG, with 18% reporting high PDG. High scores in the caregiver burden scale only showed modest agreement with high scores in MM-CGI (? = .47).MM-CGI and MM-CGI-SF demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and utility, beyond that of a caregiver burden scale, in detecting high PDG in a multiethnic Asian population. They open the way for PDG intervention in clinical care, as well as further exploration in caregiver research.
Project description:In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the benefit finding of family caregivers due to the important role they play. Although some instruments measure benefit finding of caregivers, they do not comprehensively address it in terms specific to the family caregivers of stroke survivors, who require long-term, consistent care. This study is the first effort to develop a comprehensive Caregiver Benefit Finding Scale for the family caregivers of stroke survivors in a Chinese cultural setting. First, 50 items were extracted from a systematic literature review, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 20 stroke family caregivers to develop the preliminary version of the scale (Version 1). Second, Delphi procedures with 20 experts were used to revise the first version and create Version 2 (37 items). Another six experts were recruited for content validation. Item content validity index (I-CVI) values ranged from 0.83 to 1.00, and the value of the scale CVI was 0.97. Third, 309 family caregivers completed the Version 2 questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Positive Aspects of Caregiving. Two weeks later, 35 family caregivers once again completed the questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis produced four components (personal growth, health promotion, family growth, and self-sublimation) and 26 items for Version 3 (the cumulative proportion variance was 74.14%). Subsequently, 311 family caregivers completed Version 3. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the structure. The goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.921, adjusted GFI = 0.901, normal fit index = 0.951, incremental fit index = 0.990, comparative FI = 0.990, and the root mean square error of approximation = 0.02 were within the acceptable range. Criterion-related validity was equal to 0.803. The model-based internal consistency index was 0.845 and the values of the Cronbach'? coefficient of the four dimensions were 0.885-0.953. The split-half reliability was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.994. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the validity and reliability of the Caregiver Benefit Finding Scale. The scale can help researchers and clinicians to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of stroke family caregivers' positive experience. This understanding is necessary for future efforts to address issues in benefit finding by targeting the underlying mechanism and intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A clinically practical, brief, user-friendly, multi-domain self-report and caregiver-report tool is needed for tracking actionable symptoms in primary care for elderly patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). OBJECTIVE:Develop and assess usability, administration time, and internal reliability of SymTrak. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS:Phase I: legacy instruments, content validity, analyses of existing data, focus groups (physicians, nurses, patients, informal caregivers), and Think Aloud interviews (patients, caregivers) were used to develop SymTrak. Phase II (pilot feasibility study): 81 (27 patient-caregiver dyads, 27 patients without an identified caregiver) participants were self-administered SymTrak in clinic. MAIN MEASURES:SymTrak and demographic questions. KEY RESULTS:Consistent themes emerged from phase I focus groups. Ambiguous wording was corrected with Think Aloud feedback. In phase II, patients and caregivers preferred circling words instead of numbers for item response options. SymTrak self-administration completion time in clinic was brief; mean was 2.4, 3.0, and 3.3 min for the finalized circlingwords version, respectively, for caregivers, dyadic patients, and patients without a caregiver; and the maximum was 6.2 min for any participant. Usability questionnaire ratings were high. Cronbach's alpha for the SymTrak 23-item total score was 0.86, 0.79, and 0.81 for caregivers, dyadic patients, and patients without a caregiver, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:SymTrak demonstrates content validity, positive qualitative findings, high perceived usability, brief self-administered completion time, and good internal reliability.
Project description:Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST.The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients.The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's ? = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale.The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life as an endpoint in intervention studies is a major challenge in dementia research. The DEMQOL (29 items) and the proxy version (32 items), which is partly based on the DEMQOL, are internationally used instruments. To date, there is no information on the structural validity, item distribution, or internal consistency for the German language version of these questionnaires. METHODS:This psychometric study is based on a secondary data analysis of a sample of 201 outpatients with a mild form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their informal caregivers. The informal caregivers who were interviewed were involved in the care of the person with AD several times per week. The analysis for the evaluation of the structural validity was performed using Mokken scale analysis. The internal consistency was calculated using the ? of the Molenaar Sijtsma statistic and Cronbach's ?. RESULTS:For both versions, four subscales were identified: [A] "positive emotions", [B] "negative emotions", [C] "physical and cognitive functioning", and [D] "daily activities and social relationships". For both instruments, the internal consistency of all subscales was considered "good" (??=?0.71-0.88, ??=?0.72-0.87). CONCLUSIONS:The results are a first indication of good construct validity of the instruments used for the German setting. We recommend further investigations of the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the proxy instrument.
Project description:Rett syndrome (RTT) requires total caregiver attention and leads to potential difficulties throughout life. The Caregiver Burden Inventory, designed for Alzheimer disease, was modified to a RTT Caregiver Inventory Assessment (RTT CIA). Reliability and face, construct, and concurrent validity were assessed in caregivers of individuals with RTT. Chi square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t tests or Wilcoxon two-sample tests for continuous variables were utilized. Survey completed by 198 caregivers; 70 caregivers completed follow-up assessment. Exploratory factor analysis revealed good agreement for physical burden, emotional burden, and social burden. Internal reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.898). RTT CIA represents a reliable and valid measure, providing a needed metric of caregiver burden in this disorder.
Project description:The parent form of the 113-item Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is widely utilized by child psychiatrists and psychologists. This report examines the reliability and validity of a recently developed abbreviated version of the CBCL, the Brief Problem Monitor (BPM).Caregivers (n?=?567) completed the CBCL online and the 19 BPM items were examined separately.Internal consistency of the BPM was high (Cronbach's alpha?=?0.91) and satisfactory for the Internalizing (0.78), Externalizing (0.86), and Attention (0.87) scales. High correlations between the CBCL and BPM were identified for the total score (r?=?0.95) as well as the Internalizing (0.86), Externalizing (0.93), and Attention (0.97) scales. The BPM and scales were sensitive and identified significantly higher behavioral and emotional problems among children whose caregiver reported a psychiatric diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, developmental disabilities, or autism spectrum disorders relative to a comparison group that had not been diagnosed with these disorders. BPM ratings also differed by the socioeconomic status and education of the caregiver. Mothers with higher annual incomes rated their children as having 38.8% fewer total problems (Cohen's d?=?0.62) as well as 42.8% lower Internalizing (d?=?0.53), 44.1% less Externalizing (d?=?0.62), and 30.9% decreased Attention (d?=?0.39). A similar pattern was evident for maternal education (d?=?0.30-0.65).Overall, these findings provide strong psychometric support for the BPM, although the differences based on the characteristics of the parent indicate that additional information from other sources (e.g., teachers) should be obtained to complement parental reports.