Comparative evaluation of the apical sealing ability of a ceramic based sealer and MTA as root-end filling materials - An in-vitro study.
ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the apical sealing ability of two endodontic root-end filling materials namely, iRoot SP (ceramic based) and ProRoot MTA using the bacterial leakage system.A total of fifty recently extracted, single rooted teeth with a single straight canal were selected for the study. The teeth were chemo mechanically prepared. The apical 3mm of the root was resected and root end cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of twenty teeth each for the experimental root end filling materials namely, iRoot SP and ProRoot MTA. A two-chamber model was constructed using pippeter tips and plastic vials. The pipetter tips with the teeth were suspended in these caps and the entire assembly was reattached to the vial. The upper chamber was seeded withEnterococcus faecalis. An Enterococci-selective broth was used in the lower chamber. Leakage was assessed for 90 days and compared using survival statistics.The ProRoot MTA filled root end samples leaked within 30-72 days. The iRoot SP filled root end samples leaked within 51-69 days.Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that all the tested materials showed significant apical sealing ability as root-end filling materials over a period of 90 days. iRoot SP exhibited the most effective apical sealing ability as compared to ProRoot MTA. Key words:Apical sealing ability, Bacterial leakage, iRoot SP, ProRoot MTA, Root-end filling.
Project description:There are limited data regarding the potential effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser-activated irrigation (LAI) on the microleakage qualities of calcium silicate-based cements. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of LAI on the microleakage qualities of MTA Repair HP (MTA-HP) and NeoMTA Plus (Neo) used in root-end filling and to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of MTA- HP. Two experimental sets were conducted: antimicrobial activity (agar diffusion test/at 24, 48 h) and microleakage (glucose leakage model/at 1st, 10th, 20th days). Antimicrobial activities of MTA-HP, Neo, Biodentine, ProRoot and MTA Angelus were evaluated, and inhibition zones were observed not only against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but also against yeast at 48h. For microleakage evaluation, fifty teeth were prepared to simulate the clinical situation where the root-tips (apex) are open, and randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 20/group) according to the cement type (MTA-HP and Neo), and two control (n = 5/group) groups. Each experimental group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 10/group) with respect to LAI: MTA-HP, L-HP, Neo, L-Neo. A statistical difference was only detected between Neo and L-HP groups on day 1. Subsequently, MTA-HP exhibited superior microleakage quality compared to Neo in the short-term. Er,Cr:YSGG laser-activated irrigation could be used as a reliable technique without creating adverse effects on the sealing abilities of MTA Repair HP and NeoMTA Plus.
Project description:Propylene glycol (PG) improves the handling, physical, and chemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PG on the sealing ability of MTA and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) apical barriers.A total of 70 extracted human maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper rotary system. The apical 3 mm of the root tips were resected and the root canals were enlarged with Peeso reamers up to #4, to create open apex teeth. The teeth were then randomly divided into four experimental (n=15) and two control (n=5) groups. Group1: MTA+ MTA liquid, group2; MTA+MTA liquid (80%) + PG (20%), group3; CEM+CEM liquid, group4; CEM+ liquid (80%) + PG (20%). Cements were mixed with their respective mixing agents and a 4-mm thick apical plug was fabricated. The microleakage was measured on day 1, 3, 7 and 21 using a fluid filtration technique. The repeated measures ANOVA and Sidak test were used to analyze the data.All experimental groups demonstrated various amounts of microleakage. No significant difference was found between MTA and CEM cement (P=0.193), regardless of time and liquid components. There was no significant difference was observed between liquids (P=0.312) in all time intervals. The rate of microleakage decreased over time and a significant differences was observed between all intervals (P<0.05), except 3-7 and 7-21 (P=0.190) days.PG demonstrated neither a positive nor a negative effect on the sealing ability of Angelus MTA and CEM cement.
Project description:This case report presents the successful surgical treatment of a symptomatic open apex upper central incisor with a failed overfilled mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug. Unintentional overextension of the MTA had occurred two years before the initial visit. An apical lesion adjacent to the excess MTA was radiographically detectable. Endodontic surgery was performed using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as a root-end filling material. Curettage of the apical lesion showed a mass of unset MTA particles; histopathological examination revealed fragments of MTA and granulation tissues. Up to 18-month follow-up, the tooth was clinically asymptomatic and fully functional. Periapical radiograph and CBCT images showed a normal periodontal ligament around the root. In conclusion, favorable outcomes in this case study suggested that root-end filling with CEM cement might be an appropriate approach; in addition, however many factors probably related to the initial failure of the case, the extrusion of MTA into the periapical area should be avoided.
Project description:Introduction:This in vitro study investigated the dislodgement resistance of EndoSeal MTA, a new pozzolan-containing calcium silicate-based material, in comparison with ProRoot MTA and Biodentine in the presence and absence of contamination with blood. Methods:Standard furcal perforations were created in 180 human mandibular first molars. The teeth were randomly allocated to 12 groups of 15 each. ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, and EndoSeal MTA were used to repair the perforations. In half of the samples, the walls of the perforated areas were contaminated with blood, whereas saline was injected into the other half. A push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine after 24 hours or 7 days. To evaluate failure patterns, the samples were split into half and were examined under a stereomicroscope at a 20x magnification. Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance, Tukey test, and Student's t-test. Results:At both time intervals and in the presence and absence of contamination with blood, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine had significantly higher retention values than EndoSeal MTA (p < 0.001). Contamination with blood had no effect on EndoSeal MTA; however, it negatively affected the dislodgement resistance of Biodentine at 24 hours and ProRoot MTA at both time intervals (p < 0.05). Time significantly affected only the bond strength of the uncontaminated groups (p > 0.001). The most common type of failure was mixed for ProRoot MTA and Biodentine, whereas it was cohesive for EndoSeal MTA. Conclusions:ProRoot MTA and Biodentine showed higher values of bond strength than EndoSeal MTA and may thus be better options for the repair of root perforations.
Project description:Broken instruments in root canals complicate routine endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare apical microleakage in root canals containing broken rotary instruments filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, laterally compacted gutta-percha and injected gutta-percha.In this in vitro, experimental study, 80 extracted human premolars were decoronated and then the roots were randomly divided into four groups (n=20). Root canals were instrumented with Mtwo rotary files. The files were scratched 3 mm from the tip by a high speed handpiece and they were intentionally broken in the apical third of the canals. The middle and coronal thirds of the canals were then filled with MTA, CEM cement, gutta-percha with lateral compaction technique and injected gutta-percha. Apical microleakage was measured using dye penetration method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test.Root canals filled with CEM cement showed the lowest and those filled with injected gutta-percha showed the highest microleakage according to dye penetration depth. No significant difference was noted between the microleakage of CEM cement and MTA or between lateral compaction of gutta-percha and injected gutta-percha (P>0.05). However, CEM cement and MTA groups had significantly lower microleakage than laterally compacted and injected gutta-percha groups (P<0.05).Due to their superior sealing ability, MTA and CEM cement are suitable for filling of root canals containing a broken instrument compared to laterally compacted and injected gutta-percha.
Project description:The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide, double and triple antibiotic paste on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs.A total of 90 extracted teeth with single canals were prepared and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=20). Intra-canal medicaments were applied for 3 weeks. MTA was placed through the access opening and condensed to the apical area and then fluid filtration technique was utilized to evaluate sealing ability after 1, 7, 14 and 30 days.Triple antibiotic paste significantly reduced the sealing ability of MTA plug compared with double antibiotic paste (P=0.024) and normal saline (P=0.04) groups on day 1. The sealing ability was not different on days 14 and 30 between experimental groups (P>0.05).All medicaments can be used without any long term effect on microleakage.
Project description:Traditionally, immature teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulp and periapical periodontitis were treated by apexification with long-term calcium hydroxide or in one session with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Biodentine apical plug. However, these teeth become fragile and susceptible to root fracture. Regenerative endodontic procedure is a new therapeutic approach that promotes continuation of root growth in immature necrotic teeth potentially preventing root fracture. Only few case reports have shown the success of this procedure on molar cases. The current case report demonstrates a regeneration of a lower first molar with necrotic pulp and chronic apical abscess treated with Micro Mega-MTA (MM-MTA), a new endodontic biomaterial that has not been described previously. Calcium hydroxide was used as an intracanal medicament for two weeks. Next, calcium hydroxide was removed and after blood clot creation, MM-MTA® was placed over it. Apical healing and continuation of root growth were evident at nine months follow-up. CBCT at two years follow-up confirmed apical closure and complete healing. This case shows that a regenerative endodontic procedure for management of an immature necrotic permanent molar is feasible and can be successfully done using Ca(OH)? and MM-MTA.
Project description:The root canal system must be obturated using a hermetic seal to prevent the penetration of microorganisms and bacterial toxins into the endodontic system. The principles of adhesive dentistry have been increasingly used in endodontics. In fact, resin-based sealers are increasingly used. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the sealing ability of resin cement in comparison with calcium hydroxide-based cement. Materials and Methods. Eighty root canals were prepared with the Tilos system and were randomly divided into four groups according to the filling material. The best combination was evaluated on the basis of its sealing ability. The dye infiltration degree was evaluated using both a stereomicroscope after diaphanization and the dye rise test. Results. A significant difference was observed between the four obturation systems with regard to the number of infiltrated walls (p=0.014) and the infiltration depth (p=0.025). The group of teeth obturated with EndoREZ® and EndoREZ® gutta cones differ significantly from the group obturated with EndoREZ® cement and gutta-percha cones in terms of apical sealing (p=0.011). A significant difference was also observed between the group of teeth obturated using EndoREZ® gutta cones and EndoREZ® cement and the group of teeth obturated with EndoREZ® cement (p=0.026). Conclusion. When used with EndoREZ® gutta cones, EndoREZ® cement showed the best sealing ability, particularly in the apical region. When used with gutta-percha cones, Acroseal and EndoREZ® cements exhibited similar sealing abilities.
Project description:Blood clot formation in the apical third of the root canal system has been shown to promote further root development and reinforcement of dentinal walls by the deposition of mineralized tissue, resulting in an advancement from traditional apexification procedures to a regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) for non-vital immature permanent teeth. Silicate-based hydraulic biomaterials, categorized as bioactive endodontic cements, emerged as bright candidates for their use in RET as coronal barriers, sealing the previously induced blood clot scaffold. Human stem cells from the apical papilla (hSCAPs) surviving the infection may induce or at least be partially responsible for the regeneration or repair shown in RET. The aim of this study is to present a qualitative synthesis of available literature consisting of in vitro assays which analyzed the viability and stimulation of hSCAPs induced by silicate-based hydraulic biomaterials. A systematic electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and SciELO databases, followed by a study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment following the PRISMA protocol. In vitro studies assessing the viability, proliferation, and/or differentiation of hSCAPs as well as their mineralization potential and/or osteogenic, odontogenic, cementogenic and/or angiogenic marker expression in contact with commercially available silicate-based materials were included in the present review. The search identified 73 preliminary references, of which 10 resulted to be eligible for qualitative synthesis. The modal materials studied were ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Both bioceramic materials showed significant positive results when compared to a control for hSCAP cell viability, migration, and proliferation assays; a significant up-regulation of hSCAP odontogenic/osteogenic marker (ALP, DSPP, BSP, Runx2, OCN, OSX), angiogenic growth factor (VEGFA, FIGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?) expression; and a significant increase in hSCAP mineralized nodule formation assessed by Alizarin Red staining. Commercially available silicate-based materials considered in the present review can potentially induce mineralization and odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of hSCAPs, thus prompting their use in regenerative endodontic procedures.
Project description:Thorough cleaning and shaping of root canals are essential for periapical healing. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is also required for them to function and prevent coronal leakage. This study compared the impact of the quality of root canal treatment versus the quality of coronal restoration in treatment outcomes.Literature search was conducted using the search terms "coronal restoration," "root canal," "periapical status," and "quality." Articles that evaluated the effect of the quality of root filling and coronal restoration or both on the success of root canal treatment were selected. Nine articles were identified and were reviewed by 3 investigators. Data were collected based on predetermined criteria. Percentages of teeth without apical periodontitis were recorded for each category: adequate root canal treatment (AE), inadequate root canal treatment (IE), adequate restoration (AR), and inadequate restoration (IR). Data were analyzed using meta-analysis for odds ratios (ORs).After adjusting for significant covariates to reduce heterogeneity, the results were combined to obtain pooled estimates of the common OR for the comparison of AR/AE versus AR/IE (OR = 2.734; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.61-2.88; P < .001) and AR/AE versus IR/AE (OR = 2.808; 95% CI, 2.64-2.97; P < .001).On the basis of the current best available evidence, the odds for healing of apical periodontitis increase with both adequate root canal treatment and adequate restorative treatment. Although poorer clinical outcomes may be expected with adequate root filling-inadequate coronal restoration and inadequate root filling-adequate coronal restoration, there is no significant difference in the odds of healing between these 2 combinations.