Immune responses against Helicobacter pylori-specific antigens differentiate relapsing remitting from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: To assess whether Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibody (ab) reactivity against individual Hp antigens is pathogenetically relevant to multiple sclerosis (MS), we systematically investigated prevalence and clinical significance of abs against 14 immunodominant and subdominant Hp antigens by ELISA and immunoblotting in 139 consecutive MS patients with relapsing-remitting (RRMS, n?=?102) or secondary progressive (SPMS, n?=?37). Sera from 39 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 21 with Alzheimer's disease (ALZ) and 68 healthy controls (HCs), were also tested. Anti-flagellin (18.3%) and anti-p41 (25.0%) abs in MS were less frequent than in HCs (39.4%, 48.5%, respectively). Abs against 5 of the 14 antigens were less frequent in RRMS than HCs, including p41, p54-flagellin, p29-UreA, p67-FSH, and p120-CagA. Anti-VacA abs were more frequent in SPMS than in HCs (42.1 vs 12.1%, p?=?0.019). Anti-p54, anti-p29-UreA and anti-p26 correlated with extended disability status scale (EDSS) (p?=?0.017, p?=?0.005, p?=?0.002, respectively). Anti-p26 and anti-p17 correlated with the number of relapses (p?=?0.037 and p?=?0.047, respectively). This is the first comprehensive analysis of ab reactivities against most Hp antigens in MS patients. Ab responses differ between MS and HCs and between RRMS and SPMS, being more prevalent in SPMS than RRMS, thus suggesting an association between anti-Hp and the former type of MS.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, generally starts as the relapsing remitting form (RRMS), but often shifts into secondary progressive MS (SPMS). SPMS represents a more advanced stage of MS, characterized by accumulating disabilities and refractoriness to medications. The aim of this study was to clarify the microbial and functional differences in gut microbiomes of the different stages of MS. Here, we compared gut microbiomes of patients with RRMS, SPMS, and two closely related disorders with healthy controls (HCs) by 16S rRNA gene and whole metagenomic sequencing data from fecal samples and by fecal metabolites. Each patient group had a number of species having significant changes in abundance in comparison with HCs, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria reduced in MS. Changes in some species had close association with clinical severity of the patients. A marked reduction in butyrate and propionate biosynthesis and corresponding metabolic changes were confirmed in RRMS compared with HCs. Although bacterial composition analysis showed limited differences between the patient groups, metagenomic functional data disclosed an increase in microbial genes involved in DNA mismatch repair in SPMS as compared to RRMS. Together with an increased ratio of cysteine persulfide to cysteine in SPMS revealed by sulfur metabolomics, we postulate that excessive DNA oxidation could take place in the gut of SPMS. Thus, gut ecological and functional microenvironments were significantly altered in the different stages of MS. In particular, reduced SCFA biosynthesis in RRMS and elevated oxidative level in SPMS were characteristic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with higher clinical activity and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE:To evaluate associations between EBV-specific humoral response and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)-derived measure in MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS:The study included 101 MS patients (69 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 32 secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)) and 41 HCs who underwent clinical, serological, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations. MTR values of T1 or T2 lesion volume (LV), normal-appearing (NA) brain tissue (NABT), gray matter (NAGM), and white matter (NAWM) were obtained. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify EBV antibody levels. Partial correlations corrected for MRI strength were used, and Benjamini-Hochberg-adjusted p-values?<?0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS:MS patients had significantly higher anti-EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) titer when compared to HCs (107.9?U/mL vs 27.8?U/mL, p?<?0.001). Within the MS group, higher serum anti-EBNA-1 titer was significantly correlated with lower T1-LV MTR (r?=?-0.287, p?=?0.035). Within the RRMS group, higher serum anti-EBNA-1 titer was associated with T1-LV MTR (r?=?-0.524, p?=?0.001) and NAGM MTR (r?=?-0.308, p?=?0.043). These associations were not present in HCs or SPMS patients. CONCLUSION:Greater EBV humoral response is associated with lower GM MTR changes and focal destructive lesion pathology in RRMS patients.
Project description:Structural network-based approaches can assess white matter connections revealing topological alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, principal network (PN) organisation and its clinical relevance in MS has not been explored yet. Here, structural networks were reconstructed from diffusion data in 58 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 28 primary progressive MS (PPMS), 36 secondary progressive (SPMS) and 51 healthy controls (HCs). Network hubs' strengths were compared with HCs. Then, PN analysis was performed in each clinical subtype. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between nodal strength derived from the first and second PNs (PN1 and PN2) in MS, with clinical disability. Compared with HCs, MS patients had preserved hub number, but some hubs exhibited reduced strength. PN1 comprised 10 hubs in HCs, RRMS and PPMS but did not include the right thalamus in SPMS. PN2 comprised 10 hub regions with intra-hemispheric connections in HCs. In MS, this subnetwork did not include the right putamen whilst in SPMS the right thalamus was also not included. Decreased nodal strength of the right thalamus and putamen from the PNs correlated strongly with higher clinical disability. These PN analyses suggest distinct patterns of disruptions in MS subtypes which are clinically relevant.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Gray matter (GM) atrophy occurs in all multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes. We investigated whether there is a spatiotemporal pattern of GM atrophy that is associated with faster disability accumulation in MS. METHODS:We analyzed 3,604 brain high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 1,417 participants: 1,214 MS patients (253 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 708 relapsing-remitting [RRMS], 128 secondary-progressive [SPMS], and 125 primary-progressive [PPMS]), over an average follow-up of 2.41 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.97), and 203 healthy controls (HCs; average follow-up = 1.83 year; SD = 1.77), attending seven European centers. Disability was assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We obtained volumes of the deep GM (DGM), temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar GM, brainstem, and cerebral white matter. Hierarchical mixed models assessed annual percentage rate of regional tissue loss and identified regional volumes associated with time-to-EDSS progression. RESULTS:SPMS showed the lowest baseline volumes of cortical GM and DGM. Of all baseline regional volumes, only that of the DGM predicted time-to-EDSS progression (hazard ratio = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.65, 0.82; p < 0.001): for every standard deviation decrease in baseline DGM volume, the risk of presenting a shorter time to EDSS worsening during follow-up increased by 27%. Of all longitudinal measures, DGM showed the fastest annual rate of atrophy, which was faster in SPMS (-1.45%), PPMS (-1.66%), and RRMS (-1.34%) than CIS (-0.88%) and HCs (-0.94%; p < 0.01). The rate of temporal GM atrophy in SPMS (-1.21%) was significantly faster than RRMS (-0.76%), CIS (-0.75%), and HCs (-0.51%). Similarly, the rate of parietal GM atrophy in SPMS (-1.24-%) was faster than CIS (-0.63%) and HCs (-0.23%; all p values <0.05). Only the atrophy rate in DGM in patients was significantly associated with disability accumulation (beta = 0.04; p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION:This large, multicenter and longitudinal study shows that DGM volume loss drives disability accumulation in MS, and that temporal cortical GM shows accelerated atrophy in SPMS than RRMS. The difference in regional GM atrophy development between phenotypes needs to be taken into account when evaluating treatment effect of therapeutic interventions. Ann Neurol 2018;83:210-222.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic relapsing disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which immune processes are believed to play a major role. To date, there is no reliable method by which to characterize the immune processes and their changes associated with different forms of MS and disease progression. We performed antigen microarray analysis to characterize patterns of antibody reactivity in MS serum against a panel of CNS protein and lipid autoantigens and heat shock proteins. Informatic analysis consisted of a training set that was validated on a blinded test set. The results were further validated on an independent cohort of relapsing-remitting (RRMS) samples. We found unique autoantibody patterns that distinguished RRMS, secondary progressive (SPMS), and primary progressive (PPMS) MS from both healthy controls and other neurologic or autoimmune driven diseases including Alzheimer's disease, adrenoleukodystropy, and lupus erythematosus. RRMS was characterized by autoantibodies to heat shock proteins that were not observed in PPMS or SPMS. In addition, RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS were characterized by unique patterns of reactivity to CNS antigens. Furthermore, we examined sera from patients with different immunopathologic patterns of MS as determined by brain biopsy, and we identified unique antibody patterns to lipids and CNS-derived peptides that were linked to each type of pathology. The demonstration of unique serum immune signatures linked to different stages and pathologic processes in MS provides an avenue to monitor MS and to characterize immunopathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic targets in the disease.
Project description:Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups. We administered 1200 mg of oral LA to healthy control, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS subjects, and measured plasma LA and cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There were no significant differences between the groups in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Healthy and SPMS subjects had increased cAMP at 2 and 4 h post-LA treatment compared to baseline, while RRMS subjects showed decreases in cAMP. Additionally, plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known cAMP stimulator) were significantly lower in female RRMS subjects compared to female HC and SPMS subjects 4 h after LA ingestion. These data indicate that cAMP could be part of the MOA of LA in SPMS, and that there is a divergent response to LA in RRMS subjects that may have implications in the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs. This clinical trial, "Defining the Anti-inflammatory Role of Lipoic Acid in Multiple Sclerosis," NCT00997438, is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00997438 .
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R), stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S) and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). RESULTS: Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with profound heterogeneity in clinical course.<h4>Objective</h4>To analyze sources and levels of income among MS patients in relation to disease phenotype with a special focus on identifying differences/similarities between primary progressive MS (PPMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 6890 MS patients aged 21-64 years and living in Sweden in 2010 were identified for this cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics, logistic, truncated linear, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to estimate differences in income between SPMS, PPMS and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients.<h4>Results</h4>RRMS patients earned almost twice as much as PPMS and SPMS patients (on average SEK 204,500, SEK 114,500, and SEK 79,800 in 2010, respectively). The difference in earnings between PPMS and SPMS was not statistically significant when analyzed with multivariable regression. The estimated odds ratio for PPMS patients to have income from earnings was not significantly different from SPMS patients (95% CI 0.98 to 1.59). PPMS and RRMS patients were less likely to receive benefits when compared to SPMS patients (by 6% and 27% lower, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings argue for similarities between PPMS and SPMS and highlight the socioeconomic importance of preventing RRMS patients convert to SPMS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping.<h4>Results</h4>MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to describe the real-word treatment and associated healthcare resource use (HCRU) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, as stratified by different MS subtypes. METHODS:All patients with MS continuously insured by two German statutory healthcare insurance funds from 2011 to 2015 were enrolled. These patients were categorized into four subgroups according to their MS type as follows: clinically isolated syndrome (CIS); relapsing remittent MS (RRMS); primary progressive MS (PPMS); and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Sociodemographic characteristics, treatments, and HCRU for 2015 were analyzed. Treatment cascades for treatment-naïve patients were also determined. RESULTS:A total of 13,333 patients with MS were identified. The largest proportion of patients had RRMS (41.9%), followed by PPMS (17.1%). Mean age of the enrolled patients was 50.2 years, and 70.7% were female. Among all patients, 38.3% of those with CIS, 22.4% with PPMS, 69.6% with RRMS, and 33.9% with SPMS received a prescription of a disease-modifying immunomodulatory agent, with interferon beta-1a being the most frequently prescribed agent. Likewise, 14.5, 18.5, 19.9, and 21.5% of patients with CIS, PPMS, RRMS, and SPMS, respectively, received a flare-up treatment with glucocorticoids. MS-associated overall costs, including indirect costs for MS-associated days absent from work, were € 16,433, with costs related to MS medication (€ 8770; 53.4%) being the main driver of costs in all subgroups. MS-associated costs according to MS subtypes were € 12,427 for CIS patients, € 14,459 for PPMS patients, € 20,583 for RRMS patients, and € 17,554 for SPMS patients. CONCLUSION:Among the four MS subtypes, RRMS patients most often received a disease-modifying immunomodulatory treatment. Consequently, healthcare costs were highest for patients with this MS subtype. Contrary to the treatment guideline, a substantial percentage of patients with CIS, RRMS, and SPMS did not receive any disease-modifying immunomodulatory treatment.