Structure-function analyses of metal-binding sites of HypA reveal residues important for hydrogenase maturation in Helicobacter pylori.
ABSTRACT: The nickel-containing enzymes of Helicobacter pylori, urease and hydrogenase, are essential for efficient colonization in the human stomach. The insertion of nickel into urease and hydrogenase is mediated by the accessory protein HypA. HypA contains an N-terminal nickel-binding site and a dynamic structural zinc-binding site. The coordination of nickel and zinc within HypA is known to be critical for urease maturation and activity. Herein, we test the hydrogenase activity of a panel of H. pylori mutant strains containing point mutations within the nickel- and zinc-binding sites. We found that the residues that are important for hydrogenase activity are those that were similarly vital for urease activity. Thus, the zinc and metal coordination sites of HypA play similar roles in urease and hydrogenase maturation. In other pathogenic bacteria, deletion of hydrogenase leads to a loss in acid resistance. Thus, the acid resistance of two strains of H. pylori containing a hydrogenase deletion was also tested. These mutant strains demonstrated wild-type levels of acid resistance, suggesting that in H. pylori, hydrogenase does not play a role in acid resistance.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori requires urease activity in order to survive in the acid environment of the human stomach. Urease is regulated in part by nickelation, a process that requires the HypA protein, which is a putative nickel metallochaperone that is generally associated with hydrogenase maturation. However, in H. pylori, HypA plays a dual role. In addition to an N-terminal nickel binding site, HypA proteins also contain a structural zinc site that is coordinated by two rigorously conserved CXXC sequences, which in H. pylori are flanked by His residues. These structural Zn sites are known to be dynamic, converting from Zn(Cys)4 centers at pH 7.2 to Zn(Cys)2(His)2 centers at pH 6.3 in the presence of Ni(ii) ions. In this study, mutant strains of H. pylori that express zinc site variants of the HypA protein are used to show that the structural changes in the zinc site are important for the acid viability of the bacterium, and that a reduction in acid viability in these variants can be traced in large measure to deficient urease activity. This in turn leads to a model that connects the Zn(Cys)4 coordination to urease maturation.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori , a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys)(4) site to a Zn(His)(2)(Cys)(2) site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the beta-CH(2) protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys)(4)) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model wherein HypA controls the flow of nickel traffic in the cell in response to nickel availability and pH.
Project description:The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires nickel for colonization of the acidic environment of the stomach. HypA, a Ni metallochaperone that is typically associated with hydrogenase maturation, is also required for urease maturation and acid survival of H. pylori. There are two proposed Ni site structures for HypA; one is a paramagnetic six-coordinate site characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in unmodified HypA, while another is a diamagnetic four-coordinate planar site characterized by solution nuclear magnetic resonance in an N-terminally modified HypA construct. To determine the role of the N-terminal amine in Ni binding of HypA, an N-terminal extension variant, L2*-HypA, in which a leucine residue was inserted into the second position of the amino acid sequence in the proposed Ni-binding motif, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Structural characterization of the Ni site using XAS showed a coordination change from six-coordinate in wild-type HypA (WT-HypA) to five-coordinate pyramidal in L2*-HypA, which was accompanied by the loss of two N/O donor protein ligands and the addition of an exogenous bromide ligand from the buffer. The magnetic properties of the Ni sites in WT-HypA compared to those of the Ni sites in L2*-HypA confirmed that a spin-state change from high to low spin accompanied this change in structure. The L2*-HypA H. pylori strain was shown to be acid sensitive and deficient in urease activity in vivo. In vitro characterization showed that L2*-HypA did not disrupt the HypA-UreE interaction that is essential for urease maturation but was at least 20-fold weaker in Ni binding than WT-HypA. Characterization of the L2*-HypA variant clearly demonstrates that the N-terminal amine of HypA is involved in proper Ni coordination and is necessary for urease activity and acid survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies on nickel-containing urease and hydrogenase enzymes in order to colonize the host. Incorporation of Ni(2+) into urease is essential for the function of the enzyme and requires the action of several accessory proteins, including the hydrogenase accessory proteins HypA and HypB and the urease accessory proteins UreE, UreF, UreG and UreH. METHODS:Optical biosensing methods (biolayer interferometry and plasmon surface resonance) were used to screen for interactions between HypA, HypB, UreE and UreG. RESULTS:Using both methods, affinity constants were found to be 5nM and 13nM for HypA-UreE and 8?M and 14?M for UreG-UreE. Neither Zn(2+) nor Ni(2+) had an effect on the kinetics or stability of the HypA-UreE complex. By contrast, addition of Zn(2+), but not Ni(2+), altered the kinetics and greatly increased the stability of the UreE-UreG complex, likely due in part to Zn(2+)-mediated oligomerization of UreE. Finally our results unambiguously show that HypA, UreE and UreG cannot form a heterotrimeric protein complex in vitro; instead, HypA and UreG compete with each other for UreE recognition. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:Factors influencing the pathogen's nickel budget are important to understand pathogenesis and for future drug design.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that colonizes the stomach, is the major cause of ulcers, and has been associated with stomach cancers. To survive in the acidic environment of the stomach, H. pylori uses urease, a nickel-dependent enzyme, to produce ammonia for maintenance of cellular pH. The bacteria produce apo-urease in large quantities and activate it by incorporating nickel under acid shock conditions. Urease nickel incorporation requires the urease-specific metallochaperone UreE and the (UreFGH)2 maturation complex. In addition, the H. pylori nickel urease maturation pathway recruits accessory proteins from the [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation pathway, namely, HypA and HypB. HypA and UreE dimers (UreE2) are known to form a protein complex, the role of which in urease maturation is largely unknown. Herein, we examine the nickel-binding properties and protein-protein interactions of HypA and UreE2 using isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorometric methods under neutral and acidic pH conditions to gain insight into the roles played by HypA in urease maturation. The results reveal that HypA and UreE2 form a stable complex with micromolar affinity that protects UreE from hydrolytic degradation. The HypA·UreE2 complex contains a unique high-affinity (nanomolar) Ni2+-binding site that is maintained under conditions designed to mimic acid shock (pH 6.3). The data are interpreted in terms of a proposed mechanism wherein HypA and UreE2 act as co-metallochaperones that target the delivery of Ni2+ to apo-urease with high fidelity.
Project description:The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Escherichia coli is a complex process involving many steps and multiple accessory proteins. The two accessory proteins HypA and HypB interact with each other and are thought to cooperate to insert nickel into the active site of the hydrogenase-3 precursor protein. Both of these accessory proteins bind metal individually, but little is known about the metal-binding activities of the proteins once they assemble together into a functional complex. In this study, we investigate how complex formation modulates metal binding to the E. coli proteins HypA and HypB. This work lead to a re-evaluation of the HypA nickel affinity, revealing a KD on the order of 10(-8) M. HypA can efficiently remove nickel, but not zinc, from the metal-binding site in the GTPase domain of HypB, a process that is less efficient when complex formation between HypA and HypB is disrupted. Furthermore, nickel release from HypB to HypA is specifically accelerated when HypB is loaded with GDP, but not GTP. These results are consistent with the HypA-HypB complex serving as a transfer step in the relay of nickel from membrane transporter to its final destination in the hydrogenase active site and suggest that this complex contributes to the metal fidelity of this pathway.
Project description:The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase is highly dependent on a battery of chaperone proteins. Among these, HypA and HypB were proposed to exert nickel delivery functions in the metallocenter assembly process, although the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we have overexpressed and purified wild-type HypB as well as two mutants, K168A and M186L/F190V, from Helicobacter pylori. We demonstrated that all proteins bind Ni(2+) at a stoichiometry of one Ni(2+) per monomer of the proteins with dissociation constants at micromolar levels. Ni(2+) elevated GTPase activity of WT HypB, which is attributable to a lower affinity of the protein toward GDP as well as Ni(2+)-induced dimerization. The disruption of GTP-dependent dimerization has led to GTPase activities of both mutants in apo-forms almost completely abolished, compared with the wild-type protein. The GTPase activity is partially restored for HypB(M186L/F190V) mutant but not for HypB(K168A) mutant upon Ni(2+) binding. HypB forms a complex with its partner protein HypA with a low affinity (K(d) of 52.2 ± 8.8 ?M). Such interactions were also observed in vivo both in the absence and presence of nickel using a GFP-fragment reassembly technique. The putative protein-protein interfaces on H. pylori HypA and HypB proteins were identified by NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutagenesis studies, respectively. Intriguingly, the unique N terminus of H. pylori HypB was identified to participate in the interaction with H. pylori HypA. These structural and functional studies provide insight into the molecular mechanism of Ni(2+) delivery during maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.
Project description:[NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen at a bimetallic cluster and are used by bacteria and archaea for anaerobic growth and pathogenesis. Maturation of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase requires several accessory proteins to assemble and insert the components of the active site. The penultimate maturation step is the delivery of nickel to a primed hydrogenase enzyme precursor protein, a process that is accomplished by two nickel metallochaperones, the accessory protein HypA and the GTPase HypB. Recent work demonstrated that nickel is rapidly transferred to HypA from GDP-loaded HypB within the context of a protein complex in a nickel selective and unidirectional process. To investigate the mechanism of metal transfer, we examined the allosteric effects of nucleotide cofactors and partner proteins on the nickel environments of HypA and HypB by using a combination of biochemical, microbiological, computational, and spectroscopic techniques. We observed that loading HypB with either GDP or a nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue resulted in a similar nickel environment. In addition, interaction with a mutant version of HypA with disrupted nickel binding, H2Q-HypA, does not induce substantial changes to the HypB G-domain nickel site. Instead, the results demonstrate that HypB modifies the acceptor site of HypA. Analysis of a peptide maquette derived from the N-terminus of HypA revealed that nickel is predominately coordinated by atoms from the N-terminal Met-His motif. Furthermore, HypA is capable of two nickel-binding modes at the N-terminus, a HypB-induced mode and a binding mode that mirrors the peptide maquette. Collectively, these results reveal that HypB brings about changes in the nickel coordination of HypA, providing a mechanism for the HypB-dependent control of the acquisition and release of nickel by HypA.
Project description:Nickel delivery during maturation of Escherichia coli [NiFe] hydrogenase 3 includes the accessory proteins HypA, HypB, and SlyD. Although the isolated proteins have been characterized, little is known about how they interact with each other and the hydrogenase 3 large subunit, HycE. In this study the complexes of HypA and HycE were investigated after modification with the Strep-tag II. Multiprotein complexes containing HypA, HypB, SlyD, and HycE were observed, consistent with the assembly of a single nickel insertion cluster. An interaction between HypA and HycE did not require the other nickel insertion proteins, but HypB was not found with the large subunit in the absence of HypA. The HypA-HycE complex was not detected in the absence of the HypC or HypD proteins, involved in the preceding iron insertion step, and this interaction is enhanced by nickel brought into the cell by the NikABCDE membrane transporter. Furthermore, without the hydrogenase 1, 2, and 3 large subunits, complexes between HypA, HypB, and SlyD were observed. These results support the hypothesis that HypA acts as a scaffold for assembly of the nickel insertion proteins with the hydrogenase precursor protein after delivery of the iron center. At different stages of the hydrogenase maturation process, HypA was observed at or near the cell membrane by using fluorescence confocal microscopy, as was HycE, suggesting membrane localization of the nickel insertion event.
Project description:The active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenase contains nickel and iron coordinated by cysteine residues, cyanide and carbon monoxide. Metal chaperone proteins HypA and HypB are required for the nickel insertion step of [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation. How HypA and HypB work together to deliver nickel to the catalytic core remains elusive. Here we demonstrated that HypA and HypB from Archaeoglobus fulgidus form 1:1 heterodimer in solution and HypA does not interact with HypB dimer preloaded with GMPPNP and Ni. Based on the crystal structure of A. fulgidus HypB, mutants were designed to map the HypA binding site on HypB. Our results showed that two conserved residues, Tyr-4 and Leu-6, of A. fulgidus HypB are required for the interaction with HypA. Consistent with this observation, we demonstrated that the corresponding residues, Leu-78 and Val-80, located at the N-terminus of the GTPase domain of Escherichia coli HypB were required for HypA/HypB interaction. We further showed that L78A and V80A mutants of HypB failed to reactivate hydrogenase in an E. coli ?hypB strain. Our results suggest that the formation of the HypA/HypB complex is essential to the maturation process of hydrogenase. The HypA binding site is in proximity to the metal binding site of HypB, suggesting that the HypA/HypB interaction may facilitate nickel transfer between the two proteins.