Outcomes of Instrumented and Noninstrumented Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterolateral lumbar fusion for lumbar stenosis cases requiring bilateral facetectomy in conjunction with a laminectomy. The authors evaluated 34 consecutive patients who had undergone a lumbar laminectomy, bilateral partial facetectomy, and posterolateral fusion at a single institution between 1981 and 1996. They included 25 men and 9 women with a mean age of 42 years (range, 27-57 years). Twenty-three cases were instrumented and 11 were noninstrumented. Mean follow-up was 21 years (range, 15-29 years). Outcomes evaluated included reoperation rate, clinical outcomes evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, radiographic evaluations of adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD) and lumbar lordosis, and contributing demographic factors to disease progression. At final follow-up, 17 of the 34 patients had undergone reoperation (43% of the instrumented group and 64% of the noninstrumented group). There were no differences in the reoperation rate or ODI improvement between the instrumented and noninstrumented groups (P>.05). Female patients required more revisions, had less ODI improvement, had greater postoperative ASD, and had less maintenance of their postoperative lumbar lordosis. There was no difference in maintenance of postoperative lumbar lordosis or ASD between the instrumented and noninstrumented groups. Instrumentation did not improve revision rates, clinical outcomes, or radiographic outcomes in laminectomies requiring contemporaneous facetectomies.
Project description:Patients with marked osteoporosis and/or obesity/morbid obesity and severe multilevel lumbar stenosis and other pathology often undergo multilevel laminectomies with non instrumented posterolateral fusions (PLF). The other pathology may include combinations of degenerative spondylolisthesis/lysis, foraminal/far lateral discs, and/or synovial cysts requiring more extensive facet resections. Presently, spine surgeons often use bone graft expanders to supplement the lamina autograft harvested in the course of laminectomy/decompressions for the PLF mass.In 59 patients, we prospectively analyzed the fusion rates following multilevel laminectomies/noninstrumented fusions using lamina autograft and the bone graft expander Nanoss (RTI Surgical Alachua, FL, and USA) with autogenous bone marrow aspirate (BMA). Patients averaged 66.1 years of age; many exhibited marked osteoporosis (48 patients) and obesity (13 of 27 morbidly obese). Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) studies documented stenosis/ossified yellow ligament (OYL) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (51 patients)/lysis (2 patients), synovial cysts (32 patients), and disc herniations (10 of 21 far lateral). Patients were followed remove up for an average of 3.12 years.Average 4.0 level laminectomies/1.2 level noninstrumented fusions utilized lamina autograft and Nanoss/BMA. Both X-ray/CT studies performed an average of 4.9 months postoperatively documented a 97% fusion rate (57 of 59 patients). Two patients with severe osteoporosis, morbid obesity, and smoking histories exhibited pseudarthroses; neither was sufficiently symptomatic to require secondary surgery.Fifty-nine patients with multilevel lumbar stenosis/OYL and other pathology underwent multilevel lumbar laminectomies/noninstrumented fusions using lamina autograft and Nanoss/BMA. Both dynamic X-ray/CT studies confirmed a 97% fusion rate an average of 4.9 months postoperatively. Nanoss/BMA contributed to a high posterolateral lumbar non instrumented fusion rate without complciations.
Project description:Study Design:Retrospective cohort study. Objective:To assess the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on clinical and radiographic outcomes in patient with degenerative spondylolisthesis undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion. Methods:Analysis of patients who underwent open posterior lumbar spinal fusion from 2011 to 2018. Patients being medically treated for DM were identified and separated from nondiabetic patients. Visual analogue scale Back/Leg pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were collected, and achievement of minimal clinically important difference was evaluated. Lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), and PI-LL difference were measured on radiographs. Rates of postoperative complications were also collected. Results:A total of 850 patients were included; 78 (9.20%) diabetic patients and 772 (90.80%) nondiabetic patients. Final PI-LL difference was significantly larger (P = .032) for patients with diabetes compared to no diabetes, but there were no other significant differences between radiographic measurements, operative time, or postoperative length of stay. There were no differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Diabetic patients were found to have a higher rate of discharge to a facility following surgery (P = .018). No differences were observed in reoperation or postoperative complication. Conclusions:While diabetic patients had more associated comorbidities compared with nondiabetic patients, they had similar patient-reported and radiographic outcomes. Similarly, there are no differences in rates of reoperation or postoperative complications. This study indicates that diabetic patients who have undergone thorough preoperative screening of related comorbidities and appropriate selection should be considered for lumbar spinal fusion.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis. Methods This study compared 24 patients undergoing TLIF and 32 patients undergoing PLF with instrumentation. The clinical outcomes were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and leg pain, physical component summary (PCS) of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic parameters included slippage of the vertebra, local disk lordosis, the anterior and posterior disk height, lumbar lordosis, and pelvic parameters. Results The improvement of VAS of leg pain was significantly greater in TLIF than in PLF unilaterally (3.4 versus 1.0; p = 0.02). The improvement of VAS of low back pain was significantly greater in TLIF than in PLF (3.8 versus 2.2; p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference in improvement of ODI or PCS between TLIF and PLF. Reduction of slippage and the postoperative disk height was significantly greater in TLIF than in PLF. There was no significant difference in local disk lordosis, lumbar lordosis, or pelvic parameters. The fusion rate was 96% in TLIF and 84% in PLF (p = 0.3). There was no significant difference in fusion rate, estimated blood loss, adjacent segmental degeneration, or complication rate. Conclusions TLIF was superior to PLF in reduction of slippage and restoring disk height and might provide better improvement of leg pain. However, the health-related outcomes were not significantly different between the two procedures.
Project description:Prospective, cross-sectional study.The aim of the study was to determine which radiographic parameters drive patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in primary presentation adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS).Previous literature suggests correlations between PROs and sagittal plane deformity (sagittal vertical axis [SVA], pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis [PI-LL] mismatch, pelvic tilt [PT]). Prior work included revision and primary adult spinal deformity patients. The present study addresses only primary presentation ASLS.Prospective baseline data were analyzed on 286 patients enrolled in an NIH RO1 clinical trial by nine centers from 2010 to 2014.40 to 80 years old, lumbar Cobb (LC) 30° or higher and Scoliosis Research Society-23 score 4.0 or less in Pain, Function or Self-Image domains, or Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 20 or higher. Patients were primary presentation (no prior spinal deformity surgery) and had complete baseline data: standing coronal/sagittal 36" radiographs and PROs (ODI, Scoliosis Research Society-23, Short Form-12). Correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relations between radiographic parameters and PROs for the study population and a subset of patients with ODI 40 or higher. Analysis of variance was used to identify differences in PROs for radiographic modifier groups.Mean age was 60.3 years. Mean spinopelvic parameters were: LL?=?-39.2°; SVA?=?3.1 cm; sacral slope?=?32.5°; PT?=?23.9°; PI-LL mismatch?=?16.8°. Only weak correlations (0.2-0.4) were identified between population sacral slope, SVA and SVA modifiers, and SRS function. SVA and SVA modifiers were weakly associated with ODI. Although there were more correlations in subset analysis of high-symptom patients, all were weak. Analysis of variance identified significant differences in ODI reported by SVA modifier groups.In primary presentation patients with ASLS and a subset of "high-symptom" patients (ODI???40), only weak associations between baseline PROs and radiographic parameters were identified. For this patient population, these results suggest regional radiographic parameters (LC, LL, PT, PI-LL mismatch) are not drivers of PROs and cannot be used to extrapolate effect on patient-perceived pathology.2.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective case series. Objective StaXx XD (Spine Wave, Inc., Shelton, CT, United States) is an expandable polyaryl-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) wafer implant utilized in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. PEEK implants have been successfully used as interbody devices. Few studies have focused on expandable PEEK devices. The aim of the current study is to determine the radiographic and clinical outcome of expandable PEEK cages utilized for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods Forty-nine patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of expandable PEEK cages and posterior instrumentation were included. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic parameters including disk height, foraminal height, listhesis, local disk angle of the index level/levels, regional lumbar lordosis, and graft subsidence were measured preoperatively, postoperatively, and at latest follow-up. Results At an average follow-up of 19.3 months, the minimum clinically important difference for the ODI and VAS back, buttock, and leg were achieved in 64, 52, 58, and 52% of the patients, respectively. There was statistically significant improvement in VAS back (6.42 versus 3.11, p < 0.001), VAS buttock (4.66 versus 1.97, p = 0.002), VAS leg (4.55 versus 1.96, p < 0.001), and ODI (21.7 versus 12.1, p < 0.001) scores. There was a significant increase in the average disk height (6.49 versus 8.18 mm, p = 0.037) and foraminal height (15.6 versus 18.53 mm, p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the listhesis (5.13 versus 3.15 mm, p = 0.005). The subsidence of 0.66 mm (7.4%) observed at the latest follow-up was not significant (p = 0.35). Conclusions Midterm results indicate that expandable PEEK spacers can effectively and durably restore disk and foraminal height and improve the outcome without significant subsidence.
Project description:<b>Study design: </b>A meta-analysis.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>We performed a meta-analysis to explore the incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar fusion surgery.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>An extensive search of the literature was performed in English database of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and Chinese database of CNKI and WANFANG (up to May 2020). We collected factors including demographic data, surgical factor, and sagittal parameters. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Finally, 19 studies were included in the final analysis. In our study, the rate of ASD after posterior lumbar fusion surgery was 18.6% (540 of 2896). Our data also showed that mean age, body mass index (BMI), the history of smoking and hypertension, preoperative adjacent disc degeneration, long-segment fusion, preoperative superior facet violation, high lumbosacral joint angle, pre- and post-operative L1-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), post-operative lumbar lordosis (LL), and preoperative pelvic incidence (PI) were associated with the development of ASD. However, gender, history of diabetes, bone mineral density (BMD), preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), the type of fusion (PLIF vs TLIF), type of bone graft (auto- vs allograft), fusion to S1(vs non-fusion to S1), diagnose (lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar spondylolisthesis), preoperative pelvic tilt (PT), LL and sacral slope (SS), post-operative SS, PT and PI were not associated with the development of ASD.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In our study, many factors were correlated with the risk of ASD after posterior lumbar fusion surgery. We hope this article can provide a reference for spinal surgeons in treatment for lumbar degenerative diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is an acknowledged problem of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Many studies have been reported concerning the role of lordosis distribution index (LDI) in spinal biomechanics. However, few reports have been published about the impact of LDI on ASD following L4-S1 PLIF. METHODS:The study enrolled 200 subjects who underwent L4-S1 PLIF for degenerative spine disease from 2009 to 2014. The average follow-up term was 84?months. Several lower lumbar parameters were measured, including lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), and LDI on the pre and postoperative radiograph. Perioperative information, comorbidities, and operative data were documented. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for the comparisons of ASD-free survival of 3 different types of postoperative LDI subgroups. RESULTS:The incidence of ASD was found to be 8.5%. LL and LLL increased by 3.96° (38.71° vs 42.67°; P < 0.001) and 3.60° (26.22° vs 28.82°; P < 0.001) after lower lumbar fusion surgery, respectively. Lordosis distribution index (LDI) increased by 0.03 (0.66 vs 0.69, P = 0.004) postoperatively. A significant difference (P = 0.001) was observed when comparing the incidence of ASD among postoperative LDI subgroups. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a marked difference in ASD-free survival between low and moderate LDI subgroup (log-rank test, P = 0.0012) and high and moderate LDI subgroup (log-rank test, P = 0.0005). CONCLUSION:Patients with abnormal postoperative LDI were statistically more likely to develop ASD than those who had normal postoperative LDI. Moreover, patients with low postoperative LDI were at greater risk for developing ASD than those with high postoperative LDI over time.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>A retrospective study that aims to report Adjacent Segment Degeneration (ASD) incidence and spinopelvic balance in short lumbosacral instrumentation for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Although ASD is a common complication following lumbar fusion, the effect of an interspinous spacer (IS) in the supradjacent segment in short lumbosacral instrumented fusion and its interaction with spinopelvic balance has not been studied adequately.<h4>Methods</h4>From 55 consecutive age-, diagnosis-, and gender-matched patients aged 60±11 years, 17 (Group R) received PEEK IS; 18 (Group S) received Silicon IS compared with 20 controls (Group C) without receiving any IS. The functional outcome was evaluated with VAS and ODI. Spinopelvic balance was evaluated using SVA, T<sub>12</sub>-S<sub>1</sub> LL, SS, PT, PI, and supradjacent segment disc heights. All spines were preoperatively balanced (SVA<40 mm).<h4>Results</h4>The follow-up averaged out to 56±11 months. VAS and ODI scores improved postoperatively in all 3 groups. SS and anterior disc height in the supradjacent free segment increased postoperatively compensatory to spinal alterations. Although 6, 4, and 5 patients from Groups R, S, and C, respectively, showed radiological progression of the preoperative degeneration grade in the supradjacent disc, only 2, 1, and 2 patients in Groups R, S, and C, respectively, developed symptomatic ASD in the 1<sup>st</sup> supradjacent segment solely. No additional surgery was required in any patient.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ASD incidence in the supradjacent segment following short lumbar fusion did not statistically significantly differ between PEEK and Silicon IS. There was a trend towards lower ASD incidence in Silicon IS. IS reduced ASD in both 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> supradjacent segments. The authors speculate that soft stabilization provided by IS may be more advantageous for preventing ASD. This trial is registered with <i>ClinicalTrials.gov</i>NCT03477955.
Project description:Background: Lumbar discectomy is a common surgical procedure in middle-aged adults. However, outcomes of lumbar discectomy among older adults are unclear. Methods: Lumbar discectomy patients with an annular defect ?6 mm width were randomized to receive additional implantation with a bone-anchored annular closure device (ACD, n=272) or no additional implantation (controls, n=278). Over 3 years follow-up, main outcomes were symptomatic reherniation, reoperation, and the percentage of patients who achieved the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) without a reoperation for leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) score, and SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) score. Results were compared between older (?60 years) and younger (<60 years) patients. We additionally analyzed data from two postmarket ACD registries to determine consistency of outcomes between the randomized trial and postmarket, real-world results. Results: Among all patients, older patients suffered from crippling or bed-bound preoperative disability more frequently than younger patients (57.9% vs 39.1%, p=0.03). Among controls, female sex, higher preoperative ODI, and current smoking status, but not age, were associated with greater risk of reherniation and reoperation. Compared to controls, the ACD group had lower risk of symptomatic reherniation (HR=0.45, p<0.001) and reoperation (HR=0.54, p=0.008), with risk reductions comparable in older vs younger patients. The percentage of patients achieving the MCID without a reoperation was higher in the ACD group for leg pain (81% vs 72%, p=0.04), ODI (82% vs 73%, p=0.03), PCS (85% vs 75%, p=0.01), and MCS (59% vs 46%, p=0.007), and this benefit was comparable in older versus younger patients. Comparable benefits in older patients were observed in the postmarket ACD registries. Conclusion: Outcomes with lumbar discectomy and additional bone-anchored ACD are superior to lumbar discectomy alone. Older patients derived similar benefits with additional bone-anchored ACD implantation as younger patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare postoperative imaging results, clinical outcomes and complications between the multifidus muscle bundle (MMB) approach and the conventional open (CO) approach in one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). METHODS:Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 201 of 351 patients in our hospital were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent MMB-PLIF or CO-PLIF randomly: 111 patients in the MMB-PLIF group and 90 patients in the CO-PLIF group. A total of 100 patients failed to be followed up in the following 7-9?years. Therefore, in this study, 52 patients of the MMB group and 49 patients of the CO group were included. We evaluated the differences in terms of multifidus atrophy rate, intervertebral disc height and segmental lordosis restoration of the operation segment, lumbar lordosis restoration, fusion rate, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), complication rates, and patient satisfaction rates between the two groups. Correlation between multifidus muscle degeneration and the incidence of complications was investigated, and we compared the multifidus muscle degeneration rate between patients with or without intractable back pain or adjacent segment degeneration. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, segments distribution, and mean follow-up time between the MMB-PLIF group and the CO-PLIF group. In addition, no differences regarding sex, age, or BMI were found between the lost follow-up group and the successful follow-up group. In regard to imaging and clinical evaluation, at the final follow-up, there were significant differences in multifidus atrophy rates (27.0% ± 6.8% vs 38.7% ± 10.9%), lumbar lordosis restoration (4.6° ± 2.5° vs 3.0° ± 1.9°), postoperative VAS for back pain (1.1 ± 0.9 vs 1.8 ± 1.2), ODI (7.7 ± 5.0 vs 12.4 ± 6.7), and patient satisfaction rates (86.5% vs 61.2%) between MMB-PLIF and CO-PLIF groups. However, there were no significant differences in segmental lordosis, intervertebral height restoration, postoperative VAS for leg pain or fusion rate between the two groups. In regards to complications, there were significant differences in the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (3.8% vs 14.3%), intractable back pain (3.8% vs 22.4%), and residual neurological symptoms (5.8% vs 20.4%) between the two groups (P < 0.05) at the final follow-up. In addition, patients with adjacent segment degeneration and intractable back pain were observed with more significant multifidus muscle atrophy than those without these two complications (31.9% ± 1.1% vs 39.6% ± 2.1% and 30.9% ± 1.1% vs 42.8% ± 2.1%). CONCLUSION:Compared with CO-PLIF, MMB-PLIF had advantages in relation to protection of the multifidus muscle, better maintenance of lumbar lordosis, reduced lower back pain and ODI score, fewer complications, and a higher patient satisfaction rate. Protection of the multifidus muscle in lumbar surgery is an important aspect of minimally invasive surgery.