Alcohol and other substance use after bariatric surgery: prospective evidence from a U.S. multicenter cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Empirical evidence suggests Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) increases risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, prospective assessment of substance use disorders (SUD) after bariatric surgery is limited.To report SUD-related outcomes after RYGB and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). To identify factors associated with incident SUD-related outcomes.10 U.S. hospitals METHODS: The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a prospective cohort study. Participants self-reported past-year AUD symptoms (determined by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), illicit drug use (cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, phencyclidine, amphetamines, or marijuana), and SUD treatment (counseling or hospitalization for alcohol or drugs) presurgery and annually postsurgery for up to 7 years through January 2015.Of 2348 participants who underwent RYGB or LAGB, 2003 completed baseline and follow-up assessments (79.2% women, baseline median age: 47 years, median body mass index 45.6). The year-5 cumulative incidence of postsurgery onset AUD symptoms, illicit drug use, and SUD treatment were 20.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.5-23.3), 7.5% (95% CI: 6.1-9.1), and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.6-4.8), respectively, post-RYGB, and 11.3% (95% CI: 8.5-14.9), 4.9% (95% CI: 3.1-7.6), and .9% (95% CI: .4-2.5) post-LAGB. Undergoing RYGB versus LAGB was associated with higher risk of incident AUD symptoms (adjusted hazard ratio or AHR = 2.08 [95% CI: 1.51-2.85]), illicit drug use (AHR = 1.76 [95% CI: 1.07-2.90]) and SUD treatment (AHR = 3.56 [95% CI: 1.26-10.07]).Undergoing RYGB versus LAGB was associated with twice the risk of incident AUD symptoms. One-fifth of participants reported incident AUD symptoms within 5 years post-RYGB. AUD education, screening, evaluation, and treatment referral should be incorporated in pre- and postoperative care.
Project description:Importance:More information is needed about the durability of weight loss and health improvements after bariatric surgical procedures. Objective:To examine long-term weight change and health status following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Design, Setting, and Participants:The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. Adults undergoing bariatric surgical procedures as part of clinical care between 2006 and 2009 were recruited and followed up until January 31, 2015. Participants completed presurgery, 6-month, and annual research assessments for up to 7 years. Main Outcome and Measures:Percentage of weight change from baseline, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, determined by physical measures, laboratory testing, and medication use. Results:Of 2348 participants, 1738 underwent RYGB (74%) and 610 underwent LAGB (26%). For RYBG, the median age was 45 years (range, 19-75 years), the median body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 47 (range, 34-81), 1389 participants (80%) were women, and 257 participants (15%) were nonwhite. For LAGB, the median age was 48 years (range, 18-78), the body mass index was 44 (range, 33-87), 465 participants (76%) were women, and 63 participants (10%) were nonwhite. Follow-up weights were obtained in 1300 of 1569 (83%) eligible for a year-7 visit. Seven years following RYGB, mean weight loss was 38.2 kg (95% CI, 36.9-39.5), or 28.4% (95% CI, 27.6-29.2) of baseline weight; between years 3 and 7 mean weight regain was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.4-4.4) of baseline weight. Seven years after LAGB, mean weight loss was 18.8 kg (95% CI, 16.3-21.3) or 14.9% (95% CI, 13.1-16.7), with 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4-2.4) regain. Six distinct weight change trajectory patterns for RYGB and 7 for LAGB were identified. Most participants followed trajectories in which weight regain from 3 to 7 years was small relative to year-3 weight loss, but patterns were variable. Compared with baseline, dyslipidemia prevalence was lower 7 years following both procedures; diabetes and hypertension prevalence were lower following RYGB only. Among those with diabetes at baseline (488 of 1723 with RYGB [28%]; 175 of 604 with LAGB [29%]), the proportion in remission at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 71.2% (95% CI, 67.0-75.4), 69.4% (95% CI, 65.0-73.8), 64.6% (95% CI, 60.0-69.2), and 60.2% (95% CI, 54.7-65.6), respectively, for RYGB and 30.7% (95% CI, 22.8-38.7), 29.3% (95% CI, 21.6-37.1), 29.2% (95% CI, 21.0-37.4), and 20.3% (95% CI, 9.7-30.9) for LAGB. The incidence of diabetes at all follow-up assessments was less than 1.5% for RYGB. Bariatric reoperations occurred in 14 RYGB and 160 LAGB participants. Conclusions and Relevance:Following bariatric surgery, different weight loss patterns were observed, but most participants maintained much of their weight loss with variable fluctuations over the long term. There was some decline in diabetes remission over time, but the incidence of new cases is low following RYGB. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00465829.
Project description:Bariatric surgery has proved to be an effective strategy in treating obesity. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of 3 most common bariatric surgery procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), reported inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to synthesize evidence of effectiveness of the 3 common bariatric procedures from relevant RCTs.The present study was a systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs. All RCTs must meet the following criteria to be included in the analysis: patients with body mass index (BMI) ?30?kg/m, reported at least 1 outcome of interest, compared at least 2 of the 3 bariatric procedures, and had follow-ups of at least 1 year. Primary outcome was weight loss, expressed as differences in mean BMI reduction and percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) following 1 year after the surgery. Network meta-analysis was based on Bayesian framework with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation approach.Eleven RCTs that met the criteria were included in the review. Of 9 trials (n?=?765), the differences in mean BMI reduction were -0.76 (95% CI: -3.1 to 1.6) for RYGB versus SG, -5.8 (95% CI: -9.2 to -2.4) for RYGB versus LAGB, and -5.0 (95% CI: -9.0 to -1.0) for SG versus LAGB. Eight RCTs (n?=?656) reported percentage excess weight-loss (%EWL), the mean differences between RYGB and SG, RYGB and LAGB, and SG and LAGB were 3.8% (95% CI: -8.5% to 13.8%), -22.2% (95% CI: -34.7% to -6.5%), and -26.0% (95% CI: -40.6% to -6.4%), respectively. The meta-analysis indicated low heterogeneity between studies, and the node splitting analysis showed that the studies were consistent between direct and indirect comparisons (P?>?.05).The RYGB and SG yielded similar in weight-loss effect and both were superior to LAGB. Other factors such as complications and patient preference should be considered during surgical consultations.
Project description:Many questions remain unanswered about the role of bariatric surgery for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).To determine feasibility of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) and compare initial outcomes of bariatric surgery and a structured weight loss program for treating T2DM in participants with grades I and II obesity.A 12-month, 3-arm RCT at a single center including 69 participants aged 25 to 55 years with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 to 40 and T2DM.Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (LWLI).Primary outcomes in the intention-to-treat cohort were feasibility and effectiveness measured by weight loss and improvements in glycemic control.Of 667 potential participants who underwent screening, 69 (10.3%) were randomized. Among the randomized participants, 30 (43%) had grade I obesity, and 56 (81%) were women. Mean (SD) age was 47.3 (6.4) years and hemoglobin A1c level, 7.9% (2.0%). After randomization, 7 participants (10%) refused to undergo their allocated intervention (3 RYGB, 1 LAGB, and 3 LWLI), and 1 RYGB participant was excluded for current smoking. Twenty participants underwent RYGB; 21, LAGB; and 20, LWLI, with 12-month retention rates of 90%, 86%, and 70%, respectively. In the intention-to-treat cohort with multiple imputation for missing data, RYGB participants had the greatest mean weight loss from baseline (27.0%; 95% CI, 30.8-23.3) compared with LAGB (17.3%; 95% CI, 21.1-13.5) and LWLI (10.2%; 95% CI, 14.8-5.61) (P?<?.001). Partial and complete remission of T2DM were 50% and 17%, respectively, in the RYGB group and 27% and 23%, respectively, in the LAGB group (P?<?.001 and P?=?.047 between groups for partial and complete remission), with no remission in the LWLI group. Significant reductions in use of antidiabetics occurred in both surgical groups. No deaths were noted. The 3 serious adverse events included 1 ulcer treated medically in the RYGB group and 2 rehospitalizations for dehydration in the LAGB group.This study highlights several potential challenges to successful completion of a larger RCT for treatment of T2DM and obesity in patients with a body mass index of 30 to 40, including the difficulties associated with recruiting and randomizing patients to surgical vs nonsurgical interventions. Preliminary results show that RYGB was the most effective treatment, followed by LAGB for weight loss and T2DM outcomes at 1 year.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01047735.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of bariatric surgery among Medicaid beneficiaries, a population with a disproportionately high burden of obesity, remains unclear. We sought to determine if weight loss and regain following bariatric surgery differed in Medicaid patients compared to commercial insurance. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a ten-site observational cohort of adults undergoing bariatric surgery (2006-2009) were examined for patients who underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Laparoscopic Adjustable Band (LAGB), or Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG). Using piecewise spline linear mixed-effect models, weight change over 5 years was modeled as a function of insurance type (Medicaid, N?=?190; commercially insured, N?=?1448), time, procedure type, and sociodemographic characteristics; additionally, interactions between all time, insurance, and procedure type indicators allowed time- and procedure-specific associations with insurance type. For each time-spline, mean (kg) difference in weight change in commercially insured versus Medicaid patients was calculated. RESULTS:Medicaid patients had higher mean weight at baseline (138.3?kg vs. 131.2?kg). From 0 to 1 year post-operatively, Medicaid patients lost similar amounts of weight to commercial patients following all procedure types (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: -0.9 [-3.2, 1.4]; LAGB: -1.5 [-6.7, 3.8]; SG: 5.1 [-4.0, 14.2]). From 1 to 3 years post-operatively Medicaid and commercial patients continued to experience minimal weight loss or began to slowly regain weight (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 0.9 [0.0, 2.0]; LAGB: -2.1 [-4.2, 0.1]; SG: 0.7 [-3.0, 4.3]). From 3 to 5 years post-operatively, the rate of regain tended to be faster among commercial patients compared to Medicaid patients (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 1.1 [0.1, 2.0]; LAGB: 1.5 [-0.5, 3.5]; SG: 1.0 [-2.5, 4.5]). CONCLUSIONS:Although Medicaid patients had a higher baseline weight, they achieved similar amounts of weight loss and tended to regain weight at a slower rate than commercial patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS:The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. RESULTS:Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z = 6.33, p < 0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD = -1.24 (95% CI: -2.46, -0.02), z = -2, p<0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD = -0.31 (95% CI: -0.45, -0.16), z ?=? -4.12, p < 0.001) and depression (SMD ?=? -0.47 (95% CI: -0.80, -0.14), z = -2.76, p<0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS:The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss. Using multi-omic approaches, we analyzed fecal microbial community structure and metabolites of pre-bariatric surgery morbidly obese (PreB-Ob), normal weight (NW), post-RYGB, and post-LAGB participants. RYGB microbiomes were significantly different from those from NW, LAGB and PreB-Ob. Microbiome differences between RYGB and PreB-Ob populations were mirrored in their metabolomes. Diversity was higher in RYGB compared with LAGB, possibly because of an increase in the abundance of facultative anaerobic, bile-tolerant and acid-sensible microorganisms in the former. Possibly because of lower gastric acid exposure, phylotypes from the oral cavity, such as Escherichia, Veillonella and Streptococcus, were in greater abundance in the RYGB group, and their abundances positively correlated with percent excess weight loss. Many of these post-RYGB microorganisms are capable of amino-acid fermentation. Amino-acid and carbohydrate fermentation products-isovalerate, isobutyrate, butyrate and propionate-were prevalent in RYGB participants, but not in LAGB participants. RYGB resulted in greater alteration of the gut microbiome and metabolome than LAGB, and RYGB group exhibited unique microbiome composed of many amino-acid fermenters, compared with nonsurgical controls.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study examines the course of eating pathology and its associations with change in weight and health-related quality of life following bariatric surgery. METHOD:Participants (N =?184) completed the eating disorder examination-bariatric surgery version (EDE-BSV) and the medical outcomes study 36-Item short form health survey (SF-36) prior to and annually following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for up to 7?years. RESULTS:The prevalence of ? weekly loss of control (LOC) eating, picking/nibbling, and cravings declined post-RYGB and remained lower through 7 years (LOC: 5.4% at Year-7 vs. 16.2% pre-RYGB, p =?.03; picking/nibbling: 7.0% vs. 32.4%, p <?.001; and cravings: 19.4% vs. 33.6%, p =?.02). The prevalence of picking/nibbling was significantly lower 7 years following LAGB vs. pre-LAGB (29.4% vs 45.8%, p =?.049), while cravings (p =?.13) and LOC eating (p =?.95) were not. EDE-BSV global score and ratings of hunger and enjoyment of eating were lower 7 years following both RYGB and LAGB versus pre-surgery (p's for all <.05). LOC eating following RYGB was associated with less long-term weight loss from surgery (p <?.01) and greater weight regain from weight nadir (p <?.001). Higher post-surgery EDE-BSV global score was associated with less weight loss/greater regain (both p <?.001) and worsening/less improvement from surgery in the SF-36 mental component summary scores (p <?.01). DISCUSSION:Initial improvements in eating pathology following RYGB and LAGB were sustained across 7?years of follow-up. Individuals with eating pathology post-RYGB, reflected by LOC eating and/or higher EDE-BSV global score, may be at risk for suboptimal long-term outcomes.
Project description:Importance:There are few nationwide studies comparing the risk of reintervention after contemporary bariatric procedures. Objective:To compare the risk of intervention after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study used a nationwide US commercial insurance claims database. Adults aged 18 to 64 years who underwent a first RYGB or VSG procedure between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2017, were matched on US region, year of surgery, most recent presurgery body mass index (BMI) category (based on diagnosis codes), and baseline type 2 diabetes. The prematch pool included 4496 patients undergoing RYGB and 8627 patients undergoing VSG, and the final weighted matched sample included 4476 patients undergoing RYGB and 8551 patients undergoing VSG. Exposures:Bariatric surgery procedure type (RYGB vs VSG). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was any abdominal operative intervention after the index procedure. Secondary outcomes included the following subtypes of operative intervention: biliary procedures, abdominal wall hernia repair, bariatric conversion or revision, and other abdominal operations. Nonoperative outcomes included endoscopy and enteral access. Time to first event was compared using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results:Among 13?027 patients, the mean (SD) age was 44.4 (10.3) years, and 74.1% were female; 13.7% had a preoperative BMI between 30 and 39.9, 45.8% had a preoperative BMI between 40 and 49.9, and 24.2% had a preoperative BMI of at least 50. Patients were followed up for up to 4 years after surgery (median, 1.6 years; interquartile range, 0.7-3.2 years), with 41.9% having at least 2 years of follow-up and 16.3% having at least 4 years of follow-up. Patients undergoing VSG were less likely to have any subsequent operative intervention than matched patients undergoing RYGB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.89) and similarly were less likely to undergo biliary procedures (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90), abdominal wall hernia repair (aHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.75), other abdominal operations (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.82), and endoscopy (aHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.49-0.59) or have enteral access placed (aHR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86). Patients undergoing VSG were more likely to undergo bariatric conversion or revision (aHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19-2.80). Conclusions and Relevance:In this nationwide study, patients undergoing VSG appeared to be less likely than matched patients undergoing RYGB to experience subsequent abdominal operative interventions, except for bariatric conversion or revision procedures. Patients considering bariatric surgery should be aware of the increased risk of subsequent procedures associated with RYGB vs VSG as part of shared decision-making around procedure choice.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to high-turnover bone loss, but little is known about skeletal effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) or mechanisms underlying bone loss after bariatric surgery.To evaluate effects of RYGB and LAGB on fasting and postprandial indices of bone remodeling.Ancillary investigation of a prospective study at 2 academic institutions.Obese adults aged 21-65 years with type 2 diabetes who underwent RYGB (n = 11) or LAGB (n = 8).Serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and PTH were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test at baseline, 10 days and 1 year after surgery. Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, polypeptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, and insulin were also assessed.Fasting CTX increased 10 days after RYGB but not LAGB (+69 ± 23% vs +12±12%, P < .001), despite comparable weight loss at that time. By 1 year, fasting CTX and P1NP increased more after RYGB than LAGB (CTX +221 ± 60% vs +15 ± 6%, P<0.001; P1NP +93 ± 25% vs -9 ± 10%, P < .001) and weight loss was greater with RYGB. Changes in CTX were independent of PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D but were associated with increases in fasting PYY. Postprandial suppression of CTX was more pronounced after RYGB than LAGB at 10 days and 1 year postoperatively.RYGB is accompanied by early increases in fasting indices of bone remodeling, independent of weight loss or changes in PTH or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. LAGB did not affect bone markers. PYY and other enterohormonal signals may play a role in RYGB-specific skeletal changes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse. METHODS:Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1-2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3). Weights-adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of hypothesized risk factors with post-deployment incidence and persistence of heavy drinking (HD) (consuming 5 + alcoholic drinks at least 1-2×/week) and alcohol or substance use disorder (AUD/SUD). RESULTS:Prevalence of past-month HD at T0, T2, and T3 was 23.3% (s.e. = 0.7%), 26.1% (s.e. = 0.8%), and 22.3% (s.e. = 0.7%); corresponding estimates for any binge drinking (BD) were 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), and 41.3% (s.e. = 0.9%). Greater personal life stress during deployment (e.g., relationship, family, or financial problems) - but not combat stress - was associated with new onset of HD at T2 [per standard score increase: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35, p = 0.003]; incidence of AUD/SUD at T2 (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89, p < 0.0005); and persistence of AUD/SUD at T2 and T3 (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56, p = 0.005). Any BD pre-deployment was associated with post-deployment onset of HD (AOR = 3.21, 95% CI 2.57-4.02, p < 0.0005) and AUD/SUD (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.27-2.70, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Alcohol misuse is common during the months preceding and following deployment. Timely intervention aimed at alleviating/managing personal stressors or curbing risky drinking might reduce risk of alcohol-related problems post-deployment.