Utility of the new Movement Disorder Society clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease applied retrospectively in a large cohort study of recent onset cases.
ABSTRACT: To examine the utility of the new Movement Disorder Society (MDS) diagnostic criteria in a large cohort of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.Recently diagnosed (<3.5 years) PD cases fulfilling United Kingdom (UK) brain bank criteria in Tracking Parkinson's, a UK multicenter prospective natural history study were assessed by retrospective application of the MDS criteria.In 2000 cases, 1835 (91.7%) met MDS criteria for PD, either clinically established (n = 1261, 63.1%) or clinically probable (n = 574, 28.7%), leaving 165 (8.3%) not fulfilling criteria. Clinically established cases were significantly more likely to have limb rest tremor (89.3%), a good l-dopa response (79.5%), and olfactory loss (71.1%), than clinically probable cases (60.6%, 44.4%, and 34.5% respectively), but differences between probable PD and 'not PD' cases were less evident. In cases not fulfilling criteria, the mean MDS UPDRS3 score (25.1, SD 13.2) was significantly higher than in probable PD (22.3, SD 12.7, p = 0.016) but not established PD (22.9, SD 12.0, p = 0.066). The l-dopa equivalent daily dose of 341 mg (SD 261) in non-PD cases was significantly higher than in probable PD (250 mg, SD 214, p < 0.001) and established PD (308 mg, SD 199, p = 0.025). After 30 months' follow-up, 89.5% of clinically established cases at baseline remained as PD (established/probable), and 86.9% of those categorized as clinically probable at baseline remained as PD (established/probable). Cases not fulfilling PD criteria had more severe parkinsonism, in particular relating to postural instability, gait problems, and cognitive impairment.Over 90% of cases clinically diagnosed as early PD fulfilled the MDS criteria for PD. Those not fulfilling criteria may have an atypical parkinsonian disorder or secondary parkinsonism that is not correctly identified by the UK Brain Bank criteria, but possibly by the new criteria.
Project description:The clinical diagnosis in patients with parkinsonian disorders can be challenging, and a definite diagnosis requires neuropathological confirmation. The aim of this study was to examine whether a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders predict the presence of Lewy pathology (LP) and concomitant neuropathological lesions.We included 293 donors with a history of parkinsonism without dementia at disease onset, collected by the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) from 1989 to 2015. We retrospectively categorized donors according the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society clinical diagnostic criteria for PD (MDS-PD criteria) as 'not PD', 'probable PD' or 'established PD'. We compared the final clinical diagnosis to presence of neuropathological lesions as defined by BrainNet Europe and National Institute on Aging - Alzheimer's Association guidelines.LP was present in 150 out of 176 donors (85%) with a clinical diagnosis of PD, in 8 out of 101 donors (8%) with atypical parkinsonian disorders and in 4 out of 16 donors (25%) without a definite clinical diagnosis. Independent from age at death, stages of amyloid-?, but not neurofibrillary tau or neuritic plaques, were higher in donors with LP compared to other types of pathology (p?=?0.009). The MDS-PD criteria at a certainty level of 'probable PD' predicted presence of LP with a diagnostic accuracy of 89.3%. Among donors with LP, 'established PD' donors showed similar Braak ?-synuclein stages and stages of amyloid-?, neurofibrillary tau and neuritic plaques compared to 'not PD' or 'probable PD' donors.In conclusion, both a clinical diagnosis of PD as well as MDS-PD criteria accurately predicted presence of LP in NBB donors. LP was associated with more widespread amyloid-? pathology, suggesting a link between amyloid-? accumulation and LP formation.
Project description:Like any organ, the brain is susceptible to the march of time and a reduction in mitochondrial biogenesis is a hallmark of the aging process. In the largest investigation of mitochondrial copy number in Parkinson's disease (PD) to date and by using multiple tissues, we demonstrate that reduced Parkinson DNA (mitochondrial DNA mtDNA) copy number is a biomarker for the etiology of PD. We used established methods of mtDNA quantification to assess the copy number of mtDNA in n = 363 peripheral blood samples, n = 151 substantia nigra pars compacta tissue samples and n = 120 frontal cortex tissue samples from community-based PD cases fulfilling UK-PD Society brain bank criteria for the diagnosis of PD. Accepting technical limitations, our data show that PD patients suffer a significant reduction in mtDNA copy number in both peripheral blood and the vulnerable substantia nigra pars compacta when compared to matched controls. Our study indicates that reduced mtDNA copy number is restricted to the affected brain tissue, but is also reflected in the peripheral blood, suggesting that mtDNA copy number may be a viable diagnostic predictor of PD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objective of the study was to describe treatment patterns in patients newly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS:This retrospective cohort study used the US IBM MarketScan database (2012-2017) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) (2004-2015) database to describe treatment patterns in incident PD cases. Patients fulfilling the case definition of PD, ?30 years, with a 2-year baseline period prior to the index date (date of PD diagnosis), and ?90 days of follow-up were included in the study. Treatment was classified as monotherapy (one PD medication for ?60 continuous days), polytherapy (at least two PD medications concurrently for ?60 days), or untreated (no PD medication prescription). Treatment patterns described included type of medication, duration and outcome of treatment. RESULTS:There were 11,280 patients in IBM MarketScan and 7775 patients in CPRD who fulfilled the study criteria. The proportion of treated patients was 62.4% (US) and 78.6% (UK). The majority of patients were prescribed monotherapy as first-line treatment (US: 85.2%, UK: 68.5%). Levodopa was the most frequently prescribed first-line medication (US: 70.1%, UK: 29.0%). There were 57.9% in the US and 23.8% in the UK who remained on the first monotherapy treatment till the end of the study. CONCLUSION:The study has highlighted the current treatment practices in the US and UK, and underscored differences in the two regions impacted by treatment policies and guidelines.
Project description:There is wide variation in the phenotypic expression of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is driven by both genetic and epidemiological influences.To define and explain variation in the clinical phenotype of PD, in relation to genotypic variation.Tracking Parkinson's is a multicentre prospective longitudinal epidemiologic and biomarker study of PD. Patients attending specialist clinics in the United Kingdom with recent onset (<3.5 years) and young onset (diagnosed <50 years of age) PD were enrolled. Motor, non-motor and quality of life assessments were performed using validated scales. Cases are followed up 6 monthly up to 4.5 years for recent onset PD, and up to 1 year for young onset PD. We present here baseline clinical data from this large and demographically representative cohort.2247 PD cases were recruited (1987 recent onset, 260 young onset). Recent onset cases had a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 67.6 years (9.3) at study entry, 65.7% males, with disease duration 1.3 years (0.9), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 22.9 (12.3), LEDD 295?mg/day (211) and PDQ-8 score 5.9 (4.8). Young onset cases were 53.5 years old (7.8) at study entry, 66.9% male, with disease duration 10.2 years (6.7), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 27.4 (15.3), LEDD 926?mg/day (567) and PDQ-8 score 11.6 (6.1).We have established a large clinical PD cohort, consisting of young onset and recent onset cases, which is designed to evaluate variation in clinical expression, in relation to genetic influences, and which offers a platform for future imaging and biomarker research.
Project description:Myoclonus dystonia syndrome (MDS) is a young-onset movement disorder. A proportion of cases are due to mutations in the maternally imprinted SGCE gene. We assembled the largest cohort of MDS patients to date, and determined the frequency and type of SGCE mutations. The aim was to establish the motor phenotype in mutation carriers and utility of current diagnostic criteria. Eighty-nine probands with clinical features compatible with MDS were recruited from the UK and Ireland. Patients were phenotypically classified as "definite", "probable" or "possible" MDS according to previous guidelines. SGCE was analyzed using direct sequencing and copy number variant analysis. In those where no mutation was found, DYT1 (GAG deletion), GCH1, THAP1 and NKX2.1 genes were also sequenced. Nineteen (21.3%) probands had an SGCE mutation. Three patterns of motor symptoms emerged: (1) early childhood onset upper body myoclonus and dystonia, (2) early childhood onset lower limb dystonia, progressing later to more pronounced myoclonus and upper body involvement, and (3) later childhood onset upper body myoclonus and dystonia with evident cervical involvement. Five probands had large contiguous gene deletions ranging from 0.7 to 2.3 Mb in size with distinctive clinical features, including short stature, joint laxity and microcephaly. Our data confirms that SGCE mutations are most commonly identified in MDS patients with (1) age at onset ?10 years and (2) predominant upper body involvement of a pure myoclonus-dystonia. Cases with whole SGCE gene deletions had additional clinical characteristics, which are not always predicted by deletion size or gene involvement.
Project description:Based on the recent literature and collective experience, an international consortium developed revised guidelines for the diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. The validation process retrospectively reviewed clinical records and compared the sensitivity of proposed and earlier criteria in a multi-site sample of patients with pathologically verified frontotemporal lobar degeneration. According to the revised criteria, 'possible' behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia requires three of six clinically discriminating features (disinhibition, apathy/inertia, loss of sympathy/empathy, perseverative/compulsive behaviours, hyperorality and dysexecutive neuropsychological profile). 'Probable' behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia adds functional disability and characteristic neuroimaging, while behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia 'with definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration' requires histopathological confirmation or a pathogenic mutation. Sixteen brain banks contributed cases meeting histopathological criteria for frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or vascular dementia at presentation. Cases with predominant primary progressive aphasia or extra-pyramidal syndromes were excluded. In these autopsy-confirmed cases, an experienced neurologist or psychiatrist ascertained clinical features necessary for making a diagnosis according to previous and proposed criteria at presentation. Of 137 cases where features were available for both proposed and previously established criteria, 118 (86%) met 'possible' criteria, and 104 (76%) met criteria for 'probable' behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. In contrast, 72 cases (53%) met previously established criteria for the syndrome (P?<?0.001 for comparison with 'possible' and 'probable' criteria). Patients who failed to meet revised criteria were significantly older and most had atypical presentations with marked memory impairment. In conclusion, the revised criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia improve diagnostic accuracy compared with previously established criteria in a sample with known frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Greater sensitivity of the proposed criteria may reflect the optimized diagnostic features, less restrictive exclusion features and a flexible structure that accommodates different initial clinical presentations. Future studies will be needed to establish the reliability and specificity of these revised diagnostic guidelines.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are involved in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but how they contribute to the expansion of malignant cells and hematopoietic failure is poorly understood. To further characterize the pathological phenotype we performed RNA sequencing of MSC from patients with MDS and AML. Data analysis revealed a specific molecular signature with a significant overlap of genes commonly deregulated in all MDS subtypes and in AML. Pathway analysis revealed a strong enrichment of genes related to osteogenesis, senescence, inflammatory processes and inhibitory cytokines thereby reflecting the structural and functional deficits of MDS- and AML-derived MSC on a molecular level. Further analysis identified TGFß1 as the most probable extrinsic trigger factor for this altered gene expression. Following exposure to TGFß1 healthy MSC adopted a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in primary patient-derived MSC which was characterized by impaired growth potential, osteogenic differentiation capacities, a specific gene expression profile and diminished stromal hematopoietic support. These suppressive effects of TGFß1 on MSC functionality were abrogated by SD-208, an established inhibitor of TGFß receptor signalling. Blockade of TGFß signalling by SD-208 also restored the osteogenic differentiation capacity of patient-derived MSC, thus confirming the role of TGFß1 in the bone marrow microenvironment of patients with MDS and AML. Our findings establish TGFß1 as a relevant trigger causing functional inhibition of MSC in MDS and AML and identify SD-208 as a candidate for the reversal of these effects Overall design: RNA sequencing of MSCs from 3 Healthy, 3 RCMD, 3 RAEB and 3 AML patients
Project description:The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Among those with PD-MCI, 42 (93%) were identified as having multiple domain impairment (28 as amnestic multiple domain and 14 as nonamnestic multiple domain). Single domain impairment was less frequent (2 amnestic/1 nonamnestic). Significant differences were found between the PD-MCI and Normal Cognition groups, across all cognitive domains. Multiple domain cognitive impairment was more frequent than single domain impairment in an Australian sample of people with PD. However, PD-MCI is heterogeneous and current prevalence and subtyping statistics may be an artifact of variable application methods of the criteria (e.g., cut off scores and number of tests). Future longitudinal studies refining the criteria will assist with subtyping the progression of PD-MCI, while identifying individuals who may benefit from pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions.
Project description:Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is the most specific marker of prodromal alpha-synucleinopathies. We sought to delineate the baseline clinical characteristics of RBD and evaluate risk stratification models.Clinical assessments were performed in 171 RBD, 296 control, and 119 untreated Parkinson's (PD) participants. Putative risk measures were assessed as predictors of prodromal neurodegeneration, and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) criteria for prodromal PD were applied. Participants were screened for common leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)/glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) gene mutations.Compared to controls, participants with RBD had higher rates of solvent exposure, head injury, smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. GBA mutations were more common in RBD, but no LRRK2 mutations were found. RBD participants performed significantly worse than controls on Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III, timed "get-up-and-go", Flamingo test, Sniffin Sticks, and cognitive tests and had worse measures of constipation, quality of life (QOL), and orthostatic hypotension. For all these measures except UPDRS-III, RBD and PD participants were equally impaired. Depression, anxiety, and apathy were worse in RBD compared to PD participants. Stratification of people with RBD according to antidepressant use, obesity, and age altered the odds ratio (OR) of hyposmia compared to controls from 3.4 to 45.5. 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 66%, 80%) of RBD participants met the MDS criteria for probable prodromal Parkinson's compared to 0.3% (95% CI 0.009%, 2%) of controls.RBD are impaired across a range of clinical measures consistent with prodromal PD and suggestive of a more severe nonmotor subtype. Clinical risk stratification has the potential to select higher risk patients for neuroprotective interventions.
Project description:While several studies have investigated the clinical progression of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, there has been a paucity of data on specifically evaluating PD patients with a disease duration of over 20 years. This study retrospectively investigated the frequency of dementia in PD (PDD) patients with a disease duration of over 20 years assessed in research clinics across the UK and Australia. Data from 2327 PD patients meeting the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria was pooled. A diagnosis of probable PDD was made according to the Movement Disorder Society Level 1 criteria. Thirty-six participants had a disease duration of at least 20 years. Of the 36 patients, only 7 (19%) were classified as probable PDD. Compared to PD patients without dementia, those with dementia had lower levels of educational attainment and exhibited more severe motor features. Additionally, 34 out of the 36 patients (94%) exhibited a non-tremor dominant phenotype. No significant differences in age, age onset, disease duration, dopaminergic medication use, and sex distribution were observed between PD patients with and without dementia. Findings from the present study suggest that the prevalence of dementia in long-term PD patients may be lower than anticipated and suggest that the trajectory of cognitive decline in PD patients can be different. These findings highlight the need to investigate factors that might affect the outcome of cognitive decline in long-term PD patients, which may lead to the determination of potential modulating factors in the development of dementia in these patients.