Prognostic significance of the co-expression of EGFR and HER2 in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
ABSTRACT: Prognostic factors and therapeutic targets are needed for the patients with cervical adenocarcinoma because they have a poor prognosis. Recently, co-expression of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been found to be associated with aggressive biological behavior and poor prognosis of several types of malignancy. To evaluate the significance of the expression of multiple RTKs in uterine cervical cancers, we examined the expression profile of RTKs (EGFR, HER2 and c-Met) and the correlation of their expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with cervical adenocarcinomas. AIS and adenocarcinoma showed strong expression of a single RTK (EGFR, HER2 or c-Met) on the cell membrane in 41 (77.4%) of 53 cases. Twenty (46%) of the 43 adenocarcinoma cases were positive for double or triple RTKs (P = 0.034). Positivity for EGFR and double positivity for EGFR and HER2 (EGFR+/HER2+/c-Met+ and EGFR+/HER2+/c-Met-) were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010 for single and P = 0.013 for double) and UICC stage (P = 0.021 for single and P = 0.007 for double). Positivity for HER2 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.029). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter in patients who were double positive for EGFR and HER2. Our results suggest that EGFR and HER2 are potential therapeutic targets and that their co-expression is a prognostic factor for cervical adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of death. We aim to establish a clinically relevant assay that encompasses recent molecular classifications and provides useful clinical information in a large cohort of GC patients. A consecutive series of 438 GC patients that underwent palliative chemotherapy between 2014 and 2015 were assessed using 10 GC panels: EBER in-situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6), receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; HER2, EGFR, and MET), PTEN, and p53 protein. With a median of one aberration, 3.3 % of samples analyzed were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive; 4.8%, MMR-deficient. RTKs were overexpressed in 218 patients; EGFR was most commonly overexpressed (39.9%), followed by HER2 (13.5%) and MET (12.1%). Furthermore, 2.5 % and 10.7 % of cases had simultaneous overexpression of three and two RTKs, respectively. p53 overexpression/null tumors were identified in 259 patients (59.1%), and PTEN loss was identified in 89 patients (20.3%). EBV-positivity was mutually exclusive with MMR-deficiency, predominantly identified in male patients, and these tumors were undifferentiated with proximal location. p53 mutant type was significantly found predominantly in the EBV-negative (60.6% vs 14.3%, P=0.001) and HER2-positive (78.0% vs 56.2%, P=0.002) groups. We described a molecular spectrum of distinct GC subtypes using clinically applicable assay. This assay will provide a convenient screening tool and facilitate the development of targeted agents in clinical trials.
Project description:Ligand-dependent oligomerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) results in their activation through highly specific conformational changes in the extracellular and intracellular receptor domains. These conformational changes are unique for each RTK subfamily, limiting cross-activation between unrelated RTKs. The proto-oncogene MET receptor tyrosine kinase overcomes these structural constraints and phosphorylates unrelated RTKs in numerous cancer cell lines. The molecular basis for these interactions is unknown. We investigated the mechanism by which MET phosphorylates the human epidermal growth factor receptor-3 (HER3 or ERBB3), a catalytically impaired RTK whose phosphorylation by MET has been described as an essential component of drug resistance to inhibitors targeting EGFR and HER2. We find that in untransformed cells, HER3 is not phosphorylated by MET in response to ligand stimulation, but rather to increasing levels of MET expression, which results in ligand-independent MET activation. Phosphorylation of HER3 by its canonical co-receptors, EGFR and HER2, is achieved by engaging an allosteric site on the HER3 kinase domain, but this site is not required when HER3 is phosphorylated by MET. We also observe that HER3 preferentially interacts with MET during its maturation along the secretory pathway, before MET is post translationally processed by cleavage within its extracellular domain. This results in accumulation of phosphorylated HER3 in the Golgi apparatus. We further show that in addition to HER3, MET phosphorylates other RTKs in the Golgi, suggesting that this mechanism is not limited to HER3 phosphorylation. These data demonstrate a link between MET overexpression and its aberrant activation in the Golgi endomembranes and suggest that non-canonical interactions between MET and other RTKs occur during maturation of receptors. Our study highlights a novel aspect of MET signaling in cancer that would not be accessible to inhibition by therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:Although targeted therapy for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of advanced gastric cancers (AGCs) has been in the spotlight, guidelines for the identification of RTK-amplified gastric cancers (RA-GCs) have not been established. In this study, we investigate clinicopathologic characteristics of RA-GCs and propose a screening algorithm for their identification. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, MSH6, key RTKs (EGFR, HER2, MET), and p53, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoding RNA, and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) for EGFR, HER2, and MET using tissue microarrays of 993 AGCs. On IHC, 157 (15.8%) 61, (6.15%), and 85 (8.56%) out of 993 cases scored 2+ or 3+ for EGFR, HER2, and MET, respectively. On SISH, 31.2% (49/157), 80.3% (49/61), and 30.6% (26/85) of 2+ or 3+ cases on IHC showed amplification of the corresponding genes. Of the 993 cases, 104 were classified as RA-GCs. RA-GC status correlated with older age (P < 0.001), differentiated histology (P = 0.001), intestinal or mixed type by Lauren classification (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.026), and mutant-pattern of p53 (P < 0.001). The cases were divided into four subgroups using two classification systems, putative molecular classification and histologic-molecular classification, based on Lauren classification, IHC, and SISH results. The histologic-molecular classification showed higher sensitivity for identification of RA-GCs and predicted patient prognosis better than the putative molecular classification. In conclusion, RA-GCs show unique clinicopathologic features. The proposed algorithm based on histologic-molecular classification can be applied to select candidates for genetic examination and targeted therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-Met, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, and may serve as biomarkers for disease prognosis. We examined whether high expression of these molecular markers correlates with poor disease prognosis in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Expression of EGFR, c-Met, and HER2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 180 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from stage IIB-IIIC ESCC patients. The overall survival (OS) rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate differences between survival curves. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS:The median survival of all patients was 46 months. There was no significant difference in OS in terms of HER2 and EGFR status (P = 0.177 and P=0.061, respectively). However, there was a significant difference in OS between c-Met high expression patients and c-Met low expression or negative patients (median: 41.9 months vs. 56.7 months; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis also showed that, of the covariates analyzed, c-Met high expression was the only prognostic factor for OS (HR: 0.459 [95 % confidence interval: 0.287-0.733]; P = 0.001). Patients with ESCC that had concurrent overexpression of EGFR and c-Met had significantly worse survival than ESCC that displayed overexpression of either EGFR or c-Met individually or that did not have overexpression of either protein (P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS:Overexpression of HER2 and EGFR individually is not significantly associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. High expression of c-Met may be indicative of a poorer prognosis in ESCC. In order to promote efficient and rapid development of therapeutic methods in ESCC, further studies are necessary to explore the role of c-Met.
Project description:PI3K?-selective inhibitor BYL719 is currently in phase II/III clinical trial for the treatment of breast cancer, but highly variable response has been observed among patients. We sought to discover predictive biomarker for the efficacy of BYL719 by dissecting the proliferative signaling pathway mediated by PI3K in breast cancer. BYL719 concurrently inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in <i>PIK3CA</i>-mutated human breast cancer cells. PI3K-regulated ERK phosphorylation was independent of canonical PDK1/AKT/mTOR pathway, while it was associated with RAF/MEK. Hyper-activation of EGFR or RAS abrogated inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by BYL719. Furthermore, hyper-activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including EGFR, c-MET, FGFR and HER3 but not IGF-1R restored ERK phosphorylation and cell viability suppressed by BYL719, suggesting the discriminative functions of RTKs in cell signaling and proliferation. By profiling 22 breast cancer cell lines, we found that BYL719 was more potent in cell lines where phosphorylation of both AKT and ERK was attenuated than those where only AKT phosphorylation was inhibited. The potency of BYL719 was further found to be significantly correlated with the expression profile of RTKs in breast cancer cells. Specifically, overexpression of EGFR, c-MET and/or FGFR1 forecasted resistance, while overexpression of IGF-1R and/or HER2 predicted sensitivity to BYL719 in breast cancer cells. Similar correlation between BYL719 efficacy and expression profile of RTKs was found in patient-derived xenograft models of breast cancer. Thus, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PI3K? inhibitor BYL719 contributes to its antitumor efficacy and is determined by the converged signaling from RTKs. The expression profile of RTKs in breast cancer tissue could be potentially developed as a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of PI3K? inhibitors.
Project description:There is a pressing need to identify new drug targets and novel approaches for treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Met receptor families have been identified as important molecular targets for NSCLC. Two EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs; erlotinib and gefitinib) are in current clinical use, but a majority of patients do not respond to these targeted therapies. We used receptor TK (RTK) capture arrays to identify receptors active in NSCLC cell lines. As Met and ErbBs were active, we explored the potential therapeutic advantage of combined targeting of Met with ErbB receptor family inhibitors for treatment of NSCLC. We found that Met physically interacts with both EGFR and Her2 in a NSCLC cell line with overexpression/overactivation of Met. Combined use of a dual EGFR/Her2 inhibitor with a Met inhibitor yields maximal growth inhibition compared with the use of EGFR and/or Met inhibitors. This suggests that simultaneous inhibition of multiple RTKs may be needed to effectively abrogate tumour cell growth. Phosphoproteomic analysis by RTK capture arrays may be a valuable tool for identifying the subset of tumours with functional receptor activation, regardless of mechanism.
Project description:Adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an infrequent but aggressive subtype of cervical cancer. A better understanding of its biological behaviour is warranted to define more accurate prognosis and therapeutic targets. Currently, the blockage of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) activity is an efficient therapeutic strategy for many different cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate EGFR, PDGFRA and VEGFR2 RTKs overexpression and activating gene mutations in a cohort of 30 adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix.EGFR, PDGFRA and VEGFR2 immunohistochemistry was performed in all samples, followed by DNA isolation from the gross macroscopically dissection of the neoplastic area. Screening for EGFR (exons 18-21) and PDGFRA (exons 12, 14 and 18) mutations was done by PCR--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP).Despite the presence of EGFR immunohistochemical positive reactions in 43% (13/30) of the samples, no EGFR activating mutations in the hotspot region (exons 18-21) were identified. A silent base substitution (CAG>CAA) in EGFR exon 20 at codon 787 (Q787Q) was found in 17 cases (56%). All PDGFRA immunohistochemical reactions were positive and consistently observed in the stromal component, staining fibroblasts and endothelial cells, as well as in the cytoplasm of malignant cells. No activating PDGFRA mutations were found, yet, several silent mutations were observed, such as a base substitution in exon 12 (CCA>CCG) at codon 567 (P567P) in 9 cases and in exon 18 (GTC>GTT) at codon 824 (V824V) in 4 cases. We also observed the presence of base substitutions in intron 14 (IVS14+3G>A and IVS14+49G>A) in two different cases, and in intron 18 (IVS18-50insA) in 4 cases. VEGFR2 positivity was observed in 22 of 30 cases (73.3%), and was significantly associated with lack of metastasis (p=0.038).This is the most extensive analysis of EGFR, PDGFRA and VEGFR2 in cervical adenosquamous carcinomas. Despite the absence of EGFR and PDGFRA activating mutations, the presence of overexpression of these three important therapeutic targets in a subset of cases may be important in predicting the sensitivity of adenosquamous carcinoma to specific anti-RTKs drugs.
Project description:Standard treatment in Japan for the 13th Japanese Gastric Cancer Association stage II/III advanced gastric cancer is postoperative adjuvant S-1 administration after curative surgery. High expression of receptor type tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has repeatedly represented poor prognosis for cancers. However it has not been demonstrated whether RTKs have prognostic relevance for stage II/III gastric cancer with standard treatment. Tumor tissues were obtained from 167 stage II/III advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received postoperative S-1 chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010. Expression of the RTKs including EGFR, HER2, HER3, IGF-1R, and EphA2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analysis using a multivariate proportional hazard model identified the most significant RTKs that represented independent prognostic relevance. When tumor HER3 expression was classified into IHC 1+/2+ (n = 98) and IHC 0 (n = 69), the cumulative 5-year Relapse Free Survival (5y-RFS) was 56.5 and 82.9%, respectively (P = 0.0034). Significant prognostic relevance was similarly confirmed for IGF-1R (P = 0.014), and EGFR (P = 0.030), but not for EphA2 or HER2 expression. Intriguingly, HER3 expression was closely correlated with IGF-1R (P < 0.0001, R = 0.41), and EphA2 (P < 0.0001, R = 0.34) expression. Multivariate proportional hazard model analysis identified HER3 (IHC 1+/2+) (HR; 1.53, 95% CI, 1.11-2.16, P = 0.0078) as the sole RTK that was a poor prognostic factor independent of stage. Of the 53 patients who recurred, 40 patients (75.5%) were HER3-positive. Thus, of the RTKs studied, HER3 was the only RTK identified as an independent prognostic indicator of stage II/III advanced gastric cancer with standard treatment.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) sustains prosurvival signalling directly downstream of the lineage-survival oncogene NKX2-1/TTF-1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report an unanticipated function of this receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) as a scaffold of cavin-1 and caveolin-1 (CAV1), two essential structural components of caveolae. This kinase-independent function of ROR1 facilitates the interactions of cavin-1 and CAV1 at the plasma membrane, thereby preventing the lysosomal degradation of CAV1. Caveolae structures and prosurvival signalling towards AKT through multiple RTKs are consequently sustained. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how ROR1 inhibition can overcome EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance due to bypass signalling via diverse RTKs such as MET and IGF-IR, which is currently a major clinical obstacle. Considering its onco-embryonic expression, inhibition of the scaffold function of ROR1 in patients with lung adenocarcinoma is an attractive approach for improved treatment of this devastating cancer.
Project description:Mesothelin is a cell surface glycoprotein which is highly expressed in several epithelial cancers and may have a role in cell adhesion and metastases. In this study, we used prospectively obtained clinical and pathological data to characterize mesothelin expression in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Tissue was obtained from patients who underwent molecular profiling of potentially actionable genes on a trial of molecular profiling and targeted therapies in advanced thoracic malignancies. We immunohistochemically evaluated the intensity, and the percentage of cells expressing mesothelin in 93 advanced lung adenocarcinomas. The evaluation was blinded for molecular data and outcome. Mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, AKT1, PIK3CA and HER2 were assessed by pyrosequencing; HER2 amplification and ALK translocation were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 53% of advanced lung adenocarcinomas expressed mesothelin to some degree; high mesothelin expression, defined as mesothelin positivity in more than 25% of cells, was found in 24% of patients. High mesothelin expression was associated with inferior survival (median 18.2 months vs. 32.9 months; P = 0.014). High mesothelin expression was strongly associated with mutant KRAS (P < 0.0001) and wild-type EGFR (P = 0.002). Our results provide strong rationale to explore anti-mesothelin targeted therapies in advanced lung adenocarcinoma especially in the KRAS-mutant subgroup.