A mild phenotype of sensorineural hearing loss and palmoplantar keratoderma caused by a novel GJB2 dominant mutation.
ABSTRACT: Dominant GJB2 mutations are known to cause a syndromic form of sensorineural hearing loss associated with palmo-plantar skin manifestations. We present the genotype/phenotype correlations of a new GJB2 mutation identified in three generations of an Italian family (proband, mother and grandfather) whose members are affected by sensorineural hearing impairment associated with adult-onset palmoplantar keratoderma. In all affected members we identified a new heterozygous GJB2 mutation (c.66G > T, p.Lys22Asn) whose segregation, population frequency and in silico prediction analysis have suggested a pathogenic role. The p.Lys22Asn GJB2 mutation causes a dominant form of hearing loss associated with variable expression of palmoplantar keratoderma, representing a model of full penetrance, with an age-dependent effect on the phenotype.
Project description:Gap junctions, which mediate rapid intercellular communication, consist of connexins, small transmembrane proteins that belong to a large family of proteins found throughout the species. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding Connexin 26, can cause nonsyndromic autosomal recessive or dominant hearing loss with or without skin manifestations. A 3-yr-old Korean female and her mother presented to our clinic with diffuse hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (May 3, 2007). Skin biopsies from the soles of both patients demonstrated histopathological evidence of palmoplantar keratoderma. The patient and a number of her maternal family members also had congenital hearing loss. The combination of congenital hearing loss and palmoplantar keratoderma, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, led us to test for a mutation in the GJB2 gene in both patients. The results showed the R75W mutation of the GJB2 gene in both. In conclusion, the simultaneous occurrence of a GJB2 mutation in a mother and daughter suggests that R75W mutation cause autosomal dominant hearing loss presenting with palmoplantar keratoderma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a GJB2 mutation associated with syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss and palmoplantar keratoderma in a Korean family.
Project description:Ichthyosis follicularis, a distinct cutaneous entity reported in combination with atrichia, and photophobia has been associated with mutations in MBTPS2. We sought the genetic cause of a novel syndrome of ichthyosis follicularis, bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss and punctate palmoplantar keratoderma in two families. We performed whole exome sequencing on three patients from two families. The pathogenicity and consequences of mutations were studied in the Xenopus oocyte expression system and by molecular modeling analysis. Compound heterozygous mutations in the GJB2 gene were discovered: a pathogenic c.526A>G; p.Asn176Asp, and a common frameshift mutation, c.35delG; p.Gly12Valfs*2. The p.Asn176Asp missense mutation was demonstrated to significantly reduce the cell-cell gap junction channel activity and increase the nonjunctional hemichannel activity in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Molecular modeling analyses of the mutant Cx26 protein revealed significant changes in the structural characteristics and electrostatic potential of the Cx26, either in hemichannel or gap junction conformation. Thus, association of a new syndrome of an autosomal recessive disorder of ichthyosis follicularis, bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss and punctate palmoplantar keratoderma with mutations in GJB2, expands the phenotypic spectrum of the GJB2-associated disorders. The findings attest to the complexity of the clinical consequences of different mutations in GJB2.
Project description:We report a missense mutation in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) in a family with an autosomal dominant syndrome of hearing loss and hyperkeratosis. The affected family members have high frequency, slowly progressive, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The mutation causes an amino acid substitution (G59A), which may disrupt a reverse turn in the first extracellular loop of connexin 26. Connexin 26 mutations have been reported in syndromes of deafness and palmoplantar keratoderma. These data provide additional evidence for the role of connexin 26 in syndromes of this type.
Project description:Dominant mutations in GJB2 may lead to various degrees of sensorineural hearing impairment and/or hyperproliferative epidermal disorders. So far studies of dominant GJB2 mutations were mostly limited to case reports of individual patients and families. In this study, we identified 7 families, 11 subjects with dominant GJB2 mutations by sequencing of GJB2 in 2168 Chinese Han probands with sensorineural hearing impairment and characterized the associated spectrum, de novo rate and genotype-phenotype correlation. We identified p.R75Q, p.R75W and p.R184Q as the most frequent dominant GJB2 mutations among Chinese Hans, which had a very high de novo rate (71% of probands). A majority (10/11) of subjects carrying dominant GJB2 mutations exhibited palmoplantar keratoderma in addition to hearing impairment. In two families segregated with additional c.235delC or p.V37I mutations of GJB2, family members with the compound heterozygous mutations exhibited more severe phenotype than those with single dominant GJB2 mutation. Our study suggested that the high de novo mutation rate gives rise to a significant portion of dominant GJB2 mutations. The severity of the hearing and epidermal phenotypes associated with dominant GJB2 mutations may be modified by additional recessive mutations of GJB2.
Project description:SLURP1, a member of the lymphocyte antigen 6 protein family, is secreted by suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in SLURP1 cause a palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) known as mal de Meleda. SLURP2, another secreted lymphocyte antigen 6 protein, is encoded by a gene located ?20 kb downstream from SLURP1. SLURP2 is produced by suprabasal keratinocytes. To investigate the importance of SLURP2, we first examined Slurp2 knockout mice in which exon 2-3 sequences had been replaced with lacZ and neo cassettes. Slurp2(-/-) mice exhibited hyperkeratosis on the volar surface of the paws (i.e., palmoplantar keratoderma), increased keratinocyte proliferation, and an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. They also exhibited reduced body weight and hind limb clasping. These phenotypes are similar to those of Slurp1(-/-) mice. To solidify a link between Slurp2 deficiency and palmoplantar keratoderma and to be confident that the disease phenotypes in Slurp2(-/-) mice were not secondary to the effects of the lacZ and neo cassettes on Slurp1 expression, we created a new line of Slurp2 knockout mice (Slurp2X(-/-)) in which Slurp2 was inactivated with a simple nonsense mutation. Slurp2X(-/-) mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is characterized by hyperkeratotic lesions on palms and soles. The disorder is caused by mutations of keratin 9 (KRT9) or KRT1 gene. METHODS:Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma was diagnosed by physical examination and histopathological analysis in a five-generation Chinese family. Mutation was screened by Sanger sequencing. The palmar expression of multiple cytokeratins were analyzed by tape-stripping and Real-time PCR. Literatures of EPPK with additional symptoms were reviewed. RESULTS:Affected family members showed diffuse palmoplantar keratosis, with knuckle pads, friction-related lesions and a novel additional symptom of palmar constriction. A heterozygous mutation of c.T491C (p.L164P) of KRT9 was found within the helix initiation motif. The hydrophobic effect was decreased and the initiation of coiled-coil conformation was delayed. The KRT16/KRT6 expression were significantly increased in the patients, especially on the right, indicating activation of stress-response and wound-healing cytokeratins. There were also increased KRT9/KRT2, unchanged KRT10/KRT1, and undetectable KRT14/KRT5 expression. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of EPPK with additional symptoms were summarized by literature review. CONCLUSION:The p.L164P mutation of KRT9 caused EPPK with a novel symptom of palmar constriction. The expression of multiple cytokeratins was altered in EPPK patients.
Project description:Two sons of a consanguineous marriage developed biventricular cardiomyopathy. One boy died of severe heart failure at the age of 6 years, the other was transplanted because of severe heart failure at the age of 10 years. In addition, focal palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair were apparent in both boys. As similar phenotypes have been described in Naxos disease and Carvajal syndrome, respectively, the genes for plakoglobin (JUP) and desmoplakin (DSP) were screened for mutations using direct genomic sequencing. A novel homozygous 2 bp deletion was identified in an alternatively spliced region of DSP. The deletion 5208_5209delAG led to a frameshift downstream of amino acid 1,736 with a premature truncation of the predominant cardiac isoform DSP-1. This novel homozygous truncating mutation in the isoform-1 specific region of the DSP C-terminus caused Carvajal syndrome comprising severe early-onset heart failure with features of non-compaction cardiomyopathy, woolly hair and an acantholytic form of palmoplantar keratoderma in our patient. Congenital hair abnormality and manifestation of the cutaneous phenotype in toddler age can help to identify children at risk for cardiac death.
Project description:Mutations in GJB2 (connexin [Cx]26) cause either deafness or deafness associated with skin diseases. That different disorders can be caused by distinct mutations within the same gene suggests that unique channel activities are influenced by each class of mutation. We have examined the functional characteristics of two human mutations, Cx26-H73R and Cx26-S183F, causing palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) and deafness. Both failed to form gap junction channels or hemichannels when expressed alone. Coexpression of the mutants with wild-type Cx43 showed a transdominant inhibition of Cx43 gap junction channels, without reductions in Cx43 protein synthesis. In addition, the presence of mutant Cx26 shifted Cx43 channel gating and kinetics toward a more Cx26-like behavior. Coimmunoprecipitation showed Cx43 being pulled down more efficiently with mutant Cx26 than wild-type, confirming the enhanced formation of heteromeric connexons. Finally, the formation of heteromeric connexons resulted in significantly increased Cx43 hemichannel activity in the presence of Cx26 mutants. These findings suggest a common mechanism whereby Cx26 mutations causing PPK and deafness transdominantly influence multiple functions of wild-type Cx43. They also implicate a role for aberrant hemichannel activity in the pathogenesis of PPK and further highlight an emerging role for Cx43 in genetic skin diseases.
Project description:An autosomal dominant form of diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, is caused by mutations in the AQP5 gene encoding the cell-membrane water channel protein aquaporin 5 leading to defective epidermal-water-barrier function in the epidermis of the palms and soles.We report the first Danish family diagnosed with diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type in which fourteen individuals are potentially affected. The proband, a 36-year-old male had since childhood been affected by pronounced hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles along with palmoplantar keratoderma. He reported a very distinctive feature of the disorder, aquagenic wrinkling, as he developed pronounced maceration of the skin with translucent white papules and a spongy appearance following exposure to water. The patient presented recurrent fungal infections, a wellknown feature of the condition, but also periodic worsening with pitted keratolysis and malodour due to bacterial infections.Palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, which may be associated with hyperhidrosis, is frequently complicated by fungal infections and may be complicated by Corynebacterium infections.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutation of Jup has been associated with Naxos disease, which is characterized by arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and the cutaneous disorder palmoplantar keratoderma. Previously, we have shown that genetic ablation of Jup in cardiomyocytes in mice leads to arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy similar to Naxos disease in humans. Currently, to determine the pathogenesis of Naxos disease-associated keratoderma, we generated Jup mutant mice by inactivating Jup restrictively in keratinocytes. Jup mutant mice largely recapitulated the clinical features of human palmoplantar keratoderma: overcornification and thickening of the epidermis. Jup mutant mice also suffered skin ulceration and inflammation. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were significantly elevated in Jup mutant epidermis. Ultrastructural analyses revealed the disruption of the assembly of desmosomes and adherens junctions in Jup mutant epidermis. We also demonstrated the compensational increase in ?-catenin at Jup mutant cell-cell junctions without altering its signaling activities. Our findings provide important insights for understanding the pathogenesis of human palmoplantar keratoderma.