Lactate-utilizing community is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants.
ABSTRACT: The aetiology of colic, a functional gastrointestinal disorder in infants, is not yet resolved. Different mechanisms have been suggested involving the gut microbiota and intermediate metabolites such as lactate. Lactate can be metabolized by lactate-utilizing bacteria (LUB) to form different end-products. Using a functional approach, we hypothesized that H2 production and accumulation by LUB is associated with the development of colic. The LUB communities in the feces of forty infants, including eight colicky infants, were characterized using a combination of culture- and molecular-based methods, and metabolite concentrations were measured by HPLC. Interactions among LUB strains isolated from feces were investigated with pure and mixed cultures using anaerobic techniques. We emphasized high prevalence of crying, flatulence, colic and positive correlations thereof in the first 3 months of life. Crying infants showed significantly higher ratio of LUB non-sulfate-reducing bacteria (LUB non-SRB) (H2-producer), to LUB SRB (H2-utilizer) at 3 months. Colicky infants had significantly higher number of H2-producing Eubacterium hallii at 2 weeks compared to non-colicky infants. We revealed the function of Desulfovibrio piger and Eubacterium limosum to reduce H2 accumulation in co-cultures with H2-producing Veillonella ratti. Our data suggest that the balance between H2-producing and H2-utilizing LUB might contribute to colic symptoms.
Project description:The metabolism of lactate impacts infant gut health and may lead to acute accumulation of lactate and/or H2 associated with pain and crying of colicky infants. Because gut microbiota studies are limited due to ethical and safety concerns, in vitro fermentation models were developed as powerful tools to assess effects of environmental conditions on the gut microbiota. In this study, we established a continuous colonic fermentation model (PolyFermS), inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota and mimicking the proximal colon of 2-month-old infants. We investigated the effects of pH and retention time (RT) on lactate metabolism and of lactate-utilizing bacteria (LUB) exhibiting little or no H2 production. We observed that a drop in pH from 6.0 to 5.0 increased the number of lactate-producing bacteria (LPB) and decreased LUB concomitantly with lactate accumulation. Increasing RT from 5 to 10?h at pH 5.0 resulted in complete lactate consumption associated with increased LUB. Supplementation with dl-lactate (60?mM) to mimic lactate accumulation promoted propionate and butyrate production with no effect on acetate production. We further demonstrated that lactate-utilizing Propionibacterium avidum was able to colonize the reactors 4?days after spiking, suggesting its ability to compete with other lactate-utilizing bacteria producing H2 In conclusion, we showed that PolyFermS is a suitable model for mimicking young infant colonic microbiota. We report for the first time pH and RT as strong drivers for composition and metabolic activity of infant gut microbiota, especially for the metabolism of lactate, which is a key intermediate product for ecology and infant health.IMPORTANCE The metabolism of lactate is important for infant gut health and may lead to acute lactate and/or H2 accumulation, pain, and crying as observed in colicky infants. Functional human studies often faced ethical challenges due to invasive medical procedures; thus, in this study, we implemented PolyFermS fermentation models to mimic the infant proximal colon, which were inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota of two 2-month-old infants. We investigated the impact of pH, retention time, and accumulation of dl-lactate on microbiota composition and metabolic activity. We found that a drop in pH from 6.0 to 5.0 led to increased LPB and decreased LUB concomitantly with lactate accumulation. Increasing the RT resulted in complete lactate consumption associated with increased LUB. Our data highlight for the first time the impact of key abiotic factors on the metabolism of lactate, which is an important intermediate product for ecology and infant health.
Project description:Evidence for treating infantile colic with acupuncture is contradictory.To evaluate and compare the effect of two types of acupuncture versus no acupuncture in infants with colic in public child health centres (CHCs).A multicentre, randomised controlled, single-blind, three-armed trial (ACU-COL) comparing two styles of acupuncture with no acupuncture, as an adjunct to standard care, was conducted. Among 426 infants whose parents sought help for colic and registered their child's fussing/crying in a diary, 157 fulfilled the criteria for colic and 147 started the intervention. All infants received usual care plus four extra visits to CHCs with advice/support (twice a week for 2?weeks), comprising gold standard care. The infants were randomly allocated to three groups: (A) standardised minimal acupuncture at LI4; (B) semi-standardised individual acupuncture inspired by Traditional Chinese Medicine; and (C) no acupuncture. The CHC nurses and parents were blinded. Acupuncture was given by nurses with extensive experience of acupuncture.The effect of the two types of acupuncture was similar and both were superior to gold standard care alone. Relative to baseline, there was a greater relative reduction in time spent crying and colicky crying by the second intervention week (p=0.050) and follow-up period (p=0.031), respectively, in infants receiving either type of acupuncture. More infants receiving acupuncture cried <3?hours/day, and thereby no longer fulfilled criteria for colic, in the first (p=0.040) and second (p=0.006) intervention weeks. No serious adverse events were reported.Acupuncture appears to reduce crying in infants with colic safely.NCT01761331; Results.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A recent trial identified large variation in effect of chiropractic care for infantile colic. Thus, identification of possible effect modifiers could potentially enhance the clinical reasoning to select infants with excessive crying for chiropractic care. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify potential treatment effect modifiers which might influence the effect of chiropractic care for excessive crying in infancy.<h4>Methods</h4>Design: Prespecified secondary analyses of data from a randomised controlled trial. The analyses are partly confirmative and partly exploratory.<h4>Setting</h4>Four chiropractic clinics in Denmark.<h4>Participants</h4>Infants aged 2-14 weeks with unexplained excessive crying. Of the 200 infants randomised (1:1), 103 were assigned to a chiropractic care group and 97 to a control group.<h4>Intervention</h4>Infants in the intervention group received chiropractic care for 2 weeks, while the control group was not treated. Main analyses: The outcome was change in daily hours of crying. Fifteen baseline variables and 6 general variables were selected as potential effect modifiers, and indices based on these were constructed. Factor analyses, latent class analyses and prognosis were used to construct other potentially modifying variables. Finally, an attempt at defining a new index aiming at optimal prediction of the treatment effect was made. The predictive value for all resulting variables were examined by considering the difference in mean change in crying time between the two treatment groups, stratified by the values of the candidate variables, i.e. interaction analyses.<h4>Results</h4>None of the predefined items or indices were shown to be useful in identifying colicky infants with potentially larger gain from manual therapy. However, more baseline hours of crying (p = 0.029), short duration of symptoms (p = 0.061) and young age (p = 0.089) were all associated with an increased effect on the outcome of hours of crying.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Musculoskeletal indicators were not shown to be predictive of an increased benefit for colicky infants from chiropractic treatment. However, increased benefit was associated with early treatment and a high level of baseline crying, suggesting that the most severely affected infants have the greatest potential of benefiting from manual therapy. This finding requires validation by future studies.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Clinical Trials NCT02595515 , registered 2 November 2015.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyze the global microbial composition, using large-scale DNA sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes, in faecal samples from colicky infants given L. reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-nine colicky infants (age 10-60 days) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri (10(8) cfu) or a placebo once daily for 21 days. Responders were defined as subjects with a decrease of 50% in daily crying time at day 21 compared with the starting point. The microbiota of faecal samples from day 1 and 21 were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. The primers: Bakt_341F and Bakt_805R, complemented with 454 adapters and sample specific barcodes were used for PCR amplification of the 16 S rRNA genes. The structure of the data was explored by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and effects of different variables were visualized with ordination analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The infants' faecal microbiota were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla. The composition of the microbiota in infants with colic had very high inter-individual variability with Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios varying from 4000 to 0.025. On an individual basis, the microbiota was, however, relatively stable over time. Treatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not change the global composition of the microbiota, but when comparing responders with non-responders the group responders had an increased relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides at day 21 compared with day 0. Furthermore, the phyla composition of the infants at day 21 could be divided into three enterotype groups, dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not affect the global composition of the microbiota. However, the increase of Bacteroidetes in the responder infants indicated that a decrease in colicky symptoms was linked to changes of the microbiota.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893711.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pathogenesis of infant colic is poorly defined. Gut microbiota seems to be involved, supporting the potential therapeutic role of probiotics. AIMS:To assess the rate of infants with a reduction of ?50% of mean daily crying duration after 28 days of intervention with the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12). Secondary outcomes were daily number of crying episodes, sleeping time, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. METHODS:Randomized controlled trial (RCT) on otherwise healthy exclusively breastfed infants with infant colic randomly allocated to receive BB-12 (1 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for 28 days. Gut microbiota structure and butyrate, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2), cathelicidin (LL-37), secretory IgA (sIgA) and faecal calprotectin levels were assessed. RESULTS:Eighty infants were randomised, 40/group. The rate of infants with reduction of ?50% of mean daily crying duration was higher in infants treated with BB-12, starting from the end of 2nd week. No infant relapsed when treatment was stopped. The mean number of crying episodes decreased in both groups, but with a higher effect in BB-12 group (-4.7 ± 3.4 vs -2.3 ± 2.2, P < 0.05). Mean daily stool frequency decreased in both groups but the effect was significantly higher in the BB-12 group; stool consistency was similar between the two groups. An increase in Bifidobacterium abundance (with significant correlation with crying time reduction), butyrate and HBD-2, LL-37, sIgA levels associated with a decrease in faecal calprotectin level were observed in the BB-12 group. CONCLUSIONS:Supplementation with BB-12 is effective in managing infant colic. The effect could derive from immune and non-immune mechanisms associated with a modulation of gut microbiota structure and function.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen (DSM) 17938 with daily administration to healthy infants with colic and to determine the effect of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 on crying, fussing, inflammatory, immune, and microbiome variables. STUDY DESIGN:We performed a controlled, double-blinded, phase 1 safety and tolerability trial in healthy breast-fed infants with colic, aged 3 weeks to 3 months, randomly assigned to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 (5?×?108 colony-forming units daily) or placebo for 42 days and followed for 134 days. RESULTS:Of 117 screened infants, 20 were randomized to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 or placebo (sunflower oil) (in a 2:1 ratio) with 80% retention. Eleven of the 20 (55%) presented with low absolute neutrophil counts (<1500/mm3), which resolved in all subjects by day 176. L reuteri strain DSM 17938 produced no severe adverse events and did not significantly change crying time, plasma bicarbonate, or inflammatory biomarkers. Fecal calprotectin decreased rapidly in both groups. In the infants with dominant fecal gram negatives (Klebsiella, Proteus, and Veillonella), resolution of colic was associated with marked decreases in these organisms. CONCLUSIONS:Daily administration of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 appears to be safe in newborn infants with colic, including those with neutropenia, which frequently coexists. A placebo response of 66% suggests that many infants with colic will have resolution within 3 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01849991.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Infant colic, or excessive crying of unknown cause in infants less than 3 months old, is common and burdensome. Its aetiology is undetermined, and consensus on its management is still lacking. Recent studies suggest a possible link between infant colic and gut microbiota, indicating probiotics to be a promising treatment. However, only a few strains have been tested, and results from randomised controlled trials are conflicting. It is important to clarify whether probiotics are effective for treating infant colic in general, and to identify whether certain subgroups of infants with colic would benefit from particular strains of probiotics.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>Through an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA), we aim to identify whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 is effective in the management of infant colic, and to clarify whether its effects differ according to feeding method (breast vs formula vs combined), proton pump inhibitor exposure, and antibiotic exposure. The primary outcomes are infant crying duration and treatment success (at least 50% reduction in crying time from baseline) at 21 days postintervention. Individual participant data from all studies will be modelled simultaneously in multilevel generalised linear mixed-effects regression models to account for the nesting of participants within studies. Subgroup analyses of participant-level and intervention-level characteristics will be undertaken on the primary outcomes to assess if the intervention effect differs between certain groups of infants.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Approved by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 34081). Results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal in 2015.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>PROSPERO CRD42014013210.
Project description:Background:Infantile colic is a common condition during early childhood affecting around one of six newborns. The condition is characterized by inconsolable crying and fussing in otherwise healthy and thriving infants. The most used definition is excessive crying for at least three hours a day for at least three days for at least three weeks. The cause of colic is still unknown although many hypotheses and thereby many different treatment modalities have been investigated. Chiropractic care is used increasingly in treatment of infants, including for infantile colic, although the evidence worldwide is sparse. A randomized, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effect of chiropractic treatment on infantile colic. This paper describes the protocol as well as results from a pilot study examining the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Method:The study is designed as a single-blind randomized, controlled trial. The invited families are residents on the Island of Funen and information about the project is distributed from the maternity wards and health visitors. Children at the age of 2-14 weeks with unexplained excessive crying are screened for eligibility and recruited by the primary investigator through home visits. Eligible children are then randomized to chiropractic treatment or control. All children attend in the chiropractor clinic two times a week for two weeks. The parents are unaware of their child's allocation during the project period. The primary outcome measure is change in daily hours of crying based on the parental diaries.The study intends to include 200 children, and the intervention has, during a pilot study, been found acceptable and feasible among families with newborns. Discussion:In a single-blind randomized controlled design we will evaluate the effectiveness of chiropractic treatment on infantile colic. The study will contribute to determine the effect of chiropractic treatment on infantile colic in an area where limited evidence exists. Furthermore, the study aims to explore if subgroups of children with suspected musculoskeletal problems will benefit more from the intervention than others. If they obtain better results, this could imply the need for stratified care. Trial registration:Clinicaltrials.gov and Identifier: NCT02595515 (registered 2 November 2015).
Project description:AIM:To investigate recruitment, retention, and estimates for effects of formula supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on inflammatory biomarkers and fecal microbial community in infants with colic. METHODS:A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in otherwise healthy infants with colic. We screened 74 infants and randomized and analyzed results in 20 infants [9 receiving LGG (LGG+) and 11 not receiving LGG (LGG-)]. LGG was incorporated in the formula (Nutramigen(®)) (minimum of 3 × 10(7) CFU/d) in the LGG+ group. Fecal microbiota and inflammatory biomarkers, including fecal calprotectin (FC), plasma cytokines, circulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), and crying + fussing time were analyzed to determine optimal time points and effect sizes for a larger trial. RESULTS:Recruitment in this population was slow, with about 66% of eligible infants willing to enroll; subject retention was better (75%). These rates were influenced by parents' reluctance to volunteer their infant for a clinical trial and by their tendency to change formulas. The maximal difference of crying + fussing time was observed at day 14, comparing the 2 groups, with a mean difference of -91 (95%CI: -76, 259) min (P = NS). FC showed no significant difference, but the optimal time to determine a potential effect was at day 90 [with a mean difference of 121 (95%CI: -48, 291) ?g/g stool], observing a lower level of FC in the LGG+ group. The fecal microbial communities were chaotic, as determined by Shannon's diversity index and not apparently influenced by the probiotic. No significant change was observed in plasma inflammatory cytokines or Tregs, comparing LGG+ to LGG- groups. CONCLUSION:Designing future colic trials involving a probiotic-supplemented formula for infants in the United States will require consideration for difficult enrollment. Infants with colic have major variations in feal microbiota and calprotectin, both of which improve with time, with optimal time points for measurement at days 14 and 90 after treatment.
Project description:To investigate the effectiveness and the safety of a probiotic-mixture (Vivomixx®, Visbiome®, DeSimone Formulation®; Danisco-DuPont, Madison, WI, USA) for the treatment of infantile colic in breastfed infants, compared with a placebo.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in exclusively breastfed infants with colic, randomly assigned to receive a probiotic-mixture or a placebo for 21 days. A structured diary of gastrointestinal events of the infants was given to the parents to complete. Samples of feces were also collected to evaluate microbial content and metabolome using fecal real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analysis. Study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01869426).Fifty-three exclusively-breastfed infants completed three weeks of treatment with a probiotic-mixture (n = 27) or a placebo (n = 26). Infants receiving the probiotic-mixture had less minutes of crying per day throughout the study by the end of treatment period (68.4 min/day vs. 98.7 min/day; p = 0.001). A higher rate of infants from the probiotic-mixture group responded to treatment (defined by reduction of crying times of ?50% from baseline), on day 14, 12 vs. 5 (p = 0.04) and on day 21, 26 vs. 17 (p = 0.001). A higher quality of life, assessed by a 10-cm visual analogue scale, was reported by parents of the probiotic-mixture group on day 14, 7.1 ± 1.2 vs. 7.7 ± 0.9 (p = 0.02); and on day 21, 6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 5.9 ± 1.0 (p = 0.001). No differences between groups were found regarding anthropometric data, bowel movements, stool consistency or microbiota composition. Probiotics were found to affect the fecal molecular profile. No adverse events were reported.Administration of a probiotic-mixture appears safe and reduces inconsolable crying in exclusively breastfed infants.