IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP receptor are not critical for development of experimental murine malaria.
ABSTRACT: IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, which are produced predominantly by epithelial cells, can induce production of Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and/or IL-13 by various types of cells, suggesting their involvement in induction of Th2-type cytokine-associated immune responses. It is known that Th2-type cytokines contribute to host defense against malaria parasite infection in mice. However, the roles of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in malaria parasite infection remain unclear. Thus, to elucidate this, we infected wild-type, IL-25-/-, IL-33-/- and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-/- mice with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA, a murine malaria strain. The expression levels of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP mRNA were changed in the brain, liver, lung and spleen of wild-type mice after infection, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in host defense against P. berghei ANKA. However, the incidence of parasitemia and survival in the mutant mice were comparable to in the wild-type mice. These findings indicate that IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are not critical for host defense against P. berghei ANKA.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) and cytokines produced by DC play crucial roles in inducing and regulating pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses. DC are known to produce a Th1-promoting cytokine, interleukin (IL)-12, in response to malaria and other pathogenic infections, but it is thought that DC do not produce Th2-promoting cytokine, IL-4. Here, we show that a protein factor of malaria parasites induces IL-4 responses by CD11chiMHCIIhiCD3ϵ-CD49b-CD19-FcϵRI- DC via PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling independent of TLR-MyD88/TRIF. Malaria parasite-activated DC induced IL-4 responses by T cells both in vitro and in vivo, favoring Th2, and il-4-deficient DC were unable to induce IL-4 expression by T cells. Interestingly, lethal parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, induced IL-4 response primarily by CD8α- DC, whereas nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii induced IL-4 by both CD8α+ and CD8α- DC. In both P. berghei ANKA- and P. yoelii-infected mice, IL-4-expressing CD8α- DC did not express IL-12, but a distinct CD8α- DC subset expressed IL-12. In P. berghei ANKA infection, CD8α+ DC expressed IL-12 but not IL-4, whereas in P. yoelii infection, CD8α+ DC expressed IL-4 but not IL-12. These differential IL-4 and IL-12 responses by DC subsets may contribute to different Th1/Th2 development and clinical outcomes in lethal and nonlethal malaria. Our results for the first time demonstrate that a malaria protein factor induces IL-4 production by DC via PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling, revealing signaling and molecular mechanisms that initiate and promote Th2 development.
Project description:Cerebral malaria (CM) is a complex parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium sp. Failure to establish an appropriate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses is believed to contribute to the development of cerebral pathology. Using the blood-stage PbA (Plasmodium berghei ANKA) model of infection, we show here that administration of the pro-Th2 cytokine, IL-33, prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in C57BL/6 mice and reduces the production of inflammatory mediators IFN-?, IL-12 and TNF-?. IL-33 drives the expansion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) that produce Type-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), leading to the polarization of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, which in turn expand Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs). PbA-infected mice adoptively transferred with ILC2 have elevated frequency of M2 and Tregs and are protected from ECM. Importantly, IL-33-treated mice deleted of Tregs (DEREG mice) are no longer able to resist ECM. Our data therefore provide evidence that IL-33 can prevent the development of ECM by orchestrating a protective immune response via ILC2, M2 macrophages and Tregs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are produced predominantly by epithelial cells and are known to induce Th2-type cytokines. Th2-type cytokines are involved not only in host defense against nematodes, but also in the development of Th2-type allergic diseases. TSLP was reported to be crucial for development of allergic airway inflammation in mice after inhalation of allergens to which they had been sensitized epicutaneously (EC) beforehand. However, the roles of IL-25 and IL-33 in the setting remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice deficient in IL-25 and IL-33 were sensitized EC with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged intranasally with OVA. Airway inflammation, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in the mice were determined, respectively, by histological analysis, with a hemocytometer, and by using plethysmograph chambers with a ventilator. Expression of mRNA in the skin and lungs was determined by quantitative PCR, while the BALF levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and the serum levels of IgE were determined by ELISA.<h4>Results</h4>Normal OVA-specific Th2- and Th17-cell responses of lymph nodes and spleens were observed in IL-25-deficient (IL-25-/-) and IL-33-/- mice after EC sensitization with OVA. Nevertheless, the number of eosinophils, but not neutrophils, in the BALFs, and the levels of Th2 cytokines, but not Th17 cytokines, in the lungs were significantly decreased in the IL-25-/- and IL-33-/- mice pre-sensitized EC with OVA, followed by inhalation of OVA, whereas their levels of AHR and OVA-specific serum IgE were normal.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Both IL-25 and IL-33 are critical for induction of Th2-type cytokine-mediated allergic airway eosinophilia, but not Th17-type cytokine-mediated airway neutrophilia, at the local sites of lungs in the challenge phase of mice sensitized EC with OVA. They do not affect OVA-specific T-cell induction in the sensitization phase.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) are potent inflammatory cells that are distributed throughout mucosal barrier tissues and respond rapidly to pathogenic stimuli. During helminth infections, MCs play an important role as late-stage effectors. However, it is currently unknown whether MCs contribute to the early innate events that determine the priming of adaptive immunity. MC-deficient mouse strains and mice treated with the MC stabilizing agent cromolyn sodium had dramatically reduced Th2 priming and type 2 cytokine production and harbored increased parasite burdens following infection with gastrointestinal helminths (Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri and Trichuris muris). In addition, early production of the tissue-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was significantly diminished in MC-deficient mice and resulted in decreased numbers of infection-elicited IL-25-dependent (Lin(-)CD45(-))CD34(+)Sca-1(+) progenitors, which produced type 2 cytokines and could be differentiated into mast cells ex vivo. Finally, repair of MC deficiency increased production of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP, restored progenitor cell numbers and Th2 priming, and reduced parasite burden. Our data reveal an innate IgE-independent role for MCs in orchestrating type 2 immune responses via the regulation of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP.
Project description:Coexistence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with asthma appears to impair asthma control. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) respond to the cytokines of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, thus contributing to airway diseases such as CRS and asthma. We investigate whether the augmented Th2-cytokines in CRS might be related to sinonasal tract ILC2s corresponding to enhanced IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP release in severe asthmatics, and be involved in asthma control. Twenty-eight asthmatics (12 non-severe and 16 severe) with CRS receiving nasal surgery were enrolled. The predicted FEV1 inversely associated with CRS severity of CT or endoscopy scores. Higher expression of Th2-driven cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13), TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 in nasal tissues was observed in severe asthma. Severe asthmatics had higher ILC2 cell counts in their nasal tissues. ILC2 counts were positively correlated with Th2-cytokines. Nasal surgery significantly improved asthma control and lung function decline in severe asthma and CRS. The higher expression of IL-33/ILC2 axis-directed type 2 immune responses in nasal tissue of CRS brought the greater decline of lung function in severe asthma. ILC2-induced the upregulated activity of Th2-related cytokines in asthmatics with CRS may contribute to a recalcitrant status of asthma control.
Project description:Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-33 are epithelium-derived proallergic cytokines that contribute to allergic diseases. Although the involvement of TSLP in allergic rhinitis (AR) is suggested, the exact role of TSLP in AR is poorly understood. Furthermore, the relative contribution of TSLP and IL-33 in nasal allergic responses has not been described. In this study, we examined the roles of TSLP and IL-33 in AR by analyzing acute and chronic AR models. Acute AR mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ragweed, then intranasally challenged with ragweed pollen for four consecutive days. Chronic AR mice were nasally administrated ragweed pollen on consecutive days for 3 weeks. In both models, TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-deficient mice showed defective sneezing responses and reduced serum ragweed-specific IgE levels compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Analyses of bone-marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that hematopoietic cells were responsible for defective sneezing in TSLPR-deficient mice. In addition, Fc?RI(+)-cell-specific TSLPR-deficient mice showed partial but significant reduction in sneezing responses. Of note, Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia were comparable between WT and TSLPR-deficient mice. ST2- and IL-33-deficient mice showed defective Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia to acute, but not chronic, ragweed exposure. TSLPR and ST2 double-deficient mice showed defective Th2 activation and nasal eosinophilia even after chronic ragweed exposure. These results demonstrate that TSLPR signaling is critical for the early phase response of AR by controlling the IgE-mast-cell/basophil pathway. The IL-33/ST2 pathway is central to nasal Th2 activation during acute allergen exposure, but both TSLPR and ST2 contribute to Th2 responses in chronically allergen-exposed mice.
Project description:The epithelial and epidermal innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have pivotal roles in the initiation of allergic inflammation in asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the mechanism by which the expression of these innate cytokines is regulated remains unclear. Intelectin (ITLN) is expressed in airway epithelial cells and promotes allergic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that ITLN is required for allergen-induced IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP expression. In two asthma models, Itln knockdown reduced allergen-induced increases in Il-25, Il-33, and Tslp and development of type 2 response, eosinophilic inflammation, mucus overproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Itln knockdown also inhibited house dust mite (HDM)-induced early upregulation of Il-25, Il-33, and Tslp in a model solely inducing airway sensitization. Using human airway epithelial cells, we demonstrated that HDM-induced increases in ITLN led to phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular-signal regulated kinase, which were required for induction of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP expression. In two AD models, Itln knockdown suppressed expression of Il-33, Tslp, and Th2 cytokines and eosinophilic inflammation. In humans, ITLN1 expression was significantly increased in asthmatic airways and in lesional skin of AD. We conclude that ITLN contributes to allergen-induced Il-25, Il-33, and Tslp expression in asthma and AD.
Project description:Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with a high mortality rate and long-term neurocognitive impairment in survivors. The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infection reproduces several of these features. We reported recently increased levels of IL-33 protein in brain undergoing ECM and the involvement of IL-33/ST2 pathway in ECM development. Here we show that PbA-infection induced early short term and spatial memory defects, prior to blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, in wild-type mice, while ST2-deficient mice did not develop cognitive defects. PbA-induced neuroinflammation was reduced in ST2-deficient mice with low Ifng, Tnfa, Il1b, Il6, CXCL9, CXCL10 and Cd8a expression, associated with an absence of neurogenesis defects in hippocampus. PbA-infection triggered a dramatic increase of IL-33 expression by oligodendrocytes, through ST2 pathway. In vitro, IL-33/ST2 pathway induced microglia expression of IL-1? which in turn stimulated IL-33 expression by oligodendrocytes. These results highlight the IL-33/ST2 pathway ability to orchestrate microglia and oligodendrocytes responses at an early stage of PbA-infection, with an amplification loop between IL-1? and IL-33, responsible for an exacerbated neuroinflammation context and associated neurological and cognitive defects.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Pathological changes of severe chronic allergic conjunctivitis are driven not only via acquired immunity but also via innate immunity. Type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines may play some roles as innate immunity-dependent components of the ocular surface inflammation. To investigate the involvement of type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines in innate immunity-dependent, papain-induced conjunctival inflammation model using IL-25-, IL-33-, and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-knockout (KO) mice with reference to basophils and ILC2.<h4>Methods</h4>Papain-soaked contact lenses (papain-CLs) were installed in the conjunctival sacs of C57BL/6-IL-25 KO, IL-33 KO, TSLPR KO, Rag2 KO, Bas-TRECK, and wild-type mice and their eyes were sampled at day 5. The eosinophil and basophil infiltration in papain-CL model was evaluated histologically and cytokine expression was examined. To clarify the roles of basophils and ILC2, basophil/ILC2-depletion experiments were carried out.<h4>Results</h4>Papain-induced conjunctival inflammation exhibited eosinophil infiltration and upregulation of Th2 cytokine expression. Reduction of eosinophil and basophil infiltration and attenuated Th2 cytokine expression were observed in the papain-CL model using IL-33 KO and TSLPR KO mice. Depletion of basophils or ILC2s in the conjunctivae of the papain-CL model reduced eosinophil infiltration.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Innate immunity-driven type 2 immune responses of the ocular surface are dependent on IL-33, TSLP, basophils, and ILC2. These components may be possible therapeutic targets for refractory allergic keratoconjunctivitis.
Project description:Infection with Plasmodium falciparum may result in severe disease affecting various organs, including liver, spleen, and brain, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Plasmodium berghei Anka infection of mice recapitulates many features of severe human malaria. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an intracellular receptor activated by ligands important in the modulation of the inflammatory response. We found that AhR-knockout (KO) mice infected with P. berghei Anka displayed increased parasitemia, earlier mortality, enhanced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the brain microvasculature, and increased inflammation in brain (interleukin-17 [IL-17] and IL-6) and liver (gamma interferon [IFN-?] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?]) compared to infected wild-type (WT) mice. Infected AhR-KO mice also displayed a reduction in cytokines required for host resistance, including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IFN-?, in the brain and spleen. Infection of AhR-KO mice resulted in an increase in T regulatory cells and transforming growth factor ?, IL-6, and IL-17 in the brain. AhR modulated the basal expression of SOCS3 in spleen and brain, and P. berghei Anka infection resulted in enhanced expression of SOCS3 in brain, which was absent in infected AhR-KO mice. These data suggest that AhR-mediated control of SOCS3 expression is probably involved in the phenotype seen in infected AhR-KO mice. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a role for AhR in the pathogenesis of malaria.