Hydrophobic-hydrophilic forces in protein folding.
ABSTRACT: The process of protein folding is obviously driven by forces exerted on the atoms of the amino-acid chain. These forces arise from interactions with other parts of the protein itself (direct forces), as well as from interactions with the solvent (solvent-induced forces). We present a statistical-mechanical formalism that describes both these direct and indirect, solvent-induced thermodynamic forces on groups of the protein. We focus on 2 kinds of protein groups, commonly referred to as hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Analysis of this result leads to the conclusion that the forces on hydrophilic groups are in general stronger than on hydrophobic groups. This is then tested and verified by a series of molecular dynamics simulations, examining both hydrophobic alkanes of different sizes and hydrophilic moieties represented by polar-neutral hydroxyl groups. The magnitude of the force on assemblies of hydrophilic groups is dependent on their relative orientation: with 2 to 4 times larger forces on groups that are able to form one or more direct hydrogen bonds.
Project description:In the present study we characterize the thermodynamics of binding of histamine to recombinant histamine-binding protein (rRaHBP2), a member of the lipocalin family isolated from the brown-ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding pocket of this protein contains a number of charged residues, consistent with histamine binding, and is thus a typical example of a "hydrophilic" binder. In contrast, a second member of the lipocalin family, the recombinant major urinary protein (rMUP), binds small hydrophobic ligands, with a similar overall entropy of binding in comparison with rRaHBP2. Having extensively studied ligand binding thermodynamics for rMUP previously, the data we obtained in the present study for HBP enables a comparison of the driving forces for binding between these classically distinct binding processes in terms of entropic contributions from ligand, protein, and solvent. In the case of rRaHBP2, we find favorable entropic contributions to binding from desolvation of the ligand; however, the overall entropy of binding is unfavorable due to a dominant unfavorable contribution arising from the loss of ligand degrees of freedom, together with the sequestration of solvent water molecules into the binding pocket in the complex. This contrasts with binding in rMUP where desolvation of the protein binding pocket makes a minor contribution to the overall entropy of binding given that the pocket is substantially desolvated prior to binding.
Project description:Mitigation of environmental dust from surfaces becomes one of the challenges for maintaining the optical characteristics of surfaces. Dust repelling from hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces under vibrational excitation is investigated and the percentage of dust repelled from surfaces is evaluated. The characteristics of the dust particles are examined and dust adhesion on surfaces under molecular forces (van der Walls) is explored. High speed recording system is utilized to monitor dust repelling from the surfaces. The dust residues, which are not repelled from the sample surfaces, are analyzed and the percentage of area coverage of the dust repelled from the surfaces is assessed. The repelling height of the dust is predicted analytically, and the findings are compared with the experimental data. Findings revealed that the analytical predictions of dust repelling height are in good agreement with the experimental data. Due to none-stoichiometric elemental compositions in the dust compounds, ionic forces are created while forming the cluster-like structures because of particle adhesion. The vibrational excitation repels dust from sample surfaces in the form of cluster-like structures. Dust repelled from hydrophobic surface results in a larger clean area on the hydrophobic surface (80% of total surface area) than that of the hydrophilic surface (20% of total surface area).
Project description:Interfaces between water and silicates are ubiquitous and relevant for, among others, geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, and chromatography. The molecular-level details of water organization at silica surfaces are important for a fundamental understanding of this interface. While silica is hydrophilic, weakly hydrogen-bonded OH groups have been identified at the surface of silica, characterized by a high O-H stretch vibrational frequency. Here, through a combination of experimental and theoretical surface-selective vibrational spectroscopy, we demonstrate that these OH groups originate from very weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules at the nominally hydrophilic silica interface. The properties of these OH groups are very similar to those typically observed at hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations illustrate that these weakly hydrogen-bonded water OH groups are pointing with their hydrogen atom toward local hydrophobic sites consisting of oxygen bridges of the silica. An increased density of these molecular hydrophobic sites, evident from an increase in weakly hydrogen-bonded water OH groups, correlates with an increased macroscopic contact angle.
Project description:The native three-dimensional structure of a single protein is determined by the physicochemical nature of its constituent amino acids. The 20 different types of amino acids, depending on their physicochemical properties, can be grouped into three major classes: hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged. The anatomy of the weighted and unweighted networks of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged residues separately for a large number of proteins were studied. Results showed that the average degree of the hydrophobic networks has a significantly larger value than that of hydrophilic and charged networks. The average degree of the hydrophilic networks is slightly higher than that of the charged networks. The average strength of the nodes of hydrophobic networks is nearly equal to that of the charged network, whereas that of hydrophilic networks has a smaller value than that of hydrophobic and charged networks. The average strength for each of the three types of networks varies with its degree. The average strength of a node in a charged network increases more sharply than that of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic networks. Each of the three types of networks exhibits the "small-world" property. Our results further indicate that the all-amino-acids networks and hydrophobic networks are of assortative type. Although most of the hydrophilic and charged networks are of the assortative type, few others have the characteristics of disassortative mixing of the nodes. We have further observed that all-amino-acids networks and hydrophobic networks bear the signature of hierarchy, whereas the hydrophilic and charged networks do not have any hierarchical signature.
Project description:For a model deca-alanine peptide the cavity (ideal hydrophobic) contribution to hydration favors the helix state over extended states and the paired helix bundle in the assembly of two helices. The energetic contributions of attractive protein-solvent interactions are separated into quasi-chemical components consisting of a short-range part arising from interactions with solvent in the first hydration shell and the remaining long-range part that is well described by a Gaussian. In the helix-coil transition, short-range attractive protein-solvent interactions outweigh hydrophobic hydration and favor the extended coil states. Analysis of enthalpic effects shows that it is the favorable hydration of the peptide backbone that favors the unfolded state. Protein intramolecular interactions favor the helix state and are decisive in favoring folding. In the pairing of two helices, the cavity contribution outweighs the short-range attractive protein-water interactions. However, long-range, protein-solvent attractive interactions can either enhance or reverse this trend depending on the mutual orientation of the helices. In helix-helix assembly, change in enthalpy arising from change in attractive protein-solvent interactions favors disassembly. In helix pairing as well, favorable protein intramolecular interactions are found to be as important as hydration effects. Overall, hydrophilic protein-solvent interactions and protein intramolecular interactions are found to play a significant role in the thermodynamics of folding and assembly in the system studied.
Project description:With the use of single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), the dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human fibrinogen (Fg) at low concentrations were observed at the solid-aqueous interface as a function of temperature on hydrophobic trimethylsilane (TMS) and hydrophilic fused silica (FS) surfaces. Multiple dynamic modes and populations were observed and characterized by their surface residence times and squared-displacement distributions (surface diffusion). Characteristic desorption and diffusion rates for each population/mode were generally found to increase with temperature, and apparent activation energies were determined from Arrhenius analyses. The apparent activation energies of desorption and diffusion were typically higher on FS than on TMS surfaces, suggesting that protein desorption and mobility were hindered on hydrophilic surfaces due to favorable protein-surface and solvent-surface interactions. The diffusion of BSA on TMS appeared to be activationless for several populations, whereas diffusion on FS always exhibited an apparent activation energy. All activation energies were small in absolute terms (generally only a few kBT), suggesting that most adsorbed protein molecules are weakly bound and move and desorb readily under ambient conditions.
Project description:We analyzed the total, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic accessible surfaces (ASAs) of residues from a nonredundant bank of 587 3D structure proteins. In an extended fold, residues are classified into three families with respect to their hydrophobicity balance. As expected, residues lose part of their solvent-accessible surface with folding but the three groups remain. The decrease of accessibility is more pronounced for hydrophobic than hydrophilic residues. Amazingly, Lysine is the residue with the largest hydrophobic accessible surface in folded structures. Our analysis points out a clear difference between the mean (other studies) and median (this study) ASA values of hydrophobic residues, which should be taken into consideration for future investigations on a protein-accessible surface, in order to improve predictions requiring ASA values. The different secondary structures correspond to different accessibility of residues. Random coils, turns, and beta-structures (outside beta-sheets) are the most accessible folds, with an average of 30% accessibility. The helical residues are about 20% accessible, and the difference between the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic residues illustrates the amphipathy of many helices. Residues from beta-sheets are the most inaccessible to solvent (10% accessible). Hence, beta-sheets are the most appropriate structures to shield the hydrophobic parts of residues from water. We also show that there is an equal balance between the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic accessible surfaces of the 3D protein surfaces irrespective of the protein size. This results in a patchwork surface of hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas, which could be important for protein interactions and/or activity.
Project description:The modular structure of metal-organic framework nanosheets (MONs) provides a convenient route to creating two-dimensional materials with readily tuneable surface properties. Here, the liquid exfoliation of two closely related layered metal-organic frameworks functionalised with either methoxy-propyl (1) or pentyl (2) pendent groups intended to bestow either hydrophilic or hydrophobic character to the resulting nanosheets is reported. Exfoliation of the two materials in a range of different solvents highlighted significant differences in their dispersion properties, as well as their molecular and nanoscopic structures. Exchange or loss of solvent was found to occur at the labile axial position of the paddle-wheel based MONs and DFT calculations indicated that intramolecular coordination by the oxygen of the methoxy-propyl pendant groups may take place. The nanoscopic dimensions of the MONs were further tuned by varying the exfoliation conditions and through "liquid cascade centrifugation". Aqueous suspensions of the nanosheets were used as sensors to detect aromatic heterocycles with clear differences in binding behaviour observed and quantified.
Project description:We have developed a novel system for coupling reverse-phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) online in a micro-flow scheme. In this approach, the inherent solvent incompatibility between RP and HILIC is overcome through the use of constant-pressure online solvent mixing, which allows our system to perform efficient separations of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds for mass spectrometry-based proteomics applications. When analyzing the tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin, ribonuclease B, and horseradish peroxidase, we observed near-identical coverage of peptides and glycopeptides when using online RP-HILIC--with only a single sample injection event--as we did from two separate RP and HILIC analyses. The coupled system was also capable of concurrently characterizing the peptide and glycan portions of deglycosylated glycoproteins from one injection event, as confirmed, for example, through our detection of 23 novel glycans from turkey ovalbumin. Finally, we validated the applicability of using RP-HILIC for the analysis of highly complex biological samples (mouse chondrocyte lysate, deglycosylated human serum). The enhanced coverage and efficiency of online RP-HILIC makes it a viable technique for the comprehensive separation of components displaying dramatically different hydrophobicities, such as peptides, glycopeptides, and glycans.
Project description:During protein integration into the endoplasmic reticulum, the N-terminal domain preceding the type I signal-anchor sequence is translocated through a translocon. By fusing a streptavidin-binding peptide tag to the N terminus, we created integration intermediates of multispanning membrane proteins. In a cell-free system, N-terminal domain (N-domain) translocation was arrested by streptavidin and resumed by biotin. Even when N-domain translocation was arrested, the second hydrophobic segment mediated translocation of the downstream hydrophilic segment. In one of the defined intermediates, two hydrophilic segments and two hydrophobic segments formed a transmembrane disposition in a productive state. Both of the translocating hydrophilic segments were crosslinked with a translocon subunit, Sec61alpha. We conclude that two translocating hydrophilic segment in a single membrane protein can span the membrane during multispanning topogenesis flanking the translocon. Furthermore, even after six successive hydrophobic segments entered the translocon, N-domain translocation could be induced to restart from an arrested state. These observations indicate the remarkably flexible nature of the translocon.