The PI3K? Inhibitor Idelalisib Inhibits Homing in an in Vitro and in Vivo Model of B ALL.
ABSTRACT: The quest continues for targeted therapies to reduce the morbidity of chemotherapy and to improve the response of resistant leukemia. Adhesion of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells to bone marrow stromal cells triggers intracellular signals that promote cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Idelalisib, an U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PI3K?-specific inhibitor has been shown to be effective in CLL in down-regulating p-Akt and prolonging survival in combination with Rituximab; herein we explore the possibility of its use in B ALL and probe the mechanism of action. Primary B ALL in contact with OP9 stromal cells showed increased p-Aktser473. Idelalisib decreased p-Akt in patient samples of ALL with diverse genetic lesions. Addition of idelalisib to vincristine inhibited proliferation when compared to vincristine monotherapy in a subset of samples tested. Idelalisib inhibited ALL migration to SDF-1? in vitro and blocked homing of ALL cells to the bone marrow in vivo. This report tests PI3K? inhibitors in a more diverse group of ALL than has been previously reported and is the first published report of idelalisib inhibiting homing of ALL cells to bone marrow. Our data support further pre-clinical evaluation of idelalisib for the therapy of B ALL.
Project description:CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3K?) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNF?-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-delta (PI3K?) signaling is critical for proliferation, survival, homing, and tissue retention of malignant B cells. Idelalisib, a selective oral inhibitor of PI3K?, has shown considerable single-agent activity in patients with heavily pretreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This study evaluated the safety and clinical activity of idelalisib in combination with bendamustine (IB) or rituximab (IR) or both (IBR) in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) CLL. Idelalisib was given continuously at 100 or 150?mg twice daily in combination with rituximab (375?mg/m2 weekly?×?8 doses), bendamustine (70 or 90 mg/m2, days 1 and 2 every 4 weeks?×?6 cycles) or BR (rituximab, 375?mg/m2 every 4 weeks and bendamustine, 70?mg/m2, days 1 and 2 every 4 weeks?×?6 cycles). The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients (median age 64 years) with a median of 3 prior therapies were enrolled. ORR was 84.6% (89.5% IR group, 77.8% IB group, and 86.7% IBR group). The overall median PFS was 25.6 months, and median DOR was 26.6 months. The most common grade ?3 adverse events (?10% of patients) were pneumonia (19.2%), diarrhea (13.5%), and febrile neutropenia (17.3%). Idelalisib-based combination therapy with bendamustine and/or rituximab was highly active, resulting in durable tumor control in patients with heavily pretreated R/R CLL. However, its tolerability profile suggests that these regimens should be used cautiously in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01088048.
Project description:Adhesion of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells to bone marrow stroma cells triggers intracellular signals regulating cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Stromal cell protection of ALL cells has been shown to require active AKT. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), adhesion-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is reported. A novel FDA-approved PI3K? inhibitor, CAL-101/idelalisib, leads to downregulation of p-AKT and increased apoptosis of CLL cells. Recently, two additional PI3K inhibitors have received FDA approval. As the PI3K/AKT pathway is also implicated in adhesion-mediated survival of ALL cells, PI3K inhibitors have been evaluated preclinically in ALL. However, PI3K inhibition has yet to be approved for clinical use in ALL. Here, we review the role of PI3K in normal hematopoietic cells, and in ALL. We focus on summarizing targeting strategies of PI3K in ALL.
Project description:Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) regulates innate immune activation in infectious and non-infectious conditions. TREM-1 ligation activates phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) triggering all neutrophil effector functions. As idelalisib is a PI3K inhibitor in clinical use for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, we asked whether this inhibitor affects PMN functionalities. We analyzed PMNs from healthy donors or lymphoma patients for oxidative burst, phagocytosis, activation markers and IL-8 release upon TREM-1 or TLR ligation ex vivo. In addition, we performed western blot analyses to characterize the signaling events inhibited by idelalisib and other PI3K inhibitors. Upon TREM-1 ligation, the oxidative burst, degranulation, L-selectin shedding and cytokine release were all strongly reduced in the presence of idelalisib along impaired phosphorylation of P38, AKT and ERK by western blot analyses. In line with this, PMNs from patients receiving idelalisib also displayed an impaired TREM-1 mediated PMN activation ex vivo. In conclusion, PI3K inhibitors might cause a neutropenia-like susceptibility to infections in patients by leading to impaired PMN functionality. This should be considered when evaluating patients for infections treated with such inhibitors in daily clinical routine.
Project description:Idelalisib, a selective PI3K? inhibitor, has been approved by the FDA for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treatment and for follicular lymphoma treatment when combined with rituximab. However, the mechanisms of effective action of idelalisib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate how idelalisib inhibits the growth of HCC cells and enhances the effects of other chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results show that idelalisib treatment promotes Bim induction in HCC via the FoxO3a pathway following PI3K/AKT inactivation. Moreover, our results show that Bim is required for idelalisib-mediated apoptosis in HCC. Idelalisib also synergizes with sorafenib or doxorubicin to induce significant apoptosis in HCC, and Bim is also necessary for the induction of apoptosis by cotreatment. Furthermore, a xenograft experiment reveals that the Bim deficiency abolishes apoptosis and antitumor effects of idelalisib in vivo. In summary, our results indicate a key role of Bim in mediating the antitumor effects of idelalisib in HCC. Our results also support the clinical significance of the drug.
Project description:Idelalisib (also known as GS-1101, CAL-101, IC489666, and Zydelig) is a PI3K? inhibitor that has recently been approved for the treatment of several hematological malignancies. Given its use in human diseases, we needed a clear picture of how idelalisib binds to and inhibits PI3K?. Our data show that idelalisib is a potent and selective inhibitor of the kinase activity of PI3K?. A kinetic characterization clearly demonstrated ATP-competitive inhibition, and several additional biochemical and biophysical assays showed that the compound binds reversibly and noncovalently to the kinase. A crystal structure of idelalisib bound to the p110? subunit of PI3K? furthers our understanding of the binding interactions that confer the potency and selectivity of idelalisib.
Project description:Glucorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) remain important treatments for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) but the mechanisms are poorly understood and resistance is inevitable. Proliferation centers (PC) in lymph nodes and bone marrow offer protection against many cytotoxic drugs and circulating CLL cells were found to acquire resistance to DEX-mediated killing in conditions encountered in PCs including stimulation by toll-like receptor agonists and interactions with stromal cells. The resistant state was associated with impaired glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression, autocrine activation of STAT3 through Janus Kinases (JAKs), and increased glycolysis. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib blocked STAT3-phosphorylation and partially improved DEX-mediated killing of stimulated CLL cells in vitro but not in CLL patients in vivo. An automated microscopy-based screen of a kinase inhibitor library implicated an additional protective role for the PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway. Blocking this pathway with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) or the PI3K-inhibitors idelalisib and buparlisib increased DEX-mediated killing but did not block STAT3-phosphorylation. Combining idelalisib or buparlisib with ruxolitinib greatly increased killing by DEX. These observations suggest that glucocorticoid resistance in CLL cells may be overcome by combining JAK and PI3K inhibitors.
Project description:In a phase 1 trial, idelalisib (GS-1101, CAL-101), a selective inhibitor of the lipid kinase PI3K?, was evaluated in 54 patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with adverse characteristics including bulky lymphadenopathy (80%), extensive prior therapy (median 5 [range 2-14] prior regimens), treatment-refractory disease (70%), unmutated IGHV (91%), and del17p and/or TP53 mutations (24%). Patients were treated at 6 dose levels of oral idelalisib (range 50-350 mg once or twice daily) and remained on continuous therapy while deriving clinical benefit. Idelalisib-mediated inhibition of PI3K? led to abrogation of Akt phosphorylation in patient CLL cells and significantly reduced serum levels of CLL-related chemokines. The most commonly observed grade ?3 adverse events were pneumonia (20%), neutropenic fever (11%), and diarrhea (6%). Idelalisib treatment resulted in nodal responses in 81% of patients. The overall response rate was 72%, with 39% of patients meeting the criteria for partial response per IWCLL 2008 and 33% meeting the recently updated criteria of PR with treatment-induced lymphocytosis.(1,2) The median progression-free survival for all patients was 15.8 months. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of inhibiting the PI3K? pathway with idelalisib. Our findings support the further development of idelalisib in patients with CLL. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00710528 and #NCT01090414.
Project description:Agents that target B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in lymphoid malignancies including idelalisib (GS-1101) and fostamatinib which inhibit the delta isoform of PI3 kinase (PI3Kd) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) respectively have shown significant clinical activity. By disrupting B-cell signaling pathways, idelalisib treatment has been associated with a dramatic lymph node response, but eradication of disease and relapse in high risk disease remain challenges. Targeting the BCR signaling pathway with simultaneous inhibition of PI3Kd and Syk has not yet been reported. We evaluated the pre-clinical activity of idelalisib combined with the novel and selective Syk inhibitor GS-9973 in primary peripheral blood and bone marrow Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) samples. Both PI3Kd and Syk inhibition reduced CLL survival and in combination induced synergistic growth inhibition and further disrupted chemokine signaling at nanomolar concentrations including in bone marrow derived and poor risk samples. Simultaneous targeting of these kinases may significantly increase clinical activity.