Shuanghuang Shengbai granule cures myelosuppression and suppresses lung cancer progression: mechanism and therapeutic targets from the aspect of microRNAs.
ABSTRACT: Shuanghuang Shengbai granule is effective in curing cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression without promoting lung cancer development. This study aims to investigate its mechanism and therapeutic targets.Nude mice with lung cancer were treated with physiological saline (control), cyclophosphamide, or cyclophosphamide + Shuanghuang Shengbai. MicroRNA microarray was used to investigate the differentially expressed microRNAs in lung cancer stem cells or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells between the three groups. MicroRNA expressions were confirmed using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction.Cyclophosphamide suppressed tumor growth and decreased the ratio of SP+ lung cancer stem cells (P<0.05). Shuanghuang Shengbai further decreased the ratios of SP+ and CD24+IGF1R+ lung cancer stem cells (P<0.05). Shuanghuang Shengbai completely reversed the cyclophosphamide-induced decreases in white blood cells, proliferation index of bone marrow cells, and the ratio of CD34+SCA1+ bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (P<0.05). We found 45 and 343 altered microRNAs for SP+ lung cancer stem cells and CD34+SCA1+ bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. Moreover, miR-32*, miR-466i-5p, and mmu-miR-669c in SP+ lung cancer stem cells were confirmed, as well as mmu-miR-106b*, mmu-miR-144, mmu-miR-669k*, mmu-miR-142-3p, mmu-miR-210, and mmu-miR-223 in CD34+SCA1+ bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells.Shuanghuang Shengbai might promote the proliferation of CD34+SCA1+ bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via up-regulating mmu-miR-106b*, mmu-miR-144, and mmu-miR-669k*, as well as down-regulating mmu-miR-142-3p, mmu-miR-210, and mmu-miR-223. Shuanghuang Shengbai might further inhibit the proliferation of SP+ lung cancer stem cells via enhancing the expressions of miR-32*, miR-466i-5p, and mmu-miR-669c. These might be the mechanism and therapeutic targets of Shuanghuang Shengbai granule.
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have immune modulatory effects. Despite efforts to identify these cells in vivo, to date, MSCs have been defined mainly by their in vitro cell characteristics. Here, we show that Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells make up approximately 0.5%-1% of murine whole bone marrow cells and yield nearly an equal amount of fibroblastic colony-forming units (CFU-F) as whole bone marrow. After transplantation into lethally irradiated recipients, Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells engrafted in the bone marrow long-term and demonstrated characteristics of MSCs, including capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. To examine whether Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells have immune modulatory effects, in vitro coculture with activated CD4+ T-cells resulted in decreased Th17 cell differentiation by Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells. Furthermore, serial infusions with Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells reduced the progression to low-grade gastric dysplasia in mice infected with chronic Helicobacter felis (p = .038). This correlated with reduced gastric interleukin (IL)-17F, IL-22, and ROR-gammat gene expression in responding mice (p < .05). These data suggest that bone marrow derived Lin(-)CD44(hi)Sca1(-)cKit+CD34(-) cells have characteristics of MSCs and reduce progression of early gastric tumorigenesis induced by chronic H. felis infection. The prevention of dysplastic changes may occur through inhibition of Th17-dependent pathways.
Project description:The failure of normal hematopoiesis is observed in myeloid neoplasms. However, the precise mechanisms governing the replacement of normal hematopoietic stem cells in their niche by myeloid neoplasm stem cells have not yet been clarified. Primary acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome cells induced aberrant expression of multiple hematopoietic factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 in mesenchymal stem cells even in non-contact conditions, and this abnormality was reverted by extracellular vesicle inhibition. Importantly, the transfer of myeloid neoplasm-derived extracellular vesicles reduced the hematopoietic supportive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells. Analysis of extracellular vesicle microRNA indicated that several species, including miR-7977 from acute myeloid leukemia cells, were higher than those from normal CD34(+)cells. Remarkably, the copy number of miR-7977 in bone marrow interstitial fluid was elevated not only in acute myeloid leukemia, but also in myelodysplastic syndrome, as compared with lymphoma without bone marrow localization. The transfection of the miR-7977 mimic reduced the expression of the posttranscriptional regulator, poly(rC) binding protein 1, in mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, the miR-7977 mimic induced aberrant reduction of hematopoietic growth factors in mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in decreased hematopoietic-supporting capacity of bone marrow CD34(+)cells. Furthermore, the reduction of hematopoietic growth factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 were reverted by target protection of poly(rC) binding protein 1, suggesting that poly(rC) binding protein 1 could be involved in the stabilization of several growth factors. Thus, miR-7977 in extracellular vesicles may be a critical factor that induces failure of normal hematopoiesis via poly(rC) binding protein 1 suppression.
Project description:In vitro generation of mature neutrophils from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires hematopoietic progenitor development followed by myeloid differentiation. The purpose of our studies was to extensively characterize this process, focusing on the critical window of development between hemogenic endothelium, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and myeloid commitment, to identify associated regulators and markers that might enable the stem cell field to improve the efficiency and efficacy of iPSC hematopoiesis. We utilized a four-stage differentiation protocol involving: embryoid body (EB) formation (stage-1); EB culture with hematopoietic cytokines (stage-2); HSPC expansion (stage-3); and neutrophil maturation (stage-4). CD34(+) CD45(-) putative hemogenic endothelial cells were observed in stage-3 cultures, and expressed VEGFR-2/Flk-1/KDR and VE-cadherin endothelial markers, GATA-2, AML1/RUNX1, and SCL/TAL1 transcription factors, and endothelial/HSPC-associated microRNAs miR-24, miR-125a-3p, miR-126/126*, and miR-155. Upon further culture, CD34(+) CD45(-) cells generated CD34(+) CD45(+) HSPCs that produced hematopoietic CFUs. Mid-stage-3 CD34(+) CD45(+) HSPCs exhibited increased expression of GATA-2, AML1/RUNX1, SCL/TAL1, C/EBP?, and PU.1 transcription factors, but exhibited decreased expression of HSPC-associated microRNAs, and failed to engraft in immune-deficient mice. Mid-stage-3 CD34(-) CD45(+) cells maintained PU.1 expression and exhibited increased expression of hematopoiesis-associated miR-142-3p/5p and a trend towards increased miR-223 expression, indicating myeloid commitment. By late Stage-4, increased CD15, CD16b, and C/EBP? expression were observed, with 25%-65% of cells exhibiting morphology and functions of mature neutrophils. These studies demonstrate that hematopoiesis and neutrophil differentiation from human iPSCs recapitulates many features of embryonic hematopoiesis and neutrophil production in marrow, but reveals unexpected molecular signatures that may serve as a guide for enhancing iPSC hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1513-1526.
Project description:In lung fibrosis, alveolar epithelium degenerates progressively. The goal of regenerative medicine is to aid repair and regeneration of the lost tissues in parenchyma and airways for which mobilization of tissue-resident endogenous or bone marrow-derived exogenous stem cells niches is a critical step. We used a lung injury model in mice to identify and characterize functional lung stem cells to clarify how stem cell niches counteract this degenerative process.Short term assay (STA) - Bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis were assessed in a model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in wild-type (WT), gp91phox-/- (NOX-/-), and gp91phoxMMP-12 double knockout (DKO) mice on C57Bl/6 background and Hoechst 33322 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells characterized. Long term assay (LTA) - In a bleomycin induced lung fibrosis model in C57Bl6 mice, the number of mature cells were quantified over 7, 14, and 21 days in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB), lung parenchyma (LP) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by FACS. BrdU pulse chase experiment (10 weeks) was used to identify label retaining cells (LRC). BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were characterized by hematopoietic (CD45+), pluripotency (TTF1+, Oct3/4+, SSEA-3+, SSEA-4+, Sca1+, Lin-, CD34+, CD31+), and lung lineage-specific (SPC+, AQP-5+, CC-10+) markers. Clonogenic potential of LRCs were measured by CFU-c assays.STA- In lung, cellularity increased by 5-fold in WT and 6-fold in NOX-/- by d7. Lung epithelial markers were very low in expression in all SP flow sorted from lung of all three genotypes cultured ex vivo. (p < 0.01). Post-bleomycin, the SP in NOX-/- lung increased by 3.6-fold over WT where it increased by 20-fold over controls. Type I and II alveolar epithelial cells progressively diminished in all three genotypes by d21 post-bleomycin. D7 post-bleomycin, CD45+ cells in BALf in NOX-/- was 1.7-fold > WT, 57% of which were Mf that decreased by 67% in WT and 83% in NOX-/- by d21.LTA- Cellularity as a factor of time remained unchanged in BM, PB, LP and BAL fluid. BrdU+ (LRC) were the putative stem cells. BrdU+CD45+ cells increased by 0.7-fold and SPC+CC10+ bronchoalveolar stem cells (BASC), decreased by ~40-fold post-bleomycin. BrdU+VEGF+ cells decreased by 1.8-fold while BrdU-VEGF+ cells increased 4.6-fold. Most BrdU- cells were CD45-. BrdU- BASCs remained unchanged post-bleomycin. CFU-c of the flow-sorted BrdU+ cells remained similar in control and bleomycin-treated lungs.STA- Inflammation is a pre-requisite for fibrosis; SP cells, being the putative stem cells in the lungs, were increased (either by self renewal or by recruitment from the exogenous bone marrow pool) post-bleomycin in NOX-/- but not in DKO indicating the necessity of cross-talk between gp91phox and MMP-12 in this process; ex vivo cultured SP progressively lose pluripotent markers, notably BASC (SPC+CC10+) - significance is unknown. LTA- The increase in the hematopoietic progenitor pool in lung indicated that exogenous progenitors from circulation contribute to lung regeneration. Most non-stem cells were non-hematopoietic in origin indicating that despite tissue turnover, BASCs are drastically depleted possibly necessitating recruitment of progenitors from the hematopoietic pool. Loss of VEGF+ LRC may indicate a signal for progenitor mobilization from niches. BrdU- BASC population may be a small quiescent population that remains as a reserve for more severe lung injury. Increase in VEGF+ non-LRC may indicate a checkpoint to counterbalance the mobilization of VEGF+ cells from the stem cell niche.
Project description:Until now, ex vivo generation of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) mostly involved use of feeder cells of nonhuman origin. Although they provided invaluable models to study hematopoiesis, in vivo engraftment of hESC-derived HSCs remains a challenging task. In this study, we used a novel coculture system composed of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood CD14(+) monocyte-derived macrophages to generate CD34(+) cells from hESCs in vitro. Human ESC-derived CD34(+) cells generated using this method expressed surface makers associated with adult human HSCs and upregulated hematopoietic stem cell genes comparable to human bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells. Finally, transplantation of purified hESC-derived CD34(+) cells into the preimmune fetal sheep, primed with transplantation of MSCs derived from the same hESC line, demonstrated multilineage hematopoietic activity with graft presence up to 16 weeks after transplantation. This in vivo demonstration of engraftment and robust multilineage hematopoietic activity by hESC-derived CD34(+) cells lends credence to the translational value and potential clinical utility of this novel differentiation and transplantation protocol.
Project description:CD34 is routinely used to identify and isolate human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) for use clinically in bone marrow transplantation, but its function on these cells remains elusive. Glycoprotein ligands on HSPCs help guide their migration to specialized microvascular beds in the bone marrow that express vascular selectins (E- and P-selectin). Here, we show that HSPC-enriched fractions from human hematopoietic tissue expressing CD34 (CD34pos) bound selectins, whereas those lacking CD34 (CD34neg) did not. An unbiased proteomics screen identified potential glycoprotein ligands on CD34pos cells revealing CD34 itself as a major vascular selectin ligand. Biochemical and CD34 knockdown analyses highlight a key role for CD34 in the first prerequisite step of cell migration, suggesting that it is not just a marker on these cells. Our results also entice future potential strategies to investigate the glycoforms of CD34 that discriminate normal HSPCs from leukemic cells and to manipulate CD34neg HSPC-enriched bone marrow or cord blood populations as a source of stem cells for clinical use.
Project description:Osteolineage cells represent one of the critical bone marrow niche components that support maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Recent studies demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (EVs) regulate stem cell development via horizontal transfer of bioactive cargo, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Using next-generation sequencing we show that human osteoblast-derived EVs contain highly abundant miRNAs specifically enriched in EVs, including critical regulators of hematopoietic proliferation (e.g., miR-29a). EV treatment of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) HSPCs alters the expression of candidate miRNA targets, such as HBP1, BCL2 and PTEN. Furthermore, EVs enhance proliferation of CD34(+) cells and their immature subsets in growth factor-driven ex vivo expansion cultures. Importantly, EV-expanded cells retain their differentiation capacity in vitro and successfully engraft in vivo. These discoveries reveal a novel osteoblast-derived EV-mediated mechanism for regulation of HSPC proliferation and warrant consideration of EV-miRNAs for the development of expansion strategies to treat hematological disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:With the advent of regenerative therapy, there is renewed interest in the use of bone marrow as a source of adult stem and progenitor cells, including cell subsets prepared by immunomagnetic selection. Cell selection must be rapid, efficient and performed according to current good manufacturing practices. In this report we present a methodology for intra-operative preparation of CD34(+) selected autologous bone marrow for autologous use in patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts or left ventricular assist devices. METHODS AND RESULTS:We developed a rapid erythrocyte depletion method using hydroxyethyl starch and low-speed centrifugation to prepare large-scale (mean 359 mL) bone marrow aspirates for separation on a Baxter Isolex 300i immunomagnetic cell separation device. CD34 recovery after erythrocyte depletion was 68.3 ± 20.2%, with an average depletion of 91.2 ± 2.8% and an average CD34 content of 0.58 ± 0.27%. After separation, CD34 purity was 64.1 ± 17.2%, with 44.3 ± 26.1% recovery and an average dose of 5.0 ± 2.7 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/product. In uncomplicated cases CD34-enriched cellular products could be accessioned, prepared, tested for release and administered within 6 h. Further analysis of CD34(+) bone marrow cells revealed a significant proportion of CD45(-) CD34(+) cells. CONCLUSIONS:Intra-operative immunomagnetic separation of CD34-enriched bone marrow is feasible using rapid low-speed Hetastarch sedimentation for erythrocyte depletion. The resulting CD34-enriched product contains CD45(-) cells that may represent non-hematopoietic or very early hematopoietic stem cells that participate in tissue regeneration.
Project description:Bone marrow endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for reconstitution of hematopoiesis, but their role in self-renewal of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) is unknown. We have developed angiogenic models to demonstrate that EC-derived angiocrine growth factors support in vitro self-renewal and in vivo repopulation of authentic LT-HSCs. In serum/cytokine-free cocultures, ECs, through direct cellular contact, stimulated incremental expansion of repopulating CD34(-)Flt3(-)cKit(+)Lineage(-)Sca1(+) LT-HSCs, which retained their self-renewal ability, as determined by single-cell and serial transplantation assays. Angiocrine expression of Notch ligands by ECs promoted proliferation and prevented exhaustion of LT-HSCs derived from wild-type, but not Notch1/Notch2-deficient, mice. In transgenic notch-reporter (TNR.Gfp) mice, regenerating TNR.Gfp(+) LT-HSCs were detected in cellular contact with sinusoidal ECs. Interference with angiocrine, but not perfusion, function of SECs impaired repopulation of TNR.Gfp(+) LT-HSCs. ECs establish an instructive vascular niche for clinical-scale expansion of LT-HSCs and a cellular platform to identify stem cell-active trophogens.
Project description:Lineage negativ Sca1+ Kit+ bone marrow cells (containing putative hematopoietic stem cells) subfractionation based on CD34 and FLT3 identifies three functionally destinc subpopulations (LSKCD34-FLT3-, LSKCD34+FLT3- & LSKCD34+FLT3+). Experiment Overall Design: Lineage negativ Kit+ Sca1+ (LSK) hematopoietic stem cell subpopulations were FACS sorted based on their CD34/FLT3 expression. Subsequently RNA was extracted, labelled and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain expression pattern changes that might explain the difference in function between the functionally destinct LSK subpopulations.