Unique genome organization of non-mammalian papillomaviruses provides insights into the evolution of viral early proteins.
ABSTRACT: The family Papillomaviridae contains more than 320 papillomavirus types, with most having been identified as infecting skin and mucosal epithelium in mammalian hosts. To date, only nine non-mammalian papillomaviruses have been described from birds (n = 5), a fish (n = 1), a snake (n = 1), and turtles (n = 2). The identification of papillomaviruses in sauropsids and a sparid fish suggests that early ancestors of papillomaviruses were already infecting the earliest Euteleostomi. The Euteleostomi clade includes more than 90 per cent of the living vertebrate species, and progeny virus could have been passed on to all members of this clade, inhabiting virtually every habitat on the planet. As part of this study, we isolated a novel papillomavirus from a 16-year-old female Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Cape Crozier, Ross Island (Antarctica). The new papillomavirus shares ∼64 per cent genome-wide identity to a previously described Adélie penguin papillomavirus. Phylogenetic analyses show that the non-mammalian viruses (expect the python, Morelia spilota, associated papillomavirus) cluster near the base of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. A papillomavirus isolated from an avian host (Northern fulmar; Fulmarus glacialis), like the two turtle papillomaviruses, lacks a putative E9 protein that is found in all other avian papillomaviruses. Furthermore, the Northern fulmar papillomavirus has an E7 more similar to the mammalian viruses than the other avian papillomaviruses. Typical E6 proteins of mammalian papillomaviruses have two Zinc finger motifs, whereas the sauropsid papillomaviruses only have one such motif. Furthermore, this motif is absent in the fish papillomavirus. Thus, it is highly likely that the most recent common ancestor of the mammalian and sauropsid papillomaviruses had a single motif E6. It appears that a motif duplication resulted in mammalian papillomaviruses having a double Zinc finger motif in E6. We estimated the divergence time between Northern fulmar-associated papillomavirus and the other Sauropsid papillomaviruses be to around 250 million years ago, during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition and our analysis dates the root of the papillomavirus tree between 400 and 600 million years ago. Our analysis shows evidence for niche adaptation and that these non-mammalian viruses have highly divergent E6 and E7 proteins, providing insights into the evolution of the early viral (onco-)proteins.
Project description:E7 is an accessory protein that is not encoded by all papillomaviruses. The E7 amino terminus contains two regions of similarity to conserved regions 1 and 2 of the adenovirus E1A protein, which are also conserved in the simian vacuolating virus 40 large tumor antigen. The E7 carboxyl terminus consists of a zinc-binding motif, which is related to similar motifs in E6 proteins. E7 proteins play a central role in the human papillomavirus life cycle, reprogramming the cellular environment to be conducive to viral replication. E7 proteins encoded by the cancer-associated alpha human papillomaviruses have potent transforming activities, which together with E6, are necessary but not sufficient to render their host squamous epithelial cell tumorigenic. This article strives to provide a comprehensive summary of the published research studies on human papillomavirus E7 proteins.
Project description:Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with LXXLL motifs on target cellular proteins to alter their function. Using a proteomic approach, we found the E6 oncoproteins of cutaneous papillomaviruses Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BPV-1) E6 and human papillomavirus (HPV) types 1 and 8 (1E6 and 8E6) associated with the MAML1 transcriptional co-activator. All three E6 proteins bind to an acidic LXXLL motif at the carboxy-terminus of MAML1 and repress transactivation by MAML1. MAML1 is best known as the co-activator and effector of NOTCH-induced transcription, and BPV-1 E6 represses synthetic NOTCH-responsive promoters, endogenous NOTCH-responsive promoters, and is found in a complex with MAML1 in stably transformed cells. BPV-1-induced papillomas show characteristics of repressed NOTCH signal transduction, including suprabasal expression of integrins, talin and basal type keratins, and delayed expression of the NOTCH-dependent HES1 transcription factor. These observations give rise to a model whereby papillomavirus oncoproteins, including BPV-1 E6, and the cancer-associated HPV-8 E6 repress NOTCH-induced transcription, thereby delaying keratinocyte differentiation.
Project description:Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.
Project description:Climate-driven sympatry may lead to competition for food resources between species. Rapid warming in the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is coincident with increasing gentoo penguin and decreasing Adélie penguin populations, suggesting that competition for food may exacerbate the Adélie penguin decline. On fine scales, we tested for foraging competition between these species during the chick-rearing period by comparing their foraging behaviors with the distribution of their prey, Antarctic krill. We detected krill aggregations within the horizontal and vertical foraging ranges of Adélie and gentoo penguins, and found that krill selected for habitats that balance the need to consume food and avoid predation. In overlapping Adélie and gentoo penguin foraging areas, four gentoo penguins switched foraging behavior by foraging at deeper depths, a strategy which limits competition with Adélie penguins. This suggests that climate-driven sympatry does not necessarily result in competitive exclusion of Adélie penguins by gentoo penguins. Contrary to a recent theory, which suggests that increased competition for krill is one of the major drivers of Adélie penguin population declines, we suggest that declines in Adélie penguins along the WAP are more likely due to direct and indirect climate impacts on their life histories.
Project description:E6 is a small oncoprotein involved in tumorigenesis induced by papillomaviruses (PVs). E6 often recognizes its cellular targets by binding to short motifs presenting the consensus LXXLL. E6 proteins have long resisted structural analysis. We found that bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E6 binds the N-terminal LXXLL motif of the cellular protein paxillin with significantly higher affinity as compared to other E6/peptide interactions. Although recombinant BPV1 E6 was poorly soluble in the free state, provision of the paxillin LXXLL peptide during BPV1 E6 biosynthesis greatly enhanced the protein's solubility. Expression of BPV1 E6/LXXLL peptide complexes was carried out in bacteria in the form of triple fusion constructs comprising, from N- to C-terminus, the soluble carrier protein maltose binding protein (MBP), the LXXLL motif and the E6 protein. A TEV protease cleavage site was placed either between MBP and LXXLL motif or between LXXLL motif and E6. These constructs allowed us to produce highly concentrated samples of BPV1 E6, either covalently fused to the C-terminus of the LXXLL motif (intra-molecular complex) or non-covalently bound to it (inter-molecular complex). Heteronuclear NMR measurements were performed and showed that the E6 protein was folded with similar conformations in both covalent and non-covalent complexes. These data open the way to novel structural and functional studies of the BPV1 E6 in complex with its preferential target motif.
Project description:Major, long-term environmental changes are projected in the Southern Ocean and these are likely to have impacts for marine predators such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). Decadal monitoring studies have provided insight into the short-term environmental sensitivities of Adélie penguin populations, particularly to sea ice changes. However, given the long-term nature of projected climate change, it is also prudent to consider the responses of populations to environmental change over longer time scales. We investigated the population trajectory of Adélie penguins during the last glacial-interglacial transition to determine how the species was affected by climate warming over millennia. We focussed our study on East Antarctica, which is home to 30 % of the global population of Adélie penguins.Using mitochondrial DNA from extant colonies, we reconstructed the population trend of Adélie penguins in East Antarctica over the past 22,000 years using an extended Bayesian skyline plot method. To determine the relationship of East Antarctic Adélie penguins with populations elsewhere in Antarctica we constructed a phylogeny using mitochondrial DNA sequences.We found that the Adélie penguin population expanded 135-fold from approximately 14,000 years ago. The population growth was coincident with deglaciation in East Antarctica and, therefore, an increase in ice-free ground suitable for Adélie penguin nesting. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that East Antarctic Adélie penguins share a common ancestor with Adélie penguins from the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc, with an estimated age of 29,000 years ago, in the midst of the last glacial period. This finding suggests that extant colonies in East Antarctica, the Scotia Arc and the Antarctic Peninsula were founded from a single glacial refuge.While changes in sea ice conditions are a critical driver of Adélie penguin population success over decadal and yearly timescales, deglaciation appears to have been the key driver of population change over millennia. This suggests that environmental drivers of population trends over thousands of years may differ to drivers over years or decades, highlighting the need to consider millennial-scale trends alongside contemporary data for the forecasting of species' abundance and distribution changes under future climate change scenarios.
Project description:The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species' geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.
Project description:Determination and analyses of the complete sequence of Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus and Psittacus erithacus timneh papillomavirus indicate that they represent a distinct and distant lineage of papillomaviruses. The lack of canonical E6-E7 open reading frames suggests that they serve adaptive functions during papillomavirus evolution.
Project description:High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins associate with the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6-Associated Protein (E6AP), and then recruit both p53 and certain cellular PDZ proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Low-risk HPV E6 proteins also associate with E6AP, yet fail to recruit p53 or PDZ proteins; their E6AP-dependent targets have so far been uncharacterized. We found a cellular PDZ protein called Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) is targeted for degradation by both high and low-risk HPV E6 proteins as well as E6 proteins from diverse non-primate mammalian species. NHERF1 was degraded by E6 in a manner dependent upon E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity but independent of PDZ interactions. A novel structural domain of E6, independent of the p53 recognition domain, was necessary to associate with and degrade NHERF1, and the NHERF1 EB domain was required for E6-mediated degradation. Degradation of NHERF1 by E6 activated canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling, a key pathway that regulates cell growth and proliferation. Expression levels of NHERF1 increased with increasing cell confluency. This is the first study in which a cellular protein has been identified that is targeted for degradation by both high and low-risk HPV E6 as well as E6 proteins from diverse animal papillomaviruses. This suggests that NHERF1 plays a role in regulating squamous epithelial growth and further suggests that the interaction of E6 proteins with NHERF1 could be a common therapeutic target for multiple papillomavirus types.
Project description:Circoviruses infect a variety of animal species and have small (~1.8-2.2 kb) circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Recently a penguin circovirus (PenCV) was identified associated with an Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) with feather disorder and in the cloacal swabs of three asymptomatic Adélie Penguins at Cape Crozier, Antarctica. A total of 75 cloacal swab samples obtained from adults and chicks of three species of penguin (genus: Pygoscelis) from seven Antarctic breeding colonies (South Shetland Islands and Western Antarctic Peninsula) in the 2015-2016 breeding season were screened for PenCV. We identified new variants of PenCV in one Adélie Penguin and one Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) from Port Charcot, Booth Island, Western Antarctic Peninsula, a site home to all three species of Pygoscelid penguins. These two PenCV genomes (length of 1986 nucleotides) share > 99% genome-wide nucleotide identity with each other and share ~87% genome-wide nucleotide identity with the PenCV sequences described from Adélie Penguins at Cape Crozier ~4400 km away in East Antarctica. We did not find any evidence of recombination among PenCV sequences. This is the first report of PenCV in Chinstrap Penguins and the first detection outside of Ross Island, East Antarctica. Given the limited knowledge on Antarctic animal viral diversity, future samples from Antarctic wildlife should be screened for these and other viruses to determine the prevalence and potential impact of viral infections.