Enhanced Therapeutic Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Using Surface-Modified Nanoporous Acupuncture Needles.
ABSTRACT: Acupuncture originated within the auspices of Oriental medicine, and today is used as an alternative method for treating various diseases and symptoms. The physiological mechanisms of acupuncture appear to involve the release of endogenous opiates and neurotransmitters, with the signals mediating through electrical stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). Earlier we reported a nanoporous stainless steel acupuncture needle with enhanced therapeutic properties, evaluated by electrophysiological and behavioral responses in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Herein, we investigate molecular changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) rats by acupuncture treatment using the nanoporous needles. Treatment at acupoint HT7 is found most effective at reducing average tumor size, ?-catenin expression levels, and the number of aberrant crypt foci in the colon endothelium. Surface modification of acupuncture needles further enhances the therapeutic effects of acupuncture treatment in CRC rats.
Project description:Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been widely used for treatment of many pathophysiological disorders. For achieving improved therapeutic effects, relatively thick acupuncture needles have been frequently used in clinical practice with, in turn, enhanced stimulation intensity. However due to the discomforting nature of the larger-diameter acupuncture needles there is considerable interest in developing advanced acupuncture therapeutical techniques that provide more comfort with improved efficacy. So motivated, we have developed a new class of acupuncture needles, porous acupuncture needles (PANs) with hierarchical micro/nano-scale conical pores upon the surface, fabricated via a simple and well known electrochemical process, with surface area approximately 20 times greater than conventional acupuncture needles. The performance of these high-surface-area PANs is evaluated by monitoring the electrophysiological and behavioral responses from the in vivo stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) points in Wistar rats, showing PANs to be more effective in controlling electrophysiological and behavioral responses than conventional acupuncture needles. Comparative analysis of cocaine induced locomotor activity using PANs and thick acupuncture needles shows enhanced performance of PANs with significantly less pain sensation. Our work offers a unique pathway for achieving a comfortable and improved acupuncture therapeutic effect.
Project description:We present a case of a 50-year-old female with a 2-day history of back and abdominal pain who was discovered to have innumerable chronically retained acupuncture needles, which had migrated throughout her abdomen and pelvis. Although many of these needles were in precarious positions, including the epidural space, renal parenchyma, small bowel, and vasculature, there was no evidence for acute injury. We also briefly discuss evidence for the magnetic resonance imaging compatibility of acupuncture needles. Although a rare complication, given the high frequency of acupuncture therapy in the United States, physicians must be aware of the potential for retained and migrated needles.
Project description:The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the "closed-eye" state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce <i>deqi</i> and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after <i>deqi</i>. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with <i>deqi</i> is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The instant-treatment effect of acupuncture for patients with migraines has been corroborated in numerous studies. However, most diseases are chronic and tend to recur, so the long-term effect of acupuncture can verify the existence of sustained efficacy or the placebo effect. Evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in the prophylaxis of migraine without aura (MWoA) in China is also important because such studies are lacking. METHODS:This trial is a multicenter, prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial. We will randomly allocate 249 participants to three groups of 83. Patients in the individualized acupoint group will be treated with individualized acupuncture point prescriptions. The non-acupoint control group will undergo insertion of acupuncture needles at four bilateral non-points in locations not corresponding to acupuncture points. The waiting-list control group will not undergo treatment but instead will receive 20 acupuncture treatments for free after a waiting period of 24 weeks. Participants in the individualized acupoint group and non-acupoint control group will receive 20 sessions over four weeks and then all participants will receive 20 weeks of follow-up. DISCUSSION:The results of our trial will help to supply evidence for the long-term acupuncture effect for MWoA in a long follow-up period, and special attention will be paid to comparison with the placebo effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01687660) on 18 September 2012.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries.<h4>Methods</h4>Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out.<h4>Results</h4>The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users.
Project description:Background:Efficacy of acupuncture is difficult to demonstrate without a feasible double-blind milieu. Double-blind acupuncture needles have been validated in single session protocols with one or two needles but not been tested in a protocol requiring many needles and repeated sessions. Methods:We determined the feasibility of a 13-needle, 10-session study protocol. Feasibility focused on (1) enrolling and retaining participants; (2) two acupuncturists accurately implementing a double-blind, multi-needle, multi-session protocol; (3) participants completing measures; and (4) protocol acceptability to participants. In this double-blind randomized controlled pilot study, participants were randomized 1:1 to a penetrating needle group or a skin-touch placebo control group. Results:Six women with vulvodynia (mean age 31.5 ± 8 years; five white, non-Latina, one black/African American) met the eligibility requirements, consented to participation, and were enrolled. All six participants (100%) completed the 10-session study protocol in 5 weeks without missing any treatment sessions. Per observed checklist documented technique, two acupuncturists flawlessly administered the 13-needle, 10-session acupuncture protocol; no needles malfunctioned. Six participants attended all sessions and completed 99% of measurement items. One participant did not like acupuncture (60% acceptability score) and five liked acupuncture (100% acceptability scores); the mean acceptability score was 93.3%. Conclusion:Study feasibility was supported. This protocol can be used in a double-blind efficacy trial of acupuncture for vulvodynia. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02704234. Registered 30 November 2015.
Project description:The aim of this study is to screen the possible effective intracellular signaling pathways of EA on bilateral Zusanli acupoint (ST36) by DNA microarray in rats with diabetes. Streptozotocin (STZ) rats with diabetes were randomly assigned to the experimental (EA) group or the control (non-EA) group. The exploratory methods for analysis in this study were the following points: (i) detecting plasma glucose levels (ii) pathway analysis by DNA microarray in rats' gastrocnemius muscle. The pathway analysis of DNA microarray showed that the insulin signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway or Wnt signal pathway might be related to the hypoglycemic effect of STZ rats with diabetes induced by EA. Using DNA microarray would be helpful in screening the possible targets of signaling pathways. The hypoglycemic effect of EA was close relative to insulin and relative intracellular signal pathways. Further research will be required to determine the details of the intracellular signaling pathways of the hypoglycemic effect induced by EA. Overall design: STZ-induced diabetic rats were punctured at ST36 acupoint with 1.27 cm, 32 gauge acupuncture needles. After a 5-min needling period, EA was performed for 60 minutes at a frequency of 15 Hz with amplitude of 10 mA. Total RNA was then extracted from skeletal muscle for microarray analysis.
Project description:Whether acupuncture treatment employing multiple penetrating, skin-touch placebo, or no-touch placebo needles designed for double blinding actually do blind practitioners and patients has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate this question.120 patients with functional neck/shoulder stiffness but in otherwise healthy condition were randomly assigned to a treatment using four penetrating, four skin-touch placebo, or four no-touch placebo needles. Each of six acupuncturists applied four needles to four acupoints in the neck/shoulder of 20 patients. Acupuncturists and patients were asked to guess the treatment mode and their confidence in their guesses on 100 mm visual analog scales.The kappa coefficients between practitioner guesses and treatment type and between patient guesses and treatment type were 0.15 and 0.44, respectively. The median score of practitioner confidence was 46.8, and no significant difference in confidence between correct and incorrect guesses was revealed for any treatment. The median score of patient confidence for correct guesses was 77.6. The kappa coefficient between practitioner and patient guesses was 0.06.The practitioners were blinded to the nature of treatment using the same multiple needles, but patient blinding was insufficient. Further improvement is necessary to achieve satisfactory patient blinding with these acupuncture needles.
Project description:Acupuncture has been indispensable in Chinese medicine. However, its function still remains elusive. This paper studies the effect of acupuncture in ischemia stroke treatment using the Sprague Dawley rat animal model. We induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure. For each rat in the real acupuncture group (n = 63), the sham acupoint treatment group (n = 62), and the blank control group (n = 30), we acquired 3-D fluorodeoxyglucose-microPET images at baseline, after MCAO, and after treatment, respectively. Then, we measured the changes of the injury-volume in the right hemisphere of these rats. The measurements showed that real acupuncture slightly reduced the injury-volume, sham acupoint treatment increased the injury-volume, and blank control had no obvious effect in reducing the injury-volume. Statistical tests also confirmed that acupuncture was more effective than random stimulus in improving the metabolic recovery after stroke.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Most ETOH addiction preclinical studies have focused on the rewards of chronic ETOH self-administration or the ETOH reinstatement model. Acute ETOH administration studies are scarce despite the potential of ETOH to cause sedation, intoxication and reduced acute functional tolerance. Here, we established a rat model of acute ETOH administration induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 1?g/kg ethanol and assessed the similarities in physiological and behavioral effects between acupuncture and Sigma1 R antagonists.<h4>Methods</h4>Male Wistar rats (300-330?g) received pretreatment with (1) saline injection, (2) saline?+?mechanical stimulation using a mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7), (3) ETOH (1?g/kg) injection, (4) ETOH?+?HT7, or (5) the selective ?<sub>1</sub> R antagonist BD 1047 (3, 10, or 30?mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP) injection). ETOH (1?g/kg) or saline was IP injected after 10?min. Then, ETOH-induced immobility was evaluated in an open field arena, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) indicating ethanol-induced emotional changes were recorded in a recording chamber, and the rats were sacrificed for the analysis of protein levels of ?<sub>1</sub> R in several regions of the brain.<h4>Results</h4>Acute ethanol exposure increased the immobile time, 22-kHz USVs, and protein levels of ?<sub>1</sub> R in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, pretreatment with acupuncture at HT7 induced recovery of immobile time, reduced 22-kHz USVs, and regulated the protein levels of ?1 R in the VTA. These effects have similarities with IP injection of BD 1047 (10?mg/kg).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed that acupuncture at HT7 regulates immobility and 22-kHz USVs via Sigma<sub>1</sub> R in the VTA upon acute ETOH exposure.