Effects of the ABCB1 (1199G > A) Polymorphism on Steroid Sex Hormone-Induced P-Glycoprotein Expression, ATPase Activity, and Hormone Efflux.
ABSTRACT: This study examined how the 1199G > A polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the protein's expression, ATPase activity, and ability to pump female steroid sex hormones out of LLC-PK1 cells. The ABCB1 (1199G) or ABCB1 (1199A) allele was transfected into cells, which were incubated for 48 h with various hormone concentrations, then analyzed by Western blotting to examine expression of P-gp protein and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine expression of mRNA. Cells were also compared in terms of their transepithelial permeability to steroid sex hormones in the presence and absence of the specific P-gp inhibitor GF120918. P-gp ATPase activity induced by steroid sex hormones was also assayed. Estriol and ethynyl estradiol up-regulated levels of ABCB1 mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner, with ABCB1 (1199A) mRNA showing greater up-regulation than ABCB1 (1199G) mRNA. Estrone, estriol, and ethynyl estradiol were substrates of both types of P-gp in transepithelial permeability assays, and the ABCB1 (1199A) protein showed a significantly higher net efflux ratio for estrone (13.4 vs. 7.4, p < 0.005), estriol (5.6 vs. 3.3, p < 0.05), and ethynyl estradiol (12.7 vs. 5.3, p < 0.005). Induction of P-gp ATPase activity by ethynyl estradiol and progesterone increased with increasing hormone concentration, and the magnitude of stimulation was greater for ABCB1 (1199A) P-gp than for ABCB1 (1199G) P-gp. These results indicate that the ABCB1 (1199G > A) polymorphism influences steroid sex hormone-induced expression and function of P-gp, which may help to explain inter-patient differences in P-gp-mediated chemotherapy resistance in vivo.
Project description:C. testosteroni is a research topic that can degrade steroid hormones into water and carbon dioxide through a series of enzymes in the body. Short-chain dehydrogenase (SDR) are a class of NAD (P) H-dependent oxidoreductases in C. testosteroni. Its main function is catalyzing the redox of the hydroxyl/ketone group of the hormone. In this paper, a SDR gene(SDRx) is cloned from C. testosteroni ATCC11996 and expressed. The polyclonal antibody was prepared and the SDRx gene knocked out by homologous recombination. Wild type and mutant C. testosteroni induced by testosterone, estradiol, estrone and estriol. The growth curves of the bacteria were measured by spectrophotometer. ELISA established the expression of SDRx protein, and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) detected the contents of various hormones. The results show that the growth of wild type was faster than mutant type induced by testosterone. The concentration of SDRx is 0.318?mg/ml under testosterone induction. It has a great change in steroid hormones residue in culture medium measured by HPLC: Testosterone residue in the mutant type group was 42.4 % more than the wild type in culture medium. The same thing happens with induced by estrone. In summary, this SDRx gene involved in the degradation of testosterone and estradiol, and effects the growth of C. testosteroni.
Project description:Menstrual cycle characteristics are markers of endocrine milieu. However, associations between age at menarche and adulthood sex steroid hormone levels have been inconsistent, and data on menstrual characteristics and non-sex steroid hormones are sparse.We assessed the relations of menstrual characteristics with premenopausal plasma sex steroid hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), prolactin, and growth factors among 2,745 premenopausal women (age 32-52) from the Nurses' Health Study II. Geometric means and tests for trend were calculated using multivariable general linear models.Early age at menarche was associated with higher premenopausal early-follicular free estradiol (percent difference <?12 vs.?>?13 years?=?11%), early-follicular estrone (7%), luteal estrone (7%), and free testosterone (8%) (all p trend?<?0.05). Short menstrual cycle length at age 18-22 was associated with higher early-follicular total (<?26 vs.?>?39 days?=?18%) and free estradiol (16%), early-follicular estrone (9%), SHBG (7%), lower luteal free estradiol (-?14%), total (-?6%), and free testosterone (-?15%) (all p trend?<?0.05). Short adult menstrual length was associated with higher early-follicular total estradiol (<?26 vs.?>?31 days?=?14%), SHBG (10%), lower luteal estrone (-?8%), progesterone (-?9%), total (-?11%) and free testosterone (-?25%), and androstenedione (-?14%) (all p trend?<?0.05). Irregularity of menses at 18-22 was associated with lower early-follicular total (irregular vs. very regular?=?-?14%) and free estradiol (-?14%), and early-follicular estrone (-?8%) (All p trend?<?0.05). Irregularity of adult menstrual cycle was associated with lower luteal total estradiol (irregular vs. very regular?=?-?8%), SHBG (-?3%), higher total (8%), and free testosterone (11%) (all p trend?<?0.05).Early-life and adulthood menstrual characteristics are moderately associated with mid-to-late reproductive year's hormone concentrations. These relations of menstrual characteristics with endogenous hormone levels could partially account for associations between menstrual characteristics and reproductive cancers or other chronic diseases.
Project description:A new extraction phase based on hydrogel disks of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and pectin was proposed, characterized and evaluated for the extraction of six steroidal hormones (estriol, estrone, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethinylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone) in aqueous samples with subsequent determination by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after the derivatization procedure. The developed extraction procedure was based on the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique, but employed hydrogel as the sorbent phase. The effects of several parameters, including the amount and composition of the sorbent phase, pH, sample volume, flow rate, and gel swelling over the extraction efficiency, were evaluated. Gels with lower swelling indexes and larger amounts of sorbent ensured higher extraction yields of analytes. The main benefits of using the PVOH/pectin-based hydrogel as the extraction phase are the ease of synthesis, low-cost preparation, and the possibility of reusing the extraction disks. Limits of quantification of 0.5 ?g L-1 for estrone and 17?-estradiol, and 1 ?g L-1 for testosterone, 17?-ethinylestradiol, progesterone, and estriol were obtained. Accuracy values ranged from 80% to 110%, while the inter-assay precision ranged from 0.23% to 22.2% and the intra-assay from 0.55% to 12.3%. Since the sorbent phase has an amphiphilic character, the use of hydrogels is promising for the extraction of medium-to-high polarity compounds.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Estrogen metabolism may be associated with the pathophysiological development of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: To evaluate the differential estrogen metabolism between benign and malignant PTCs, estrogen profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to urine samples from postmenopausal patients with 9 benign tumors and 18 malignant stage I and III/IV PTCs. RESULTS: The urinary concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol was significantly lower in the stage I malignant patients (3.5-fold; P?<?0.025) than in the benign group. The metabolic ratios of 16?-OH-estrone/estrone and estriol/estradiol, which are responsible for 16?-hydroxylase activity, were increased more than 2.5-fold in the advanced-stage malignant PTC (P?<?0.02 each). The more than 6.2-fold decrease in the urinary 2-/16?-hydroxylase ratio in stage III/IV malignant PTC was consistent with the ratio in postmenopausal patients with endocrine gland cancers. In addition, reductive 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD; estradiol/estrone or estriol/16?-OH-estrone) was present at significantly higher levels in subjects with stage III/IV malignant PTCs than in benign subjects (>3.5-fold difference; P?<?0.002). In particular, the estriol/16?-OH-estrone ratio differentiated between the benign and early-stage malignant patients (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Increased 16?-hydroxylation and/or a decreased 2-/16?-ratio, as well increased reductive 17?-HSD, with regard to estrogen metabolism could provide potential biomarkers. The devised profiles could be useful for differentiating malignant thyroid carcinomas from benign adenomas in postmenopausal women.
Project description:Monitoring complex endocrine pathways is often limited by indirect measurement or measurement of a single hormone class per analysis. There is a burgeoning need to develop specific direct-detection methods capable of providing simultaneous measurement of biologically relevant concentrations of multiple classes of hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestogens, and corticosteroids). The objectives of this study were to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for multi-class steroid hormone detection using biologically relevant concentrations, then test limits of detection (LOD) in a high-background matrix by spiking charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS) extract. Accuracy was tested with National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) with certified concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone. 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, adrenosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, estriol, estrone, equilin, pregnenolone, progesterone, and testosterone were also measured using isotopic dilution. Dansyl chloride (DC) derivatization was investigated maintaining the same method to improve and expedite estrogen analysis. Biologically relevant LODs were determined for 15 hormones. DC derivatization improved estrogen response two- to eight-fold, and improved chromatographic separation. All measurements had an accuracy ?14 % difference from certified values (not accounting for uncertainty) and relative standard deviation ?14 %. This method chromatographically separated and quantified biologically relevant concentrations of four hormone classes using highly specific fragmentation patterns and measured certified values of hormones that were previously split into three separate chromatographic methods.
Project description:Objectives To identify factors predicting maternal sex steroid hormone concentrations in early pregnancy. Methods The Infant Development and the Environment Study recruited healthy pregnant women from academic medical centers in four US cities. Gold standard liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure maternal sex steroids concentrations (total testosterone [TT], free testosterone [FT], estrone [E1], estradiol [E2], and estriol [E3] concentrations) in serum samples from 548 women carrying singletons (median?=?11.7 weeks gestation). Women completed questionnaires on demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results In multivariable linear regression analyses, hormone concentrations varied in relation to maternal age, body mass index (BMI), race, and parity. Older mothers had significantly lower levels of most hormones; for every year increase in maternal age, there was a 1-2% decrease in E1, E2, TT, and FT. By contrast, each unit increase in maternal BMI was associated 1-2% lower estrogen (E1, E2, E3) levels, but 1-2% higher androgen (TT, FT) concentrations. Hormone concentrations were 4-18% lower among parous women, and for each year elapsed since last birth, TT and FT were 1-2% higher (no difference in estrogens). Androgen concentrations were 18-30% higher among Black women compared to women of other races. Fetal sex, maternal stress, and lifestyle factors (including alcohol and tobacco use) were not related to maternal steroid concentrations. Conclusions for Practice Maternal demographic factors predict sex steroid hormone concentrations during pregnancy, which is important given increasing evidence that the prenatal endocrine environment shapes future risk of chronic disease for both mother and offspring.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) transporter, or P-glycoprotein, is an efflux protein implicated in the absorption and the distribution of various compounds, including tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. In vivo studies suggest an association between the ABCB1 1199G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and tacrolimus intracellular accumulation. The aim of the present experimental study was to clarify in vitro the impact of the coding ABCB1 1199G>A SNP on ABCB1 transport activity towards both immunosuppressive drugs.Two recombinant cell lines, i.e. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) and Human Myelogenous Leukemia (K562) cells, overexpressing ABCB1 carrying either the wild-type allele (1199G) or its mutated counterpart (1199A), were generated. The impact of the 1199G>A SNP on ABCB1 activity towards rhodamine (Rh123), doxorubicin, vinblastine, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A was assessed by accumulation, cytotoxicity and/or kinetic experiments.Tacrolimus accumulation was strongly decreased in cells overexpressing the wild-type protein (1199G) compared to control cells, confirming the ability of ABCB1 to transport tacrolimus. By contrast, overexpression of the variant protein (1199A) had nearly no effect on tacrolimus intracellular accumulation whatever the model used and the concentration tested. Unlike tacrolimus, our results also indicate that cyclosporine A, Rh123 and doxorubicin are transported in a similar extent by the wild-type and variant ABCB1 proteins while the variant protein seems to be more efficient for the transport of vinblastine.ABCB1 encoded by the 1199G wild-type allele transports more efficiently tacrolimus in comparison to the 1199A variant protein. This observation indicates that the amino-acid substitution (Ser400Asn) encoded by the 1199A allele drastically decreases the ability of ABCB1 to drive the efflux of tacrolimus in a substrate-specific manner, in agreement with our previously published clinical data. Our study emphasizes the importance of the ABCB1 1199G>A polymorphism for ABCB1 activity and its potential to explain differences in drug response.
Project description:In this report, Pseudomonas putida SJTE1 isolated from an enrichment culture of sludge was confirmed to degrade natural estrogens (17?-estradiol, estrone, estriol), estrogenic chemicals (naphthalene and phenanthrene) and testosterone. The strain completely degraded 1 mg/L 17?-estradiol in 24 h and transformed it into estrone; 90% and 75% of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L 17?-estradiol were utilized in 7 days, respectively. The transformation efficiency of this strain against natural estrogens was much higher than that against other estrogenic chemicals. Organic carbon sources, lipopolysaccharide and surfactants could enhance the degradation efficiency of strain SJTE-1 against 17?-estradiol. The adsorption of 17?-estradiol onto the biomass was the premise for transmembrane and cellular utilization of this chemical. This work has the potential to bioremediate the environmental estrogens.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease.
Project description:The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics.This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status.We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later.At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss.The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS.