Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate is required for KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel function but not anterograde trafficking.
ABSTRACT: The slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) is crucial for human cardiac action potential repolarization. The formation of IKs requires co-assembly of the KCNQ1 ?-subunit and KCNE1 ?-subunit, and mutations in either of these subunits can lead to hereditary long QT syndrome types 1 and 5, respectively. It is widely recognised that the KCNQ1/KCNE1 (Q1/E1) channel requires phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding for function. We previously identified a cluster of basic residues in the proximal C-terminus of KCNQ1 that form a PIP2/phosphoinositide binding site. Upon charge neutralisation of these residues we found that the channel became more retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, which raised the possibility that channel-phosphoinositide interactions could play a role in channel trafficking. To explore this further we used a chemically induced dimerization (CID) system to selectively deplete PIP2 and/or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) at the plasma membrane (PM) or Golgi, and we subsequently monitored the effects on both channel trafficking and function. The depletion of PIP2 and/or PI(4)P at either the PM or Golgi did not alter channel cell-surface expression levels. However, channel function was extremely sensitive to the depletion of PIP2 at the PM, which is in contrast to the response of other cardiac potassium channels tested (Kir2.1 and Kv11.1). Surprisingly, when using the CID system IKs was dramatically reduced even before dimerization was induced, highlighting limitations regarding the utility of this system when studying processes highly sensitive to PIP2 depletion. In conclusion, we identify that the Q1/E1 channel does not require PIP2 or PI(4)P for anterograde trafficking, but is heavily reliant on PIP2 for channel function once at the PM.
Project description:The IKs channel complex is formed by the co-assembly of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1), a voltage-gated potassium channel, with its ?-subunit, KCNE1 and the association of numerous accessory regulatory molecules such as PIP2, calmodulin, and yotiao. As a result, the IKs potassium current shows kinetic and regulatory flexibility, which not only allows IKs to fulfill physiological roles as disparate as cardiac repolarization and the maintenance of endolymph K+ homeostasis, but also to cause significant disease when it malfunctions. Here, we review new areas of understanding in the assembly, kinetics of activation and inactivation, voltage-sensor pore coupling, unitary events and regulation of this important ion channel complex, all of which have been given further impetus by the recent solution of cryo-EM structural representations of KCNQ1 alone and KCNQ1+KCNE3. Recently, the stoichiometric ratio of KCNE1 to KCNQ1 subunits has been confirmed to be variable up to a ratio of 4:4, rather than fixed at 2:4, and we will review the results and new methodologies that support this conclusion. Significant advances have been made in understanding differences between KCNQ1 and IKs gating using voltage clamp fluorimetry and mutational analysis to illuminate voltage sensor activation and inactivation, and the relationship between voltage sensor translation and pore domain opening. We now understand that the KCNQ1 pore can open with different permeabilities and conductance when the voltage sensor is in partially or fully activated positions, and the ability to make robust single channel recordings from IKs channels has also revealed the complicated pore subconductance architecture during these opening steps, during inactivation, and regulation by 1-4 associated KCNE1 subunits. Experiments placing mutations into individual voltage sensors to drastically change voltage dependence or prevent their movement altogether have demonstrated that the activation of KCNQ1 alone and IKs can best be explained using allosteric models of channel gating. Finally, we discuss how the intrinsic gating properties of KCNQ1 and IKs are highly modulated through the impact of intracellular signaling molecules and co-factors such as PIP2, protein kinase A, calmodulin and ATP, all of which modulate IKs current kinetics and contribute to diverse IKs channel complex function.
Project description:KCNQ1 is co-assembled with KCNE1 subunits in the heart to form the cardiac delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKs), which is one of the main currents responsible for myocyte repolarization. The most commonly inherited form of cardiac arrhythmias, long-QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1), is due to mutations on KCNQ1. Gq-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) are known to mediate positive inotropism in human ventricular myocardium. The mechanism of IKs current modulation by GqPCRs remains incompletely understood. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms underlying Gq regulation of the IKs channel. Heterologously expressed IKs (human KCNQ1/KCNE1 subunits) was measured in Xenopus oocytes, expressed together with GqPCRs. Our data from several GqPCRs shows that IKs is regulated in a biphasic manner, showing both an activation and an inhibition phase. Receptor-mediated inhibition phase was irreversible when recycling of agonist-sensitive pools of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) was blocked by the lipid kinase inhibitor wortmannin. In addition, stimulation of PIP(2) production, by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase (PIP5-kinase), decreased receptor-mediated inhibition. The receptor-mediated activation phase was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C and by a mutation in a putative PKC phosphorylation site in the KCNE1 subunit. Our results indicate that the depletion of membrane PIP(2) underlies receptor-mediated inhibition of IKs and that phosphorylation by PKC of the KCNE1 subunit underlies the GqPCR-mediated channel activation.
Project description:Long QT syndrome 1 (LQT1) mutations in KCNQ1 that decrease cardiac IKs (slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current) underlie ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQT1 mutations may suppress IKs by preventing KCNQ1 assembly, disrupting surface trafficking, or inhibiting gating. We investigated mechanisms underlying how three LQT1 mutations in KCNQ1 C-terminus assembly domain (R555H/G589D/L619M) decrease IKs in heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes.In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, mutant KCNQ1 + KCNE1 channels either produced no currents (G589D/L619M) or displayed markedly reduced IKs with a right-shifted voltage-dependence of activation (R555H). When co-expressed with wild-type (wt) KCNQ1, the mutant KCNQ1s displayed varying intrinsic dominant-negative capacities that were affected by auxiliary KCNE1. All three mutant KCNQ1s assembled with wt KCNQ1 as determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We developed an optical quantum dot labelling assay to measure channel surface density. G589D/R555H displayed substantial reductions in surface density, which were either partially (G589D) or fully (R555H) rescued by wt KCNQ1. Unexpectedly, L619M showed no trafficking defect. In adult rat cardiomyocytes, adenovirus-expressed homotetrameric G589D/L619M + KCNE1 channels yielded no currents, whereas R555H + KCNE1 produced diminished IKs with a right-shifted voltage-dependence of activation, mimicking observations in CHO cells. In contrast to heterologous cells, homotetrameric R555H channels showed no trafficking defect in cardiomyocytes.Distinct LQT1 mutations in KCNQ1 assembly domain decrease IKs using unique combinations of biophysical and trafficking mechanisms. Functional deficits in IKs observed in heterologous cells are mostly, but not completely, recapitulated in adult rat cardiomyocytes. A 'methodological chain' combining approaches in heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes provides mechanistic insights that may help advance personalized therapy for LQT1 mutations.
Project description:KCNQ1 and KCNE1 assemble to form the slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel critical for shortening ventricular action potentials during high ?-adrenergic tone. However, too much IKs under basal conditions poses an arrhythmogenic risk. Our objective is to understand how adult ventricular myocytes regulate the IKs amplitudes under basal conditions and in response to stress.We express fluorescently tagged KCNQ1 and KCNE1 in adult ventricular myocytes and follow their biogenesis and trafficking paths. We also study the distribution patterns of native KCNQ1 and KCNE1, and their relationship to IKs amplitudes, in chronically stressed ventricular myocytes, and use COS-7 cell expression to probe the underlying mechanism. We show that KCNQ1 and KCNE1 are both translated in the perinuclear region but traffic by different routes, independent of each other, to their separate subcellular locations. KCNQ1 mainly resides in the jSR (junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum), whereas KCNE1 resides on the cell surface. Under basal conditions, only a small portion of KCNQ1 reaches the cell surface to support the IKs function. However, in response to chronic stress, KCNQ1 traffics from jSR to the cell surface to boost the IKs amplitude in a process depending on Ca binding to CaM (calmodulin).In adult ventricular myocytes, KCNE1 maintains a stable presence on the cell surface, whereas KCNQ1 is dynamic in its localization. KCNQ1 is largely in an intracellular reservoir under basal conditions but can traffic to the cell surface and boost the IKs amplitude in response to stress.
Project description:Cardiac slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel is composed of KCNQ1 (pore-forming) and KCNE1 (auxiliary) subunits. Although KCNE1 is an obligate IKs component that confers the uniquely slow gating kinetics, KCNE2 is also expressed in human heart. In vitro experiments suggest that KCNE2 can associate with the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex to suppress the current amplitude without altering the slow gating kinetics. Our goal here is to test the role of KCNE2 in cardiac IKs channel function. Pulse-chase experiments in COS-7 cells show that there is a KCNE1 turnover in the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex, supporting the possibility that KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex can be substituted by KCNE2 when the latter is available. Biotinylation experiments in COS-7 cells show that although KCNE1 relies on KCNQ1 coassembly for more efficient cell surface expression, KCNE2 can independently traffic to the cell surface, thus becoming available for substituting KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex. Injecting vesicles carrying KCNE1 or KCNE2 into KCNQ1-expressing oocytes leads to KCNQ1 modulation in the same manner as KCNQ1+KCNEx (where x=1 or 2) cRNA coinjection. Thus, free KCNEx peptides delivered to the cell membrane can associate with existing KCNQ1 channels to modulate their function. Finally, adenovirus-mediated KCNE2 expression in adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes exhibited colocalization with native KCNQ1 protein and reduces the native IKs current density. We propose that in cardiac myocytes the IKs current amplitude is under dynamic control by the availability of KCNE2 subunits in the cell membrane.
Project description:KCNE1 (E1) ?-subunits assemble with KCNQ1 (Q1) voltage-gated K(+) channel ?-subunits to form IKslow (IKs) channels in the heart and ear. The number of E1 subunits in IKs channels has been an issue of ongoing debate. Here, we use single-molecule spectroscopy to demonstrate that surface IKs channels with human subunits contain two E1 and four Q1 subunits. This stoichiometry does not vary. Thus, IKs channels in cells with elevated levels of E1 carry no more than two E1 subunits. Cells with low levels of E1 produce IKs channels with two E1 subunits and Q1 channels with no E1 subunits--channels with one E1 do not appear to form or are restricted from surface expression. The plethora of models of cardiac function, transgenic animals, and drug screens based on variable E1 stoichiometry do not reflect physiology.
Project description:The slowly-activating delayed rectifier current IKs contributes to repolarization of the cardiac action potential, and is composed of a pore-forming ?-subunit, KCNQ1, and a modulatory ?-subunit, KCNE1. Mutations in either subunit can cause long QT syndrome, a potentially fatal arrhythmic disorder. How KCNE1 exerts its extensive control over the kinetics of IKs remains unresolvedTo evaluate the impact of a novel KCNQ1 mutation on IKs channel gating and kineticsKCNQ1 mutations were expressed in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of KCNE1. Voltage clamping and MODELLER software were used to characterize and model channel function. Mutant and wt genes were cloned into FLAG, Myc and HA expression vectors to achieve differential epitope tagging, and expressed in HEK293 cells for immunohistochemical localization and surface biotinylation assay.We identified 2 adjacent mutations, S338F and F339S, in the KCNQ1 S6 domain in unrelated probands. The novel KCNQ1 S338F mutation segregated with prolonged QT interval and torsade de pointes; the second variant, F339S, was associated with fetal bradycardia and prolonged QT interval, but no other clinical events. S338F channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes had slightly increased peak conductance relative to wild type, with a more positive activation voltage. F339S channels conducted minimal current. Unexpectedly, S338F currents were abolished by co-expression with intact WT KCNE1 or its C-terminus (aa63-129), despite normal membrane trafficking and surface co-localization of KCNQ1 S338F and wt KCNE1. Structural modeling indicated that the S338F mutation specifically alters the interaction between the S6 domain of one KCNQ1 subunit and the S4-S5 linker of another, inhibiting voltage-induced movement synergistically with KCNE1 binding.A novel KCNQ1 mutation specifically impaired channel function in the presence of KCNE1. Our structural model shows that this mutation effectively immobilizes voltage gating by an inhibitory interaction that is additive with that of KCNE1. Our findings illuminate a previously unreported mechanism for LQTS, and validate recent theoretical models of the closed state of the KCNQ1:KCNE1 complex.
Project description:The slow cardiac delayed rectifier current (IKs) is formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits and is one of the major repolarizing currents in the heart. Decrease of IKs currents either due to inherited mutations or pathological remodeling is associated with increased risk for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Ca2+-dependent PKC isoforms (cPKC) are chronically activated in heart disease and diabetes. Recently, we found that sustained stimulation of the calcium-dependent PKC?II isoform leads to decrease in KCNQ1 subunit membrane localization and KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel activity, although the role of KCNE1 in this regulation was not explored. Here, we show that the auxiliary KCNE1 subunit expression is necessary for channel internalization. A mutation in a KCNE1 phosphorylation site (KCNE1(S102A)) abolished channel internalization in both heterologous expression systems and cardiomyocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that KCNE1(S102) phosphorylation by PKC?II leads to KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel internalization in response to sustained PKC stimulus, while leaving KCNQ1 homomeric channels in the membrane. This preferential internalization is expected to have strong impact on cardiac repolarization. Our results suggest that KCNE1(S102) is an important anti-arrhythmic drug target to prevent IKs pathological remodeling leading to cardiac arrhythmias.
Project description:The slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel is composed of the KCNQ1 channel and KCNE1 auxiliary subunit, and functions to repolarize action potentials in the human heart. IKs activators may provide therapeutic efficacy for treating long QT syndromes. Here, we show that a new KCNQ1 activator, ML277, can enhance IKs amplitude in adult guinea pig and canine ventricular myocytes. We probe its binding site and mechanism of action by computational analysis based on our recently reported KCNQ1 and KCNQ1/KCNE1 3D models, followed by experimental validation. Results from a pocket analysis and docking exercise suggest that ML277 binds to a side pocket in KCNQ1 and the KCNE1-free side pocket of KCNQ1/KCNE1. Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations based on the most favorable channel/ML277 docking configurations reveal a well-defined ML277 binding space surrounded by the S2-S3 loop and S4-S5 helix on the intracellular side, and by S4-S6 transmembrane helices on the lateral sides. A detailed analysis of MD trajectories suggests two mechanisms of ML277 action. First, ML277 restricts the conformational dynamics of the KCNQ1 pore, optimizing K(+) ion coordination in the selectivity filter and increasing current amplitudes. Second, ML277 binding induces global motions in the channel, including regions critical for KCNQ1 gating transitions. We conclude that ML277 activates IKs by binding to an intersubunit space and allosterically influencing pore conductance and gating transitions. KCNE1 association protects KCNQ1 from an arrhythmogenic (constitutive current-inducing) effect of ML277, but does not preclude its current-enhancing effect.
Project description:Cardiac repolarization is determined in part by the slow delayed rectifier current (IKs), through the tetrameric voltage-gated ion channel, KCNQ1, and its ?-subunit, KCNE1. The stoichiometry between ? and ?-subunits has been controversial with studies reporting either a strict 2 KCNE1:4 KCNQ1 or a variable ratio up to 4:4. We used IKs fusion proteins linking KCNE1 to one (EQ), two (EQQ) or four (EQQQQ) KCNQ1 subunits, to reproduce compulsory 4:4, 2:4 or 1:4 stoichiometries. Whole cell and single-channel recordings showed EQQ and EQQQQ to have increasingly hyperpolarized activation, reduced conductance, and shorter first latency of opening compared to EQ - all abolished by the addition of KCNE1. As well, using a UV-crosslinking unnatural amino acid in KCNE1, we found EQQQQ and EQQ crosslinking rates to be progressively slowed compared to KCNQ1, which demonstrates that no intrinsic mechanism limits the association of up to four ?-subunits within the IKs complex.