Ischemic Cerebroprotection Conferred by Myeloid Lineage-Restricted or Global CD39 Transgene Expression.
ABSTRACT: Cerebral tissue damage after an ischemic event can be exacerbated by inflammation and thrombosis. Elevated extracellular ATP and ADP levels are associated with cellular injury, inflammation, and thrombosis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39), an enzyme expressed on the plasmalemma of leukocytes and endothelial cells, suppresses platelet activation and leukocyte infiltration by phosphohydrolyzing ATP/ADP. To investigate the effects of increased CD39 in an in vivo cerebral ischemia model, we developed a transgenic mouse expressing human CD39 (hCD39).A floxed-stop sequence was inserted between the promoter and the hCD39 transcriptional start site, generating a mouse in which the expression of hCD39 can be controlled tissue-specifically using Cre recombinase mice. We generated mice that express hCD39 globally or in myeloid-lineage cells only. Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volumes were quantified by MRI after 48 hours.Both global and transgenic hCD39- and myeloid lineage CD39-overexpressing mice (transgenic, n=9; myeloid lineage, n=6) demonstrated significantly smaller cerebral infarct volumes compared with wild-type mice. Leukocytes from ischemic and contralateral hemispheres were analyzed by flow cytometry. Although contralateral hemispheres had equal numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, ischemic hemispheres from transgenic mice had less infiltration (n=4). Transgenic mice showed less neurological deficit compared with wild-type mice (n=6).This is the first report of transgenic overexpression of CD39 in mice imparting a protective phenotype after stroke, with reduced leukocyte infiltration, smaller infarct volumes, and decreased neurological deficit. CD39 overexpression, either globally or in myeloid lineage cells, quenches postischemic leukosequestration and reduces stroke-induced neurological injury.
Project description:CD39 (ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1; ENTPD-1) rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP; AMP is hydrolyzed by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, an anti-thrombotic and cardiovascular protective mediator. While expression of human CD39 in a murine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury confers cardiac protection, the translational therapeutic potential of these findings requires further testing in a large animal model. To determine if transgenic expression of CD39 reduces infarct size in a swine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, transgenic pigs expressing human CD39 (hCD39) were generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer and characterized. Expression of hC39 in cardiac tissue was confirmed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Myocardial I/R injury was induced by intracoronary balloon inflation in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for 60 min followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. The ischemic area was delineated by perfusion with 5% phthalo blue and the myocardial infarct size was determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. During ischemia, the rate-pressure product was significantly lower in control versus hCD39-Tg swine. Following reperfusion, compared to littermate control swine, hCD39-Tg animals displayed a significant reduction in infarct size (hCD39-Tg: 17.2 ± 4.3% vs.44.7 ± 5.2%, P=0.0025). Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the findings in transgenic mouse models translate to large animal transgenic models and validate the potential to translate CD39 into the clinical arena to attenuate human myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:Circulating blood cells and endothelial cells express ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). CD39 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP or ADP to AMP. CD73 hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine. The goal of this study was to examine the interplay between CD39 and CD73 cascade in arterial thrombosis.To determine how CD73 activity influences in vivo thrombosis, the time to ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis was measured in CD73-null mice. In response to 5% FeCl3, but not to 10% FeCl3, there was a significant decrease in the time to thrombosis in CD73-null mice compared with wild-type mice. In mice overexpressing CD39, ablation of CD73 did not inhibit the prolongation in the time to thrombosis conveyed by CD39 overexpression. However, the CD73 inhibitor ?-?-methylene-ADP nullified the prolongation in the time to thrombosis in human CD39 transgenic (hC39-Tg)/CD73-null mice. To determine whether hematopoietic-derived cells or endothelial cell CD39 activity regulates in vivo arterial thrombus, bone marrow transplant studies were conducted. FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis in chimeric mice revealed a significant prolongation in the time to thrombosis in hCD39-Tg reconstituted wild-type mice, but not on wild-type reconstituted hCD39-Tg mice. Monocyte depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes normalized the time to thrombosis in hCD39-Tg mice compared with hCD39-Tg mice treated with control liposomes, demonstrating that increased CD39 expression on monocytes protects against thrombosis.These data demonstrate that ablation of CD73 minimally effects in vivo thrombosis, but increased CD39 expression on hematopoietic-derived cells, especially monocytes, attenuates in vivo arterial thrombosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Inflammatory cells play a significant role in secondary injury after ischemic stroke. Recent studies have suggested that a lack of autophagy in myeloid cells causes augmented proinflammatory cytokine release and prolonged inflammation after tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the roles of myeloid cell autophagy in ischemic brain injury. METHODS:Focal cerebral ischemia was induced via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice with autophagy-deficient myeloid lineage cells (Atg5flox/flox LysMCre+) and in their littermate controls (Atg5flox/flox). Infarct volume, neurological function, inflammatory cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine expression levels were evaluated. RESULTS:Mice lacking autophagy in myeloid lineage cells had a lower survival rate for 14 days than control mice (20% versus 70%; P<0.05). Although there was no difference in infarct volume at 12 hours between the 2 groups, mice lacking autophagy in myeloid lineage cells had larger infarct volumes at later time points (3 and 7 days after reperfusion) with worse neurological deficit scores and lower grip test scores. There were a higher number of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1-positive cells and cells expressing M1 marker CD16/32 in mice lacking autophagy in myeloid cells at the later time points. Moreover, these mice had higher expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines at later time points; however, there was no difference in ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1-positive cells or mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at the earlier time point (12 hours after reperfusion). CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that the lack of myeloid cell autophagy aggravates secondary injury by augmenting and prolonging inflammation after ischemic stroke without affecting the initial injury.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that augmented and prolonged activation of astrocytes detrimentally influences both the subacute and chronic phases of cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, we have suggested that the astrocyte-derived protein S100B may be important in these pathogenic events. However, the causal relationship between S100B and exacerbation of brain damage in vivo remains to be elucidated.Using transgenic mice overexpressing human S100B (Tg huS100B mice), we examined whether S100B plays a cardinal role in aggravation of brain damage after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO).Tg huS100B mice had significantly larger infarct volumes and worse neurological deficits at any time point examined after pMCAO as compared with CD-1 background strain-matched control mice. Infarct volumes in Tg huS100B mice were significantly increased from 1 to 3 and 5 days after pMCAO (delayed infarct expansion), whereas those in control mice were not significantly altered. S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba1 burdens in the periinfarct area were significantly increased through to 7 days after pMCAO in Tg huS100B mice, whereas those in control mice reached a plateau at 3 days after pMCAO.These results provide genetic evidence that overexpression of human S100B acts to exacerbate brain damage and periinfarct reactive gliosis (astrocytosis and microgliosis) during the subacute phase of pMCAO.
Project description:Microglia are activated following cerebral ischemia and increase their production of the neuro- and immunomodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). To address the function of TNF from this cellular source in focal cerebral ischemia we used TNF conditional knock out mice (LysMcreTNF(fl/fl)) in which the TNF gene was deleted in cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia. The deletion reduced secreted TNF levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cultured primary microglia by ~93%. Furthermore, phosphorylated-ERK/ERK ratios were significantly decreased in naïve LysMcreTNF(fl/fl) mice demonstrating altered ERK signal transduction. Micro-PET using (18)[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose immediately after focal cerebral ischemia showed increased glucose uptake in LysMcreTNF(fl/fl) mice, representing significant metabolic changes, that translated into increased infarct volumes at 24?hours and 5 days compared to littermates (TNFfl/fl). In naïve LysMcreTNF(fl/fl) mice cytokine levels were low and comparable to littermates. At 6?hours, TNF producing microglia were reduced by 56% in the ischemic cortex in LysMcreTNF(fl/fl) mice compared to littermate mice, whereas no TNF(+) leukocytes were detected. At 24?hours, pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-5 and CXCL1) levels were significantly lower in LysMcreTNF(fl/fl) mice, despite comparable infiltrating leukocyte populations. Our results identify microglial TNF as beneficial and neuroprotective in the acute phase and as a modulator of neuroinflammation at later time points after experimental ischemia, which may contribute to regenerative recovery.
Project description:Mechanical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) are often fatal. Little is known about endogenous factors that predispose to myocardial rupture after MI. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) could be a critical mediator of propensity to myocardial rupture after MI due to its role in modulating inflammation and thrombosis. Using a model of permanent coronary artery ligation, rupture was virtually abrogated in cd39-/- mice versus cd39+/+ controls, with elevated fibrin and collagen deposition and marked neutrophil and macrophage influx. Macrophages were found to display increased surface expression of CD301 and CD206, marking a reparative phenotype, driven by increased extracellular ATP and IL-4 in the infarcted myocardium of cd39-/- mice. A myeloid-specific CD39-knockout mouse also demonstrated protection from rupture, with an attenuated rupture phenotype, suggesting that complete ablation of CD39 provides the greatest degree of protection in this model. Absence of CD39, either globally or in a myeloid lineage-restricted fashion, skews the phenotype toward alternatively activated (reparative) macrophage infiltration following MI. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized and unexpected role of endogenous CD39 to skew macrophage phenotype and promote a propensity to myocardial rupture after MI.
Project description:Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE(2) was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders.
Project description:Recently, members of the two-pore domain potassium channel family (K2P channels) could be shown to be involved in mechanisms contributing to neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. K2P3.1-/- animals showed larger infarct volumes and a worse functional outcome following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Here, we question the role of the closely related K2P channel K2P9.1.We combine electrophysiological recordings in brain-slice preparations of wildtype and K2P9.1-/- mice with an in vivo model of cerebral ischemia (transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)) to depict a functional impact of K2P9.1 in stroke formation.Patch-clamp recordings reveal that currents mediated through K2P9.1 can be obtained in slice preparations of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) as a model of central nervous relay neurons. Current characteristics are indicative of K2P9.1 as they display an increase upon removal of extracellular divalent cations, an outward rectification and a reversal potential close to the potassium equilibrium potential. Lowering extracellular pH values from 7.35 to 6.0 showed comparable current reductions in neurons from wildtype and K2P9.1-/- mice (68.31 +/- 9.80% and 69.92 +/- 11.65%, respectively). These results could be translated in an in vivo model of cerebral ischemia where infarct volumes and functional outcomes showed a none significant tendency towards smaller infarct volumes in K2P9.1-/- animals compared to wildtype mice 24 hours after 60 min of tMCAO induction (60.50 +/- 17.31 mm3 and 47.10 +/- 19.26 mm3, respectively).Together with findings from earlier studies on K2P2.1-/- and K2P3.1-/- mice, the results of the present study on K2P9.1-/- mice indicate a differential contribution of K2P channel subtypes to the diverse and complex in vivo effects in rodent models of cerebral ischemia.
Project description:Nitric oxide mediates endothelium-dependent vasodilation, modulates cerebral blood flow, and determines stroke outcome. Nitric oxide signals in part by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) to synthesize cGMP. To study the role of sGC in stroke injury, we compared the outcome of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in mice deficient in the alpha(1) subunit of sGC (sGCalpha(1)(-/-)) with that in wild-type mice.Blood pressure, cerebrovascular anatomy, and vasoreactivity of pressurized carotid arteries were compared in both mouse genotypes. Cerebral blood flow was measured before and during middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. We then assessed neurological deficit and infarct volume after 1 hour of occlusion and 23 hours of reperfusion and after 24 hours of occlusion.Blood pressure and cerebrovascular anatomy were similar between genotypes. We found that vasodilation of carotid arteries in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside was diminished in sGCalpha(1)(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Cerebral blood flow deficits did not differ between the genotypes during occlusion, but during reperfusion, cerebral blood flow was 45% less in sGCalpha(1)(-/-) mice. Infarct volumes and neurological deficits were similar after 24 hours of occlusion in both genotypes. After 1 hour of ischemia and 23 hours of reperfusion, infarct volumes were 2-fold larger and neurological deficits were worse in sGCalpha(1)(-/-) than in the wild-type mice.sGCalpha(1) deficiency impairs vascular reactivity to nitric oxide and is associated with incomplete reperfusion, larger infarct size, and worse neurological damage, suggesting that cGMP generated by sGCalpha(1)beta(1) is protective in ischemic stroke.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway inhibitors are emerging treatments for migraine. CGRP-mediated vasodilation is, however, a critical rescue mechanism in ischemia. We, therefore, investigated whether gepants, small molecule CGRP receptor antagonists, worsen cerebral ischemia. METHODS:Middle cerebral artery was occluded for 12 to 60?minutes in mice. We compared infarct risk and volumes, collateral flow, and neurological deficits after pretreatment with olcegepant (single or 10 daily doses of 0.1-1mg/kg) or rimegepant (single doses of 10-100mg/kg) versus vehicle. We also determined their potency on CGRP-induced relaxations in mouse and human vessels, in vitro. RESULTS:Olcegepant (1mg/kg, single dose) increased infarct risk after 12- to 20-minute occlusions mimicking transient ischemic attacks (14/19 vs 6/18 with vehicle, relative risk?=?2.21, p?<?0.022), and doubled infarct volumes (p?<?0.001) and worsened neurological deficits (median score?=?9 vs 5 with vehicle, p?=?0.008) after 60-minute occlusion. Ten daily doses of 0.1 to 1mg/kg olcegepant yielded similar results. Rimegepant 10mg/kg increased infarct volumes by 60% after 20-minute ischemia (p?=?0.03); 100mg/kg caused 75% mortality after 60-minute occlusion. In familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mice, olcegepant 1mg/kg increased infarct size after 30-minute occlusion (1.6-fold, p?=?0.017). Both gepants consistently diminished collateral flow and reduced reperfusion success. Olcegepant was 10-fold more potent than rimegepant on CGRP-induced relaxations in mouse aorta. INTERPRETATION:Gepants worsened ischemic stroke in mice via collateral dysfunction. CGRP pathway blockers might thus aggravate coincidental cerebral ischemic events. The cerebrovascular safety of these agents must therefore be better delineated, especially in patients at increased risk of ischemic events or on prophylactic CGRP inhibition. ANN NEUROL 2020.