Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Agmatine N-Acetyltransferase, an Enzyme that Catalyzes the Formation of N-Acetylagmatine.
ABSTRACT: Agmatine N-acetyltransferase (AgmNAT) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylagmatine from acetyl-CoA and agmatine. Herein, we provide evidence that Drosophila melanogaster AgmNAT (CG15766) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylagmatine using an ordered sequential mechanism; acetyl-CoA binds prior to agmatine to generate an AgmNAT•acetyl-CoA•agmatine ternary complex prior to catalysis. Additionally, we solved a crystal structure for the apo form of AgmNAT with an atomic resolution of 2.3?Å, which points towards specific amino acids that may function in catalysis or active site formation. Using the crystal structure, primary sequence alignment, pH-activity profiles, and site-directed mutagenesis, we evaluated a series of active site amino acids in order to assign their functional roles in AgmNAT. More specifically, pH-activity profiles identified at least one catalytically important, ionizable group with an apparent pKa of ~7.5, which corresponds to the general base in catalysis, Glu-34. Moreover, these data led to a proposed chemical mechanism, which is consistent with the structure and our biochemical analysis of AgmNAT.
Project description:Arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2 (AANATL2) catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides from the corresponding acyl-CoA and arylalkylamine. The N-acylation of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster is a critical step for the inactivation of neurotransmitters, cuticle sclerotization, and melatonin biosynthesis. In addition, D. melanogaster has been used as a model system to evaluate the biosynthesis of fatty acid amides: a family of potent cell signaling lipids. We have previously showed that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylakylamides, including long-chain N-acylserotonins and N-acyldopamines. Herein, we define the kinetic mechanism for AANATL2 as an ordered sequential mechanism with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by tyramine to generate the ternary complex prior to catalysis. Bell shaped kcat,app - acetyl-CoA and (kcat/Km)app - acetyl-CoA pH-rate profiles identified two apparent pKa,app values of ?7.4 and ?8.9 that are critical to catalysis, suggesting the AANATL2-catalyzed formation of N-acetyltyramine occurs through an acid/base chemical mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate that corresponds to the catalytic base for other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes did not produce a substantial depression in the kcat,app value nor did it abolish the pKa,app value attributed to the general base in catalysis (pKa ?7.4). These data suggest that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides using either different catalytic residues or a different chemical mechanism relative to other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes. In addition, we constructed other site-directed mutants of AANATL2 to help define the role of targeted amino acids in substrate binding and/or enzyme catalysis.
Project description:Plants are unique eukaryotes that can produce putrescine (PUT), a basic diamine, from arginine via a three-step pathway. This process starts with arginine decarboxylase that converts arginine to agmatine. Then, the consecutive action of two hydrolytic enzymes, agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase, ultimately produces PUT. An alternative route of PUT biosynthesis requires ornithine decarboxylase that catalyzes direct putrescine biosynthesis. However, some plant species lack this enzyme and rely only on agmatine pathway. The scope of this manuscript concerns the structural characterization of AIH from the model legume plant, Medicago truncatula. MtAIH is a homodimer built of two subunits with a characteristic propeller fold, where five ????? repeated units are arranged around the fivefold pseudosymmetry axis. Dimeric assembly of this plant AIH, formed by interactions of conserved structural elements from one repeat, is drastically different from that observed in dimeric bacterial AIHs. Additionally, the structural snapshot of MtAIH in complex with 6-aminohexanamide, the reaction product analog, presents the conformation of the enzyme during catalysis. Our structural results show that MtAIH undergoes significant structural rearrangements of the long loop, which closes a tunnel-shaped active site over the course of the catalytic event. This conformational change is also observed in AIH from Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating the importance of the closed conformation of the gate-keeping loop for the catalysis of plant AIHs.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive food-borne pathogen that is capable of living within extreme environments (i.e. low temperatures and pH). This ability to survive in such conditions may arise, at least in part, from agmatine catabolism via the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS). This catabolic pathway utilizes an agmatine deiminase (AgD) to hydrolyse agmatine into N-carbamoylputrescine (NCP), with concomitant release of ammonia, which increases the pH, thus mitigating the ill effects of the acidic environment. Given the potential significance of this pathway for cell survival, we set out to study the catalytic mechanism of the AgD encoded by L. monocytogenes In the present paper, we describe the catalytic mechanism employed by this enzyme based on pH profiles, pKa measurements of the active site cysteine and solvent isotope effects (SIE). In addition, we report inhibition of this enzyme by two novel AgD inhibitors, i.e. N-(4-aminobutyl)-2-fluoro-ethanimidamide (ABFA) and N-(4-aminobutyl)-2-chloro-ethanimidamide (ABCA). In contrast with other orthologues, L. monocytogenes AgD does not use the reverse protonation or substrate-assisted mechanism, which requires an active site cysteine with a high pKa and has been commonly seen in other members of the guanidinium-modifying enzyme (GME) superfamily. Instead, the L. monocytogenes AgD has a low pKa cysteine in the active site leading to an alternative mechanism of catalysis. This is the first time that this mechanism has been observed in the GME superfamily and is significant because it explains why previously developed mechanism-based inactivators of AgDs are ineffective against this orthologue.
Project description:Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of melatonin and other N-acetylarylalkylamides from the corresponding arylalkylamine and acetyl-CoA. The N-acetylation of arylalkylamines is a critical step in Drosophila melanogaster for the inactivation of the bioactive amines and the sclerotization of the cuticle. Two AANAT variants (AANATA and AANATB) have been identified in D. melanogaster, in which AANATA differs from AANATB by the truncation of 35 amino acids from the N-terminus. We have expressed and purified both D. melanogaster AANAT variants (AANATA and AANATB) in Escherichia coli and used the purified enzymes to demonstrate that this N-terminal truncation does not affect the activity of the enzyme. Subsequent characterization of the kinetic and chemical mechanism of AANATA identified an ordered sequential mechanism, with acetyl-CoA binding first, followed by tyramine. We used a combination of pH-activity profiling and site-directed mutagenesis to study prospective residues believed to function in AANATA catalysis. These data led to an assignment of Glu-47 as the general base in catalysis with an apparent pKa of 7.0. Using the data generated for the kinetic mechanism, structure-function relationships, pH-rate profiles, and site-directed mutagenesis, we propose a chemical mechanism for AANATA.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis makes ATP from agmatine in three steps catalyzed by agmatine deiminase (AgDI), putrescine transcarbamylase (PTC), and carbamate kinase (CK). An antiporter exchanges putrescine for agmatine. We have cloned the E. faecalis ef0732 and ef0734 genes of the reported gene cluster for agmatine catabolism, overexpressed them in Escherichia coli, purified the products, characterized them functionally as PTC and AgDI, and crystallized and X-ray diffracted them. The 1.65-Angstroms-resolution structure of AgDI forming a covalent adduct with an agmatine-derived amidine reactional intermediate is described. We provide definitive identification of the gene cluster for agmatine catabolism and confirm that ornithine is a genuine but poor PTC substrate, suggesting that PTC (found here to be trimeric) evolved from ornithine transcarbamylase. N-(Phosphonoacetyl)-putrescine was prepared and shown to strongly (K(i) = 10 nM) and selectively inhibit PTC and to improve PTC crystallization. We find that E. faecalis AgDI, which is committed to ATP generation, closely resembles the AgDIs involved in making polyamines, suggesting the recruitment of a polyamine-synthesizing AgDI into the AgDI pathway. The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway of arginine catabolism probably supplied the genes for PTC and CK but not those for the agmatine/putrescine antiporter, and thus the AgDI and ADI pathways are not related by a single "en bloc" duplication event. The AgDI crystal structure reveals a tetramer with a five-blade propeller subunit fold, proves that AgDI closely resembles ADI despite a lack of sequence identity, and explains substrate affinity, selectivity, and Cys357-mediated-covalent catalysis. A three-tongued agmatine-triggered gating opens or blocks access to the active center.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1A resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.
Project description:Distinct catalytic mechanisms have been proposed for the Gcn5 and MYST histone acetyltransferase (HAT) families. Gcn5-like HATs utilize an ordered sequential mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the N-epsilon-lysine on the enzyme-bound acetyl-CoA. Recently, MYST enzymes were reported to employ a ping-pong route of catalysis via an acetyl-cysteine intermediate. Here, using the prototypical MYST family member Esa1, and its physiological complex (piccolo NuA4), steady-state kinetic analyses revealed a kinetic mechanism that requires the formation of a ternary complex prior to catalysis, where acetyl-CoA binds first and CoA is the last product released. In the absence of histone acceptor, slow rates of enzyme auto-acetylation (7 x 10(-4) s(-1), or approximately 2500-fold slower than histone acetylation; kcat = 1.6 s(-1)) and of CoA formation (0.0021 s(-1)) were inconsistent with a kinetically competent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Previously, Cys-304 of Esa1 was the proposed nucleophile that forms an acetyl-cysteine intermediate. Here, mutation of this cysteine (C304A) in Esa1 or within the piccolo NuA4 complex yielded an enzyme that was catalytically indistinguishable from the wild type. Similarly, a pH rate (kcat) analysis of the wild type and C304A revealed an ionization (pKa = 7.6-7.8) that must be unprotonated. Mutation of a conserved active-site glutamate (E338Q) reduced kcat approximately 200-fold at pH 7.5; however, at higher pH, E338Q exhibited nearly wild-type activity. These data are consistent with Glu-338 (general base) activating the N-epsilon-lysine by deprotonation. Together, the results suggest that MYST family HATs utilize a direct-attack mechanism within an Esa1 x acetyl-CoA x histone ternary complex.
Project description:Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase like 7 (AANATL7) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylarylalkylamides and N-acetylhistamine from acetyl-CoA and the corresponding amine substrate. AANATL7 is a member of the GNAT superfamily of >10000 GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases, many members being linked to important roles in both human metabolism and disease. Drosophila melanogaster utilizes the N-acetylation of biogenic amines for the inactivation of neurotransmitters, the biosynthesis of melatonin, and the sclerotization of the cuticle. We have expressed and purified D. melanogaster AANATL7 in Escherichia coli and used the purified enzyme to define the substrate specificity for acyl-CoA and amine substrates. Information about the substrate specificity provides insight into the potential contribution made by AANATL7 to fatty acid amide biosynthesis because D. melanogaster has emerged as an important model system contributing to our understanding of fatty acid amide metabolism. Characterization of the kinetic mechanism of AANATL7 identified an ordered sequential mechanism, with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by histamine to generate an AANATL7·acetyl-CoA·histamine ternary complex prior to catalysis. Successive pH-activity profiling and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identified two ionizable groups: one with a pKa of 7.1 that is assigned to Glu-26 as a general base and a second pKa of 9.5 that is assigned to the protonation of the thiolate of the coenzyme A product. Using the data generated herein, we propose a chemical mechanism for AANATL7 and define functions for other important amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and regulation of catalysis.
Project description:In anaerobic microorganisms employing the acetyl-CoA pathway, acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) and CO dehydrogenase (CODH) form a complex (ACS/CODH) that catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO, a methyl group, and CoA. Previously, a [4Fe-4S] cubane bridged to a copper-nickel binuclear site (active site cluster A of the ACS component) was identified in the ACS(Mt)/CODH(Mt) from Moorella thermoacetica whereas another study revealed a nickel-nickel site in the open form of ACS(Mt), and a zink-nickel site in the closed form. The ACS(Ch) of the hydrogenogenic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans was found to exist as an 82.2-kDa monomer as well as in a 1:1 molar complex with the 73.3-kDa CODHIII(Ch). Homogeneous ACS(Ch) and ACS(Ch)/CODHIII(Ch) catalyzed the exchange between [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA and (12)CO with specific activities of 2.4 or 5.9 micromol of CO per min per mg, respectively, at 70 degrees C and pH 6.0. They also catalyzed the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO, methylcobalamin, corrinoid iron-sulfur protein, and CoA with specific activities of 0.14 or 0.91 micromol of acetyl-CoA formed per min per mg, respectively, at 70 degrees C and pH 7.3. The functional cluster A of ACS(Ch) contains a Ni-Ni-[4Fe-4S] site, in which the positions proximal and distal to the cubane are occupied by Ni ions. This result is apparent from a positive correlation of the Ni contents and negative correlations of the Cu or Zn contents with the acetyl-CoA/CO exchange activities of different preparations of monomeric ACS(Ch), a 2.2-A crystal structure of the dithionite-reduced monomer in an open conformation, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and a major contributor to infant mortality in the developing world. The increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni only adds to the urgency to develop effective therapies. Because of the essential role that polyamines play, particularly in protection from oxidative stress, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites are emerging as promising antibiotic targets. The recent description of an alternative pathway for polyamine synthesis, distinct from that in human cells, in C. jejuni suggests this pathway could be a target for novel therapies. To that end, we determined X-ray crystal structures of C. jejuni agmatine deiminase (CjADI) and demonstrated that loss of CjADI function contributes to antibiotic sensitivity, likely because of polyamine starvation. The structures provide details of key molecular features of the active site of this protein. Comparison of the unliganded structure (2.1 Å resolution) to that of the CjADI-agmatine complex (2.5 Å) reveals significant structural rearrangements that occur upon substrate binding. The shift of two helical regions of the protein and a large conformational change in a loop near the active site generate a narrow binding pocket around the bound substrate. This change optimally positions the substrate for catalysis. In addition, kinetic analysis of this enzyme demonstrates that CjADI is an iminohydrolase that effectively deiminates agmatine. Our data suggest that C. jejuni agmatine deiminase is a potentially important target for combatting antibiotic resistance, and these results provide a valuable framework for guiding future drug development.