Cooperative Nucleotide Binding in Hsp90 and Its Regulation by Aha1.
ABSTRACT: The function of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 depends on large conformational changes, the rearrangement of local motifs, and the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The size and complexity of the Hsp90 system impedes the detailed investigation of their interplay using standard methods. To overcome this limitation, we developed a three-color single-molecule FRET assay to study the interaction of Hsp90 with a fluorescently labeled reporter nucleotide in detail. It allows us to directly observe the cooperativity between the two nucleotide binding pockets in the protein dimer. Furthermore, our approach disentangles the protein conformation and the nucleotide binding state of Hsp90 and extracts the kinetics of the state transitions. Thereby, we can identify the kinetic causes mediating the cooperativity. We find that the presence of the first nucleotide prolongs the binding of the second nucleotide to Hsp90. In addition, we observe changes in the kinetics for both the open and the closed conformation of Hsp90 in dependence on the number of occupied nucleotide binding sites. Our analysis also reveals how the co-chaperone Aha1, known to accelerate Hsp90's ATPase activity, affects those transitions in a nucleotide-dependent and independent manner, thereby adding another layer of regulation to Hsp90.
Project description:Hsp90 is an essential chaperone that requires large allosteric changes to determine its ATPase activity and client binding. The co-chaperone Aha1, which is the major ATPase stimulator in eukaryotes, is important for regulation of Hsp90's allosteric timing. Little is known, however, about the structure of the Hsp90/Aha1 complex. Here, we characterize the solution structure of unmodified human Hsp90/Aha1 complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the 214-kDa complex forms by a two-step binding mechanism and adopts multiple conformations in the absence of nucleotide. Aha1 induces structural changes near Hsp90's nucleotide-binding site, providing a basis for its ATPase-enhancing activity. Our data reveal important aspects of this pivotal chaperone/co-chaperone interaction and emphasize the relevance of characterizing dynamic chaperone structures in solution.
Project description:The eukaryotic Hsp90 chaperone machinery comprises many co-chaperones and regulates the conformation of hundreds of cytosolic client proteins. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Hsp90 machinery has become an attractive therapeutic target for diseases such as cancer. The compounds used so far to target this machinery affect the entire Hsp90 system. However, it would be desirable to achieve a more selective targeting of Hsp90-co-chaperone complexes. To test this concept, in this-proof-of-principle study, we screened for modulators of the interaction between Hsp90 and its co-chaperone Aha1, which accelerates the ATPase activity of Hsp90. A FRET-based assay that monitored Aha1 binding to Hsp90 enabled identification of several chemical compounds modulating the effect of Aha1 on Hsp90 activity. We found that one of these inhibitors can abrogate the Aha1-induced ATPase stimulation of Hsp90 without significantly affecting Hsp90 ATPase activity in the absence of Aha1. NMR spectroscopy revealed that this inhibitory compound binds the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 close to its ATP-binding site and overlapping with a transient Aha1-interaction site. We also noted that this inhibitor does not dissociate the Aha1-Hsp90 complex but prevents the specific interaction with the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 required for catalysis. In consequence, the inhibitor affected the activation and processing of Hsp90-Aha1-dependent client proteins in vivo We conclude that it is possible to abrogate a specific co-chaperone function of Hsp90 without inhibiting the entire Hsp90 machinery. This concept may also hold true for other co-chaperones of Hsp90.
Project description:Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone essential for the activation and assembly of many key eukaryotic signalling and regulatory proteins. Hsp90 is assisted and regulated by co-chaperones that participate in an ordered series of dynamic multiprotein complexes, linked to Hsp90s conformationally coupled ATPase cycle. The co-chaperones Aha1 and Hch1 bind to Hsp90 and stimulate its ATPase activity. Biochemical analysis shows that this activity is dependent on the N-terminal domain of Aha1, which interacts with the central segment of Hsp90. The structural basis for this interaction is revealed by the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (1-153) of Aha1 (equivalent to the whole of Hch1) in complex with the middle segment of Hsp90 (273-530). Structural analysis and mutagenesis show that binding of N-Aha1 promotes a conformational switch in the middle-segment catalytic loop (370-390) of Hsp90 that releases the catalytic Arg 380 and enables its interaction with ATP in the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the chaperone.
Project description:Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential chaperone that supports the function of a wide range of signaling molecules. Hsp90 binds to a suite of co-chaperone proteins that regulate Hsp90 function through alteration of intrinsic ATPase activity. Several studies have determined Aha1 to be an important co-chaperone whose binding to Hsp90 is modulated by phosphorylation, acetylation and SUMOylation of Hsp90 , . In this study, we applied quantitative affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) proteomics to understand how phosphorylation of hAha1 at Y223 altered global client/co-chaperone interaction . Specifically, we characterized and compared the interactomes of Aha1-Y223F (phospho-mutant form) and Aha1-Y223E (phospho-mimic form). We identified 99 statistically significant interactors of hAha1, a high proportion of which (84%) demonstrated preferential binding to the phospho-mimic form of hAha1. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository  with the dataset identifier PXD001737.
Project description:The activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1, Aha1, has been shown to participate in the Hsp90 chaperone cycle by stimulating the low intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsp90. To elucidate the structural basis for ATPase stimulation of human Hsp90 by human Aha1, we have developed novel mass spectrometry approaches that demonstrate that the N- and C-terminal domains of Aha1 cooperatively bind across the dimer interface of Hsp90 to modulate the ATP hydrolysis cycle and client activity in vivo. Mutations in both the N- and C-terminal domains of Aha1 impair its ability to bind Hsp90 and stimulate its ATPase activity in vitro and impair in vivo the ability of the Hsp90 system to modulate the folding and trafficking of wild-type and variant (DeltaF508) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) responsible for the inherited disease cystic fibrosis (CF). We now propose a general model for the role of Aha1 in the Hsp90 ATPase cycle in proteostasis whereby Aha1 regulates the dwell time of Hsp90 with client. We suggest that Aha1 activity integrates chaperone function with client folding energetics by modulating ATPase sensitive N-terminal dimer structural transitions, thereby protecting transient folding intermediates in vivo that could contribute to protein misfolding systems disorders such as CF when destabilized.
Project description:Many critical protein kinases rely on the Hsp90 chaperone machinery for stability and function. After initially forming a ternary complex with kinase client and the cochaperone p50(Cdc37), Hsp90 proceeds through a cycle of conformational changes facilitated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Progression through the chaperone cycle requires release of p50(Cdc37) and recruitment of the ATPase activating cochaperone AHA1, but the molecular regulation of this complex process at the cellular level is poorly understood. We demonstrate that a series of tyrosine phosphorylation events, involving both p50(Cdc37) and Hsp90, are minimally sufficient to provide directionality to the chaperone cycle. p50(Cdc37) phosphorylation on Y4 and Y298 disrupts client-p50(Cdc37) association, while Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y197 dissociates p50(Cdc37) from Hsp90. Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y313 promotes recruitment of AHA1, which stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, furthering the chaperoning process. Finally, at completion of the chaperone cycle, Hsp90 Y627 phosphorylation induces dissociation of the client and remaining cochaperones.
Project description:The ATP-dependent molecular chaperone Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) is essential for the maturation of hormone receptors and protein kinases. During the process of client protein activation, Hsp90 co-operates with cofactors/co-chaperones of unique sequence, e.g. Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), p23 or p50, and with cofactors containing TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, e.g. Hop, immunophilins or cyclophilins. Although the binding sites for these different types of cofactors are distributed along the three domains of Hsp90, sterical overlap and competition for binding sites restrict the combinations of cofactors that can bind to Hsp90 at the same time. The recently discovered cofactor Aha1 associates with the middle domain of Hsp90, but its relationship to other cofactors of the molecular chaperone is poorly understood. Therefore we analysed whether complexes of Aha1, p23, p50, Hop and a cyclophilin with Hsp90 are disrupted by the other four cofactors by gel permeation chromatography using purified proteins. It turned out that Aha1 competes with the early cofactors Hop and p50, but can bind to Hsp90 in the presence of cyclophilins, suggesting that Aha1 acts as a late cofactor of Hsp90. In contrast with p50, which can bind to Hop, Aha1 does not interact directly with any of the other four cofactors. In vivo studies in yeast and in mammalian cells revealed that Aha1 is not specific for kinase activation, but also contributes to maturation of hormone receptors, proposing a general role for this cofactor in the activation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins.
Project description:The ability of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) to hydrolyze ATP is essential for its chaperone function. The co-chaperone Aha1 stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, tailoring the chaperone function to specific "client" proteins. The intracellular signaling mechanisms directly regulating Aha1 association with Hsp90 remain unknown. Here, we show that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Y223 in human Aha1 (hAha1), promoting its interaction with Hsp90. This, consequently, results in an increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, enhances Hsp90 interaction with kinase clients, and compromises the chaperoning of non-kinase clients such as glucocorticoid receptor and CFTR. Suggesting a regulatory paradigm, we also find that Y223 phosphorylation leads to ubiquitination and degradation of hAha1 in the proteasome. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of c-Abl prevents hAha1 interaction with Hsp90, thereby hypersensitizing cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors both in vitro and ex vivo.
Project description:Complex conformational dynamics are essential for function of the dimeric molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), including transient, ATP-biased N-domain dimerization that is necessary to attain ATPase competence. The intrinsic, but weak, ATP hydrolyzing activity of human Hsp90 is markedly enhanced by the co-chaperone Aha1. However, the cellular concentration of Aha1 is substoichiometric relative to Hsp90. Here we report that initial recruitment of this cochaperone to Hsp90 is markedly enhanced by phosphorylation of a highly conserved tyrosine (Y313 in Hsp90?) in the Hsp90 middle domain. Importantly, phosphomimetic mutation of Y313 promotes formation of a transient complex in which both N- and C-domains of Aha1 bind to distinct surfaces of the middle domains of opposing Hsp90 protomers prior to ATP-directed N-domain dimerization. Thus, Y313 represents a phosphorylation-sensitive conformational switch, engaged early after client loading, that affects both local and long-range conformational dynamics to facilitate initial recruitment of Aha1 to Hsp90.
Project description:The molecular chaperone and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) exists mainly as a homodimer in the cytoplasm. Each monomer has an ATPase in its N-terminal domain and undergoes large conformational changes during Hsp90's mechanochemical cycle. The three-color single-molecule assay and data analysis presented in the following allows one to observe at the same time nucleotide binding and the conformational changes in Hsp90. Surprisingly, and completely unlike the prior investigated systems, nucleotides can bind to the N-terminally open and closed state without strictly forcing the protein into a specific conformation. Both the transitions between the conformational states and the nucleotide binding/unbinding are mainly thermally driven. Furthermore, the two ATP binding sites show negative cooperativity; i.e., nucleotides do not bind independently to the two monomers. We thus reveal a picture of how nucleotide binding and conformational changes are connected in the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which has far-ranging consequences for its function and is distinct from previously investigated motor proteins.