Associations of Early Kidney Disease With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Function in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies. PREDICTORS:eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MEASUREMENTS:MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c concentration, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were used to test for associations between kidney phenotypes and the brain in each study; a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS:Mean participant age was 60.1±7.9 (SD) years; diabetes duration, 12.1±7.7 years; hemoglobin A1c concentration, 8.3%±1.7%; eGFR, 88.7±21.6mL/min/1.73m2; and UACR, 119.2±336.4mg/g. In the fully adjusted meta-analysis, higher GMV associated with lower UACR (P<0.05), with a trend toward association with higher eGFR. Higher white matter lesion volume was associated with higher UACR (P<0.05) and lower eGFR (P<0.001). WMV was not associated with either kidney parameter. Higher UACR was associated with lower Digit Symbol Coding performance (P<0.001) and a trend toward association with higher Stroop interference; eGFR was not associated with cognitive tests. LIMITATIONS:Cross-sectional; single UACR measurement. CONCLUSIONS:In African Americans with T2DM, mildly high UACR and mildly low eGFR were associated with smaller GMV and increased white matter lesion volume. UACR was associated with poorer processing speed and working memory.
Project description:Background:African Americans typically perform worse than European Americans on cognitive testing. Contributions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and educational quality to cognitive performance and brain volumes were compared in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods:Association between magnetic resonance imaging-determined cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions (WMLV), hippocampal GMV, and modified mini-mental state exam (3MSE), digit symbol coding (DSC), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Stroop, and verbal fluency performance were assessed in Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (MIND) participants. Marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations were employed with serial adjustment for risk factors. Results:The sample included 520 African Americans and 684 European Americans; 56 per cent female with mean ± SD age 62.8 ± 10.3 years and diabetes duration 14.3 ± 7.8 years. Adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, total intracranial volume, scanner, statins, CVD, smoking, and hypertension, WMV (p = .001) was lower and WMLV higher in African Americans than European Americans (p = .001), with similar GMV (p = .30). Adjusting for age, sex, education, HbA1c, diabetes duration, hypertension, BMI, statins, CVD, smoking, and depression, poorer performance on 3MSE, RAVLT, and DSC were seen in African Americans (p = 6 × 10-23-7 × 10-62). Racial differences in cognitive performance were attenuated after additional adjustment for WMLV and nearly fully resolved after adjustment for wide-range achievement test (WRAT) performance (p = .0009-.65). Conclusions:African Americans with type 2 diabetes had higher WMLV and poorer cognitive performance than European Americans. Differences in cognitive performance were attenuated after considering WMLV and apparent poorer educational quality based on WRAT.
Project description:To assess associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and computed tomography-determined volumes of pericardial, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging-(MRI) based cerebral structure and cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).This study was performed in 348 African Americans (AAs) and 256 European Americans (EAs) with T2D. Associations between adiposity measures with cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions, hippocampal GMV, and hippocampal WMV, cognitive performance and depression were examined using marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension, statins, cardiovascular disease, MRI scanner (MRI outcomes only), and time between scans; some neuroimaging measures were additionally adjusted for intracranial volume.Participants were 59.9% female with mean (SD) age 57.7(9.3)years, diabetes duration 9.6(6.8)years, and HbA1c 7.8(1.9)%. In AAs, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal GMV and both BMI (? [95% CI]-0.18 [-0.30, -0.07], P=0.0018) and WC (-0.23 [-0.35, -0.12], P=0.0001). In the full bi-ethnic sample, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal WMV and WC (P?0.0001). Positive relationships were observed between BMI (P=0.0007) and WC (P<0.0001) with depression in EAs.In patients with T2D, adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal gray and white matter volumes.
Project description:Relative to European Americans, African Americans manifest lower levels of computed tomography-based calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP), a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Potential relationships between CP and cerebral structure are poorly defined in the African American population. We assessed associations among glycemic control, inflammation, and CP with cerebral structure on MRI and with cognitive performance in 268 high-risk African Americans with type 2 diabetes.Associations among hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), and CP in coronary arteries, carotid arteries, and the aorta with MRI volumetric analysis (white matter volume, gray matter volume [GMV], cerebrospinal fluid volume, and white matter lesion volume) were assessed using generalized linear models adjusted for age, sex, African ancestry proportion, smoking, BMI, use of statins, HbA1c, hypertension, and prior CVD.Participants were 63.4% female with mean (SD) age of 59.8 years (9.2), diabetes duration of 14.5 years (7.6), HbA1c of 7.95% (1.9), estimated glomerular filtration rate of 86.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (24.6), and coronary artery CP mass score of 215 mg (502). In fully adjusted models, GMV was inversely associated with coronary artery CP (parameter estimate [?] -0.47 [SE 0.15], P = 0.002; carotid artery CP (? -1.92 [SE 0.62], P = 0.002; and aorta CP [? -0.10 [SE 0.03] P = 0.002), whereas HbA1c and CRP did not associate with cerebral volumes. Coronary artery CP also associated with poorer global cognitive function on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with smaller GMV and poorer cognitive performance in African Americans with diabetes. Cardioprotective strategies could preserve GMV and cognitive function in high-risk African Americans with diabetes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the relation between markers of kidney disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR)-with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and white matter volume (WMV) in hypertensive adults. METHODS:We used baseline data collected from 665 nondiabetic hypertensive adults aged ?50 years participating in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We used arterial spin labeling to measure CBF and structural 3T images to segment tissue into normal and abnormal WMV. We used quantile regression to estimate the association between eGFR and UACR with CBF and abnormal WMV, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS:There were 218 participants (33%) with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 146 participants (22%) with UACR ?30 mg/g. Reduced eGFR was independently associated with higher adjusted median CBF, but not with abnormal WMV. Conversely, in adjusted analyses, there was a linear independent association between UACR and larger abnormal WMV, but not with CBF. Compared to participants with neither marker of CKD (eGFR ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR <30 mg/g), median CBF was 5.03 mL/100 g/min higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 9.29) and abnormal WMV was 0.63 cm(3) larger (95% CI 0.08, 1.17) among participants with both markers of CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR ?30 mg/g). CONCLUSIONS:Among nondiabetic hypertensive adults, reduced eGFR was associated with higher CBF and higher UACR was associated with larger abnormal WMV.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder due to a deficiency in arylsulfatase A with progressive demyelination and neurological decline. This retrospective MRI study investigated the extent of cortical involvement at time of diagnosis, and clinical correlates to both conventional and regional volumetric measures of brain involvement. METHODS: 3D-T1-weighted MRI scans were used to determine cortical thickness and surface-based cerebral cortical gray matter (GM) and cerebral white matter (WM) volume (GMV and WMV), WM lesions, thalamus, and cerebellum. MRI-MLD severity scores were obtained from FLAIR images. Associations between clinical and imaging data were examined using correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Twenty patients with MLD (mean age 13.7 years, range 2-35) and 20 controls (mean age 13.9 years, range 2-40) were included. Compared with control subjects, late-infantile, and juvenile patients (n = 14) had significantly diminished cerebral cortical GMV and thalamus volume (P < 0.05), but did not differ in WMV and cortical thickness. Adult patients (n = 6) showed significantly reduced GMV, WMV and cortical thickness (all P < 0.05). Regional analysis showed statistically significant cortical thinning in the cingulate gyrus and most pronounced thinning with age in the frontal lobe of MLD patients. Intelligence quotient (IQ) correlated with MRI-MLD scores (r = -0.87, P < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Significant cerebral cortical GMV loss is already present in early stages of MLD. IQ correlates with WM severity scores and lesion volume, but not with volumetric measures. In adult presentations, there is more pronounced global atrophy with GMV and WMV loss and accelerated cortical thinning, most prominently in the cingulate gyrus and frontal lobes.
Project description:The aim of the study was to find structural brain changes in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without major neuropsychiatric manifestations [non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (non-NPSLE)] using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and possible associations with clinical characteristics. 89 non-NPSLE patients with normal conventional MRI and 84 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The whole brain gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were calculated for each individual. We found obvious GMV and WMV reduction in the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) group compared with HCs. Female patients showed significant reduction of GMV and WMV compared with male patients. Patients treated with immunosuppressive agents (ISA) showed less WMV reduction than those without. Cognitive impairment was the most common subclinical neuropsychiatric manifestation and had a prevalence of 46.1%. Association between WMV reduction with cognitive impairment was found. Thus, we concluded that structural brain atrophy could happen even before occurrence of obvious neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms and was associated with subclinical symptoms such as cognitive impairment. ISA treatment might have a protective effect on the brain atrophy. Early treatment might prevent the progressive damage to the brain. More studies are needed to fully understand the complicated underlying mechanisms of brain atrophy in SLE.
Project description:To compare the sample size requirements for a neuroprotection trial with change in cerebral gray matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) or whole brain parenchymal volume (BPV) as outcome measures in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).Two datasets with longitudinal MRI measures of untreated patients with RRMS (n = 116 and n = 26) and one dataset of treated patients with RRMS (n = 109) were investigated. In each dataset, normalised GMV, normalised WMV and normalised BPV were analysed using a random intercepts and slopes model to estimate the variance components and per cent change. The required sample size to observe a 33%, 50% and 90% reduction in the per cent change was calculated for each dataset using both a constant per cent change for each measurement and the estimated per cent change for each dataset.The per cent change was greatest in GMV but all variance components were smallest in BPV. Using the estimated per cent change, the sample size required in the untreated cohorts was similar for GMV and BPV, and both were lower than WMV. In the treated cohort, the sample size for GMV was the smallest of all measures. Including additional scans reduced the sample size but increasing the length of the trial and clustering scans led to greater reductions.Cerebral GMV may be a viable outcome measure for clinical trials investigating neuroprotection in RRMS patients, especially considering that the treatment effect may be larger on GMV compared with BPV. However, GMV was somewhat limited by increased variability versus BPV.
Project description:We examined if cerebral volume reduction occurs very early during the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and observed prospectively whether gray (GMV) and white matter volumes (WMV) of the brain would improve with lowered SLE disease activity. T1-weighted MRI brain images were obtained from 14 healthy controls (HC) and 14 newly-diagnosed SLE patients within 5 months of diagnosis (S1) and after achieving low disease activity (S2). Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was used to detect differences in the GMV and WMV between SLE patients and HC and those between SLE patients at S1 and S2. SLE patients were found to have lower GMV than HC in the middle cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus and right supplementary motor area, and lower WMV in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum cingulate gyrus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at both S1 and S2. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis revealed increased GMV chiefly in the prefrontal regions at S2 compared to S1 in SLE patients. The GMV increase in the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with lowered SLE disease activity. In conclusion, GMV and WMV reduced very early in SLE patients. Reduction of SLE disease activity was accompanied by region-specific GMV improvement in the prefrontal regions.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Studies using voxel-based morphometry report variable and inconsistent abnormalities of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) in brains of preterm-born adolescents (PBA). In such circumstances a meta-analysis can help identify the most prominent and consistent abnormalities. METHOD:We identified 9 eligible studies by systematic search of the literature up to October 2017. We used Seed-based d Mapping to analyze GMV and WMV alterations between PBA and healthy controls. RESULTS:In the GMV meta-analysis, PBA compared to healthy controls showed: increased GMV in left cuneus cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate cortex; decreased GMV in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), left superior frontal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. In the WMV meta-analysis, PBA showed: increased WMV in right fusiform gyrus and precuneus; decreased WMV in bilateral ITG, and right inferior frontal gyrus. In meta-regression analysis, the percentage of male PBA negatively correlated with decreased GMV of bilateral ITG. INTERPRETATION:PBA show widespread GMV and WMV alterations in the default mode network, visual recognition network, and salience network. These changes may be causally relevant to socialization difficulties and cognitive impairments. The meta-regression results perhaps reveal the structural underpinning of the cognition-related sex differences in PBA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered cerebral structure and function. Relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and brain morphology and cognitive performance were evaluated in European Americans (EAs). METHODS:A total of 478 EAs with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) < 300 mg/g, most with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were included. Measures of total intracranial volume (TICV), cerebrospinal fluid volume, total white matter volume (TWMV), total gray matter volume (TGMV), total white matter lesion volume (TWMLV), hippocampal white matter volume (HWMV) and hippocampal gray matter volume (HGMV) were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive testing included memory (Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test), global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and executive function (Stroop Task, Semantic Fluency, Digit Symbol Substitution Test). Associations with CKD were assessed using log-transformed eGFR and UACR, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, diabetes duration, cardiovascular disease and education. RESULTS:Participants were 55.2% female, 78.2% had T2D; mean ± SD age 67.6 ± 9.0 years, T2D duration 16.4 ± 6.5 years, eGFR 92.0 ± 22.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR 23.8 ± 39.6 mg/g. In adjusted models, eGFR was negatively associated with TICV only in participants with T2D [parameter estimate (?): -72.2, P = 0.002]. In non-diabetic participants, inverse relationships were observed between eGFR and HGMV (?: -1.0, P = 0.03) and UACR and normalized TWMLV (?: -0.2, P = 0.03). Kidney function and albuminuria did not correlate with cognitive testing. CONCLUSIONS:In EAs with mild CKD enriched for T2D, brain structure and cognitive performance were generally not impacted. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine when cerebral structural changes and cognitive dysfunction develop with progressive CKD in EAs.