Enhanced Cell Adhesion on a Nano-Embossed, Sticky Surface Prepared by the Printing of a DOPA-Bolaamphiphile Assembly Ink.
ABSTRACT: Inspired by adhesive mussel proteins, nanospherical self-assemblies were prepared from bolaamphiphiles containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) moieties, and a suspension of the bolaamphiphile assemblies was used for the preparation of a patterned surface that enhanced cell adhesion and viability. The abundant surface-exposed catechol groups on the robust bolaamphiphile self-assemblies were responsible for their outstanding adhesivity to various surfaces and showed purely elastic mechanical behaviour in response to tensile stress. Compared to other polydopamine coatings, the spherical DOPA-bolaamphiphile assemblies were coated uniformly and densely on the surface, yielding a nano-embossed surface. Cell culture tests on the surface modified by DOPA-bolaamphiphiles also showed enhanced cellular adhesivity and increased viability compared to surfaces decorated with other catecholic compounds. Furthermore, the guided growth of a cell line was demonstrated on the patterned surface, which was prepared by inkjet printing using a suspension of the self-assembled particles as an ink. The self-assembly of DOPA-bolaamphiphiles shows that they are a promising adhesive, biocompatible material with the potential to modify various substances.
Project description:Two bolaamphiphilic compounds with identical acetylcholine (ACh) head groups, but with different lengths of an alkyl chain pendant adjacent to the head group, as well as differences between their hydrophobic skeleton, were investigated for their ability to self-assemble into vesicles that release their encapsulated content upon hydrolysis of their head groups by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). One of these bolaamphiphiles, synthesized from vernolic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of five methylene groups, while the other, synthesized from oleic acid, has an alkyl chain pendant of eight methylene groups. Both bolaamphiphiles formed stable spherical vesicles with a diameter of about 130 nm. The ACh head groups of both bolaamphiphiles were hydrolyzed by AChE, but the hydrolysis rate was significantly faster for the bolaamphiphile with the shorter aliphatic chain pendant. Likewise, upon exposure to AChE, vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the shorter alkyl chain pendant released their encapsulated content faster than vesicles made from the bolaamphiphile with the longer alkyl chain pendant. Our results suggest that the steric environment around the ACh head group of bolaamphiphiles is a major factor affecting the hydrolysis rate of the head groups by AChE. Attaching an alkyl chain to the bolaamphiphile near the ACh head group allows self-assembled vesicles to form with a controlled release rate of the encapsulated materials, whereas shorter alkyl chains enable a faster head group hydrolysis, and consequently faster release, than longer alkyl chains. This principle may be implemented in the design of bolaamphiphiles for the formation of vesicles for drug delivery with desired controlled release rates.
Project description:The studies of bolaamphiphile-based nanoparticles as delivery vectors are still rudimentary and under development. In this study, several asymmetric bolaamphiphiles containing lysine and another moiety with special functions, such as pH-sensitive or cell-targeting property, were designed and synthesized. The potentials of these bolaamphiphile-based nanoparticles as versatile vectors for both nucleic acids and chemical drugs were studied. With the presence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), these amphiphiles could be prepared into bolasomes, which showed good DNA binding ability and could condense plasmid DNA into nanoparticles with appropriate size and surface potential. Lys-His, which has a pH-sensitive histidine on one head, exhibited higher transfection efficiency than the symmetric counterpart and comparable efficiency to commercially available transfection reagent. Mechanism studies confirmed that the bolaplexes formed from Lys-His might induce the highest cellular uptake and the best endosomal escape ability. On the other hand, these bolaamphiphiles also exhibited good drug loading ability. The self-assembly vesicles could efficiently encapsulate the hydrophobic anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in aqueous solution with high drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) experiment and cell viability assay exhibited a controlled release of the drug with the assistance of bolasomes. It was shown that such bolaamphiphiles have great potential as nano-vectors for both drug and gene or their co-delivery.
Project description:The noncoded aromatic 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) amino acid has a pivotal role in the remarkable adhesive properties displayed by marine mussels. These properties have inspired the design of adhesive chemical entities through various synthetic approaches. DOPA-containing bioinspired polymers have a broad functional appeal beyond adhesion due to the diverse chemical interactions presented by the catechol moieties. Here, we harnessed the molecular self-assembly abilities of very short peptide motifs to develop analogous DOPA-containing supramolecular polymers. The DOPA-containing DOPA-DOPA and Fmoc-DOPA-DOPA building blocks were designed by substituting the phenylalanines in the well-studied diphenylalanine self-assembling motif and its 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-protected derivative. These peptides self-organized into fibrillar nanoassemblies, displaying high density of catechol functional groups. Furthermore, the Fmoc-DOPA-DOPA peptide was found to act as a low molecular weight hydrogelator, forming self-supporting hydrogel which was rheologically characterized. We studied these assemblies using electron microscopy and explored their applicative potential by examining their ability to spontaneously reduce metal cations into elementary metal. By applying ionic silver to the hydrogel, we observed efficient reduction into silver nanoparticles and the remarkable seamless metallic coating of the assemblies. Similar redox abilities were observed with the DOPA-DOPA assemblies. In an effort to impart adhesiveness to the obtained assemblies, we incorporated lysine (Lys) into the Fmoc-DOPA-DOPA building block. The assemblies of Fmoc-DOPA-DOPA-Lys were capable of gluing together glass surfaces, and their adhesion properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy. Taken together, a class of DOPA-containing self-assembling peptides was designed. These nanoassemblies display unique properties and can serve as multifunctional platforms for various biotechnological applications.
Project description:Demands related to clean energy and environmental protection promote the development of novel supramolecular assemblies for photocatalysis. Because of the distinctive aggregation behaviors, bolaamphiphiles with two hydrophilic end groups could be theoretically the right candidates for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalysis. However, photocatalytic applications based on bolaamphiphilic assemblies were still rarely investigated. Especially, the relationship between diverse assembled nanostructures and the properties for different applications is urgently needed to be studied. Herein, we demonstrate that using the hierarchical assembly of bolaamphiphiles could correctly induce the porphyrin supramolecular architectures with much better photocatalytic performances than the aggregations containing 450 times of the porphyrin molecules, even though both molecular structures as well as the J-aggregations of porphyrin building blocks are same in two different systems. Thus, the co-assembly of l-phenylalanine terminated bolaamphiphile (Bola-F) and the porphyrin containing four hydroxyl groups (tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin) can form microtube in methanol and forms fibers/spheres in methanol/water mixture. For catalyzing the photodegradation of rhodamine B, the small amount of J-aggregated porphyrin within Bola-F microtubes show much better photocatalytic performance comparing with that of huge porphyrin J-aggregations in fibers/spheres. The supramolecular assemblies as well as the photocatalysis were thoroughly characterized by different spectroscopies and electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the co-assembly with bolaamphiphiles could inhibit the energy transfer of porphyrin aggregation and subsequently benefit the electron transfer and corresponding photocatalysis under photo-irradiation. This work is not only useful for further understanding the hierarchically supramolecular assembly but also provides a new strategy for making novel functional supramolecular architectures based on the assembly of bolaamphiphiles and porphyrins.
Project description:Bolaamphiphile-class surfactants composed of two hydrophilic (maltoside) headgroups connected by long saturated alkyl chains were tested for their ability to stabilize a solubilized membrane protein, Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK), and to sustain its native function. Members of this "Bis-MALT-C(18-28)" series were poor solubilizers of DAGK in the absence of conventional detergent. However, mixed micelles of the bolaamphiphiles with either dodecylphosphocholine or beta-n-decyl maltoside were more effective and enhanced DAGK's thermal stability relative to corresponding detergent-only conditions. Moreover, certain bolaamphiphiles were seen to be lipidlike by providing partial activation of DAGK's catalytic activity. Finally, addition of bolaamphiphiles to micellar NMR samples of DAGK did not result in a degradation of spectral quality, indicating their compatibility with high-resolution structural studies. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first documentation of the potential of bolaamphiphile-class surfactants for use in biochemical and biophysical studies of MPs.
Project description:Amyloid deposits are insoluble fibrous protein aggregates, identified in numerous diseases, which self-assemble through molecular recognition. This process is facilitated by short amino acid sequences, identified as minimal modules. Peptides corresponding to these motifs can be used for the formation of amyloid-like fibrillar assemblies in vitro. Such assemblies hold broad appeal in nanobiotechnology due to their ordered structure and to their ability to be functionalized. The catechol functional group, present in the non-coded L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) amino acid, can take part in diverse chemical interactions. Moreover, DOPA-incorporated polymers have demonstrated adhesive properties and redox activity. In this work, amyloid-like fibrillar assemblies were formed through the self-assembly of a pentapeptide containing DOPA residues, Asp-DOPA-Asn-Lys-DOPA. The design of this peptide was based on the minimal amyloidogenic recognition motif of the human calcitonin hormone, Asp-Phe-Asn-Lys-Phe, the first amyloidogenic pentapeptide identified. By substituting phenylalanine with DOPA, we obtained DOPA-functionalized amyloid-like assemblies in water. Electron microscopy revealed elongated, linear fibril-like nanometric assemblies. Secondary structure analysis indicated the presence of amyloid-characteristic ?-sheet structures as well as random coil structures. Deposition of silver on the DOPA-incorporated assemblies suggested redox activity and demonstrated the applicative potential of this novel nanobiomaterial.
Project description:In this study, we report a new dipeptide functionalization strategy for developing new dendritic bolaamphiphile vectors for efficient siRNA transfection. A focused library of dipeptides was constructed using four amino acids: l-arginine, l-histidine, l-lysine, and l-tryptophan. The dipeptides were coupled to two dendritic bolaamphiphile scaffolds that we developed previously, allowing us to quickly access a focused library of discrete vectors with multivalent dendritic dipeptide functionalities. The resulting discrete bolaamphiphiles were screened for siRNA delivery in vitro in HEK-293 and HeLa cells. Bolaamphiphiles functionalized with dipeptides containing Lys or Arg and either His or Trp were the most effective for in vitro siRNA delivery. Necessary cationic charge to ensure efficient siRNA binding are provided by Arg and Lys residues, whereas endosomal escape is provided through pH responsive buffering of His or membrane interactions of Trp. The most effective vectors (F10 HR/RH) exhibited greater than 75% gene silencing in multiple cell lines and exhibited serum stability.
Project description:Local delivery of viral vectors can enhance the efficacy of therapies by selectively affecting necessary tissues and reducing the required vector dose. Pluronic F127 is a thermosensitive polymer that undergoes a solution-gelation (sol-gel) transition as temperature increases and can deliver vectors without damaging them. While pluronics can be spread over large areas, such as the surface of an organ, before gelation, they lack sufficient adhesivity to remain attached to some tissues, such as the surface of the heart or mucosal surfaces. Here, we utilized blends of pluronic F127 and polycarbophil (PCB), a mucoadhesive agent, to provide the necessary adhesivity for local delivery of viral vectors to the cardiac muscle. The effects of PCB concentration on adhesive properties, sol-gel temperature transition and cytocompatibility were evaluated. Rheological studies showed that PCB decreased the sol-gel transition temperature at concentrations >1% and increased the adhesive properties of the gel. Furthermore, these gels were able to deliver viral vectors and transduce cells in vitro and in vivo in a neonatal mouse apical resection model. These gels could be a useful platform for delivering viral vectors over the surface of organs where increased adhesivity is required.
Project description:Specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed to silence different oncogenic pathways can be used for cancer therapy. However, non-modified naked siRNAs have short half-lives in blood serum and encounter difficulties in crossing biological membranes due to their negative charge. These obstacles can be overcome by using siRNAs complexed with bolaamphiphiles, consisting of two positively charged head groups that flank an internal hydrophobic chain. Bolaamphiphiles have relatively low toxicities, long persistence in the blood stream, and most importantly, in aqueous conditions can form poly-cationic micelles thus, becoming amenable to association with siRNAs. Herein, two different bolaamphiphiles with acetylcholine head groups attached to an alkyl chain in two distinct configurations are compared for their abilities to complex with siRNAs and deliver them into cells inducing gene silencing. Our explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that bolaamphiphiles associate with siRNAs due to electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. These in silico studies are supported by various in vitro and in cell culture experimental techniques as well as by some in vivo studies. Results demonstrate that depending on the application, the extent of siRNA chemical protection, delivery efficiency, and further intracellular release can be varied by simply changing the type of bolaamphiphile used.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e80; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.5; published online 19 March 2013.
Project description:Mussel adhesion to mineral surfaces is widely attributed to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) functionalities in the mussel foot proteins (mfps). Several mfps, however, show a broad range (30-100%) of Tyrosine (Tyr) to Dopa conversion suggesting that Dopa is not the only desirable outcome for adhesion. Here, we used a partial recombinant construct of mussel foot protein-1 (rmfp-1) and short decapeptide dimers with and without Dopa and assessed both their cohesive and adhesive properties on mica using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Our results demonstrate that at low pH, both the unmodified and Dopa-containing rmfp-1s show similar energies for adhesion to mica and self-self interaction. Cohesion between two Dopa-containing rmfp-1 surfaces can be doubled by Fe3+ chelation, but remains unchanged with unmodified rmfp-1. At the same low pH, the Dopa modified short decapeptide dimer did not show any change in cohesive interactions even with Fe3+. Our results suggest that the most probable intermolecular interactions are those arising from electrostatic (i.e., cation-?) and hydrophobic interactions. We also show that Dopa in a peptide sequence does not by itself mediate Fe3+ bridging interactions between peptide films: peptide length is a crucial enabling factor.