Characterization of Enterococcal Community Isolated ?from an Artisan Istrian Raw Milk Cheese: Biotechnological and Safety Aspects.
ABSTRACT: In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8%) and E. faecalis (42.4%), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84%) and E. casseliflavus (0.95%), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature and air humidity as well as microclimatic or vegetation conditions. There was considerable variation between the strains of the same species regarding wide range of biotechnologically important traits as well as their ability to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. A considerable number of strains were resistant to critically important antibiotics such as tetracycline (43.56%), erythromycin (35.79%) and vancomycin (23.48%). Polymerase chain reaction-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin and erythromycin resistance; for tetracycline tetM gene was detected. The presence of virulence genes including agg, efaAfs, gelE, cylM, cylB, cylA, esp, efaAfm, cob and cpd was frequently recorded, especially among E. faecalis strains.
Project description:This study aimed to calculate the proportion of antibiotic resistance profiles of <i>Enterococcus faecium</i>, <i>E. faecalis,</i> and <i>E. durans</i> isolated from traditional sheep and goat cheeses obtained from a selected border area of Slovakia with Hungary (region Slanské vrchy). A total of 110 <i>Enterococcus</i> sp. were isolated from cheese samples, of which 52 strains (<i>E. faecium</i> (12), <i>E. faecalis</i> (28), <i>E. durans</i> (12)) were represented. After isolation and identification by polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the enterococci (<i>E. faecium, E. faecalis</i>, and <i>E. durans</i>) were submitted to susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobial agents. In general, strains of <i>E. faecalis</i> were more resistant than <i>E. durans</i> and <i>E. faecium</i>. A high percentage of resistance was noted in <i>E. faecalis</i> to rifampicin (100%), vancomycin (85.7%), teicoplanin (71.4%), erythromycin (71.4%), minocycline (57.1%), nitrofurantoin (57.1%), ciprofloxacin (14.3%), and levofloxacin (14.3%). <i>E. durans</i> showed resistance to rifampicin (100%), teicoplanin (100%), vancomycin (66.7%), erythromycin (66.7%), nitrofurantoin (66.7%), and minocycline (33.3%), and <i>E. faecium</i> showed resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and erythromycin (100%). Multidrug-resistant strains were confirmed in 80% of the 52 strains in this study. Continuous identification of <i>Enterococcus</i> sp. and monitoring of their incidence and emerging antibiotic resistance is important in order to prevent a potential risk to public health caused by the contamination of milk and other dairy products, such as cheeses, made on farm level.
Project description:The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five dogs were identical or closely related to STs of human clinical isolates and isolates from hospital outbreaks. It is recommended to restrict close physical contact between pets released from the ICU and their owners to avoid potential health risks.
Project description:Enterococci are a natural component of the intestinal flora of many organisms, including humans and birds. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause fatal infections of the urinary tract and endocarditis in humans, whereas in poultry symptoms are joint disease, sepsis, and falls in the first week of life. The study covered 107 Enterococcus strains-56 isolated from humans and 51 from turkeys. Among the isolates investigated Enterococcus faecalis was detected in 80.36% of human and 80.39% of turkey samples. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 8.93% of human and 17.65% of turkey strains. The highest percentage of the strains was resistant to tetracycline as follows: 48 (85.71%) and 48 (94.12%) of human and turkey strains, respectively. Resistance to erythromycin occurred in 37.50% of the human and in 76.47% of turkey strains, otherwise 27.10% of all strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. Our study revealed that 25% of human and 15.69% of turkey strains were resistant to vancomycin. Multidrug resistance showed in 32.14% and 43.14% of human and turkey strains, respectively. The tetracycline resistance gene, tetM, was detected in 82.24% of all strains analyzed, whereas the tetO gene was found in 53.57% of human but only in 7.84% of turkey strains. The vancomycin resistance gene (vanA) was detected in seven Enterococcus strains (six isolated from turkeys and one from humans). The ermB gene (resistance to macrolide) was detected in 55.14% of all isolates (42.86% of human and 68.63% of turkey strains), whereas the ermA gene was detected in 17.65% of turkey but only in 3.57% of human isolates. All the strains had the ability to form biofilms. A stronger biofilm was formed after 24-hour incubation by strains isolated from turkeys, whereas after 48 hours of incubation all examined strains produced strong biofilm.
Project description:Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment both by acquiring antibiotic resistance genes and through mechanisms of tolerance that are based on phenotypic changes and the formation of metabolically inactive cells. Here, we report an <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> strain (<i>E. faecalis</i> UM001B) that was isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and had no increase in resistance but extremely high-level tolerance to ampicillin, vancomycin, and tetracycline. Specifically, the percentages of cells that survived 3.5-h antibiotic treatment (at 100 μg · ml<sup>-1</sup>) were 25.4% ± 4.3% and 51.9% ± 4.0% for ampicillin and tetracycline, respectively; vancomycin did not exhibit any significant killing. Consistent with the changes in antibiotic susceptibility, UM001B was found to have reduced penetration of ampicillin and vancomycin and accumulation of tetracycline compared to the reference strain ATCC 29212. Based on whole-genome sequencing, four amino acid substitutions were identified in one of the tetracycline efflux pump repressors (TetRs), compared to ATCC 29212. Results of molecular simulations and experimental assays revealed that these mutations could lead to higher levels of tetracycline efflux activity. Consistently, replicating these mutations in <i>Escherichia coli</i> MG1655 increased its tolerance to tetracycline. Overall, these findings provide new insights into the development of multidrug tolerance in <i>E. faecalis</i>, which can facilitate future studies to better control enterococcal infections.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> represents a major group of pathogens causing nosocomial infections that are resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. An important challenge associated with <i>E. faecalis</i> infection is the emergence of multidrug-tolerant strains, which have normal MICs but do not respond to antibiotic treatment. Here, we report a strain of <i>E. faecalis</i> that was isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and demonstrated high-level tolerance to ampicillin, vancomycin, and tetracycline. Whole-genome sequencing revealed critical substitutions in one of the tetracycline efflux pump repressors that are consistent with the increased tolerance of <i>E. faecalis</i> UM001B to tetracycline. These findings provide new information about bacterial antibiotic tolerance and may help develop more effective therapeutics.
Project description:Intestinal commensal bacteria are considered good indicators for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles and resistance trends of <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> isolated from food animals in Korea between 2010 and 2019. <i>E. faecium</i> and <i>E. faecalis,</i> isolated from chickens and pigs, respectively, presented a relatively high resistance rate to most of the tested antimicrobials. We observed high ciprofloxacin (67.9%), tetracycline (61.7%), erythromycin (59.5%), and tylosin (53.0%) resistance in <i>E. faecium</i> isolated from chickens. Similarly, more than half of the <i>E. faecalis</i> isolates from pigs and chickens were resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and tylosin. Notably, we observed ampicillin, daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid resistance in a relatively small proportion of enterococcal isolates. Additionally, the enterococcal strains exhibited an increasing but fluctuating resistance trend (<i>p</i> < 0.05) to some of the tested antimicrobials including daptomycin and/or linezolid. <i>E. faecalis</i> showed higher Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates than <i>E. faecium</i> in cattle (19.7% vs. 8.6%, respectively) and pigs (63.6% vs. 15.6%, respectively), whereas a comparable MDR rate (≈60.0%) was noted in <i>E. faecium</i> and <i>E. faecalis</i> isolated from chickens. Collectively, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant <i>Enterococcus</i> in food animals poses a potential risk to public health.
Project description:The drug resistances and plasmid contents of a total of 85 vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains that had been isolated in Korea were examined. Fifty-four of the strains originated from samples of chicken feces, and 31 were isolated from hospital patients in Korea. Enterococcus faecalis KV1 and KV2, which had been isolated from a patient and a sample of chicken feces, respectively, were found to carry the plasmids pSL1 and pSL2, respectively. The plasmids transferred resistances to vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and erythromycin to E. faecalis strains at a high frequency of about 10(-3) per donor cell during 4 hours of broth mating. E. faecalis strains containing each of the pSL plasmids formed clumps after 2 hours of incubation in broth containing E. faecalis FA2-2 culture filtrate (i.e., the E. faecalis sex pheromone), and the plasmid subsequently transferred to the recipient strain in a 10-min short mating in broth, indicating that the plasmids are responsive to E. faecalis pheromones. The pSL plasmids did not respond to any of synthetic pheromones for the previously characterized plasmids. The pheromone specific for pSL plasmids has been designated cSL1. Southern hybridization analysis showed that specific FspI fragments from each of the pSL plasmids hybridized with the aggregation substance gene (asa1) of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pAD1, indicating that the plasmids had a gene homologous to asa1. The restriction maps of the plasmids were identical, and the size of the plasmids was estimated to be 128.1 kb. The plasmids carried five drug resistance determinants for vanA, ermB, aph(3'), aph(6'), and aac(6')/aph(2'), which encode resistance to vancomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin/kanamycin, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analyses of the drug resistance determinants and their flanking regions are described in this report. The results described provide evidence for the exchange of genetic information between human and animal (chicken) VRE reservoirs and suggest the potential for horizontal transmission of multiple drug resistance, including vancomycin resistance, between farm animals and humans via a pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid.
Project description:In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ?35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the Leuconostoc-Weissella group, provides evidence of the genetic basis of atypical resistances, and demonstrates the inter-species transfer of erythromycin resistance.
Project description:Eighteen identical VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis isolates that were obtained from different hospitalized patients were examined for their drug resistance and plasmid DNAs. Of the 18 strains, 12 strains exhibited resistance to erythromycin (Em), gentamicin (Gm), kanamycin (Km), tetracycline (Tc), and vancomycin (Van) and produced cytolysin (Hly/Bac) and a bacteriocin (Bac) active against E. faecalis strains. Another six of the strains exhibited resistance to Gm, Km, Tc, and Van and produced a bacteriocin. Em and Van resistance was transferred individually to E. faecalis FA2-2 strains at a frequency of about 10(-4) per donor cell by broth mating. The Em-resistant transconjugants and the Van-resistant transconjugants harbored a 65.7-kbp plasmid and a 106-kbp plasmid, respectively. The 106-kbp and 65.7-kbp plasmids isolated from the representative E. faecalis NKH15 strains were designated pMG2200 and pMG2201, respectively. pMG2200 conferred vancomycin resistance and bacteriocin activity on the host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cCF10 for pCF10, while pMG2201 conferred erythromycin resistance and cytolysin activity on its host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cAD1 for pAD1. The complete DNA sequence of pMG2200 (106,527 bp) showed that the plasmid carried a Tn1549-like element encoding vanB2-type resistance and the Bac41-like bacteriocin genes of pheromone-responsive plasmid pYI14. The plasmid contained the regulatory region found in pheromone-responsive plasmids and encoded the genes prgX and prgQ, which are the key negative regulatory elements for plasmid pCF10. pMG2200 also encoded TraE1, a key positive regulator of plasmid pAD1, indicating that pMG2200 is a naturally occurring chimeric plasmid that has a resulting prgX-prgQ-traE1 genetic organization in the regulatory region of the pheromone response. The functional oriT region and the putative relaxase gene of pMG2200 were identified and found to differ from those of pCF10 and pAD1. The putative relaxase of pMG2200 was classified as a member of the MOB(MG) family, which is found in pheromone-independent plasmid pHTbeta of the pMG1-like plasmids. This is the first report of the isolation and characterization of a pheromone-responsive highly conjugative plasmid encoding vanB resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated the virulence factors, genes, antibiotic resistance patterns, and genotypes (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) production in Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from fecal samples of humans, dogs, and cats. METHODS:A total of 100 fecal samples from 50 humans, 25 dogs, and 25 cats were used in the study. MICs of nine antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance (VRE and ESBL/AmpC) and virulence genes both in Enterococcus species, such as cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylM), aggregation substance (agg), gelatinase (gelE), enterococcal surface protein (esp), cell wall adhesins (efaAfs and efaAfm), and in Enterobacteriaceae, such as cytolysin (hemolysin) and gelatinase production (afa, cdt, cnf1, hlyA, iutA, papC, sfa). RESULTS:Enterococcus faecium was the most prevalent species in humans and cats, whereas Enterococcus faecalis was the species isolated in the remaining samples. A total of 200 Enterobacteriaceae strains were also detected, mainly from humans, and Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated species in all types of samples. In the Enterococcus spp, the highest percentages of resistance for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were detected in cat isolates (41.6%, 52.8%, 38.9%, 23.6%, 62.5%, 20.8%, and 23.6% respectively), and in E. coli, a higher rate of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime emerged in cat and dog samples, if compared with humans (75.4% and 66.0%, 80.0% and 71.4%, and 32.0% and 27.2%, respectively). Regarding the total number of enterococci, 5% and 3.4% of the strains were vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant, and the vancomycin resistance (van A) gene has been detected in all samples by PCR amplification. All the Enterobacteriaceae strains were confirmed as ESBL producers by PCR and sequencing, and the most frequent ESBL genes in E. coli strains from humans and pet samples were blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide evidence that one or more virulence factors were present in both genera, underlining again the ability of pet strains to act as pathogens.
Project description:Kopanisti is a Greek artisan cheese produced from raw milk in the island of Mykonos, Greece. The milk is left to rest for 12-24 h and then the rennet is added. After its formation the curd is left to drain for 2-3 days and is ready either for consumption (as tyrovolia fresh cheese), or with the addition of extra salt, the curd is left to ripen through further fermentation and surface development of Penicillium fungi, aprocess leading to the production of the traditional Greek cheese Kopanisti. From 120 samples of kopanisti, 574 Lactobacillus strains were isolated, distributed in 17 species (16 of them isolated from tyrovolia as well). Strains from 15 species were found resistant or multiresistant against 15 antimicrobial agents, representing all categories of antibiotics. Analysis revealed that the resistance was moderated during ripening of the curd from tyrovolia to Kopanisti. Resistance against penicillin G, ampicillin/sulbactam, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, metronidazole, vancomycin, teichoplanin, and quinupristin/dalvopristin was significantly enhanced, while the resistance against ampicillin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline, gentamycin, and fucidic acid was significantly reduced. These changes during ripening suggest that resistance to antimicrobials is a dynamic process subjected to environmental factors. The biodiversity of isolated Lactobacillus strains is impressive and explains the exquisite sensorial characteristics of the cheese. However, the extent of the resistance is alarming.