Quality of anticoagulation control and hemorrhage risk among African American and European American warfarin users.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We evaluated whether percent time in target range (PTTR), risk of over-anticoagulation [international normalized ratio (INR)>4], and risk of hemorrhage differ by race. As PTTR is a strong predictor of hemorrhage risk, we also determined the influence of PTTR on the risk of hemorrhage by race. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:Among 1326 warfarin users, PTTR was calculated as the percentage of interpolated INR values within the target range of 2.0-3.0. PTTR was also categorized as poor (PTTR<60%), good (60?PTTR<70%), or excellent (PTTR?70%) anticoagulation control. Over-anticoagulation was defined as INR more than 4 and major hemorrhages included serious, life-threatening, and fatal bleeding episodes. Logistic regression and survival analyses were carried out to evaluate the association of race with PTTR (?60 vs. <60) and major hemorrhages, respectively. RESULTS:Compared with African Americans, European Americans had higher PTTR (57.6 vs. 49.1%; P<0.0001) and were more likely to attain 60?PTTR<70% (22.9 vs. 13.1%; P<0.001) or PTTR of at least 70% (26.9 vs. 18.2%; P=0.001). Older (>65 years) patients without venous thromboembolism indication and chronic kidney disease were more likely to attain PTTR of at least 60%. After accounting for clinical and genetic factors, and PTTR, African Americans had a higher risk of hemorrhage [hazard ratio (HR)=1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.41; P=0.034]. Patients with 60?PTTR<70% (HR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.02; P=0.058) and PTTR of at least 70% (HR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.15-0.49; P<0.001) had a lower risk of hemorrhage compared with those with PTTR less than 60%. CONCLUSION:Despite the provision of warfarin management through anticoagulation clinics, African Americans achieve a lower overall PTTR and have a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage. Personalized medicine interventions tailored to African American warfarin users need to be developed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The p.V433M in cytochrome P450 4F2 (rs2108622, CYP4F2*3) is associated with a higher warfarin dose and lower risk of hemorrhage among European Americans. We evaluate the influence of CYP4F2*3 on warfarin dose, time to target international normalized ratio (INR), and stable dose, proportion of time spent in target range (PTTR), as well as the risk of overanticoagulation and hemorrhage among European and African Americans. DESIGN:CYP4F2*3 was genotyped in 1238 patients initiated on warfarin in a prospective inception cohort. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess warfarin dose and PTTR; proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate time to target INR and stable dose, overanticoagulation, and hemorrhage. SETTING:Two outpatient anticoagulation clinics. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1238 anticoagulated patients. OUTCOMES:Warfarin dose (mg/day), time to target INR and stable dose, PTTR, overanticoagulation (INR more than 4), and major hemorrhage. RESULTS:Minor allele frequency for the CYP4F2*3 variant was 30.3% among European Americans and 8.4% among African Americans. CYP4F2*3 was associated with higher dose among European Americans but not African Americans. Compared to CYP4F2*1/*1, *1/*3 was associated with a statistically nonsignificant increase in dose (4.5%, p=0.22) and *3/*3 was associated with a statistically significant increase in dose (13.2%, p=0.02). CYP4F2 genotype did not influence time to target INR, time to stable dose, or PTTR in either race group. CYP4F2*3/*3 was associated with a 31% lower risk of over anticoagulation (p=0.06). Incidence of hemorrhage was lower among participants with CYP4F2 *3/*3 compared with *1/*3 or *1/*1 (incidence rate ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.11, p=0.09). After controlling for covariates, CYP4F2 *3/*3 was associated with a 52% lower risk of hemorrhage, although this was not statistically significant (p=0.24). CONCLUSION:Possession of CYP4F2*3 variant influences warfarin dose among European Americans but not African Americans. The CYP4F2-dose, CYP4F2-overanticoagulation, and CYP4F2-hemorrhage association follows a recessive pattern with possession of CYP4F2*3/*3 genotype likely demonstrating a protective effect. These findings need further confirmation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We assessed the influence of age on warfarin dose, percentage time in target range (PTTR), and risk of major hemorrhage. DESIGN:Warfarin users recruited into a large prospective inception cohort study were categorized into three age groups: young (younger than 50 yrs), middle aged (50-70 yrs), and elderly (older than 70 yrs). The influence of age on warfarin dose and PTTR was assessed using regression analysis; risk of major hemorrhage was assessed using proportional hazards analysis. Models were adjusted for demographic, clinical, and genetic factors. SETTING:Two outpatient anticoagulation clinics. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1498 anticoagulated patients. OUTCOMES:Warfarin dose (mg/day), PTTR, major hemorrhage. RESULTS:Of the 1498 patients, 22.8% were young, 44.1% were middle aged, and 33.1% were elderly. After accounting for clinical and genetic factors, compared with young warfarin users, warfarin dose requirements were 10.6% lower among the middle aged and an additional 10.6% lower for the elderly. Compared with young patients, middle-aged and elderly patients spent more time in target international normalized ratio (INR) range (p<0.0001), despite having fewer INR assessments (p<0.0001). Compared with young warfarin users, absolute risk of hemorrhage was marginally higher among the middle aged (p=0.08) and significantly higher among the elderly (p=0.016). Compared with young warfarin users, after adjustment, the relative risk of hemorrhage increased by 31% for each age category (p=0.026). CONCLUSIONS:In a real-world setting, despite achieving better anticoagulation control, elderly patients had a higher risk of major hemorrhagic events. As the population ages and the candidacy for oral anticoagulation increases, strategies that mitigate the elevated risk of hemorrhage need to be identified.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN:To assess whether warfarin dose requirement, anticoagulation control, and risk of hemorrhage differ in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) compared with patients without kidney transplants (non-KTRs). DESIGN:Analysis of data from the Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Cohort, a prospective cohort of first-time warfarin users followed at two anticoagulation clinics. SETTING:Two outpatient anticoagulation clinics at two large, academic, tertiary care hospitals. PATIENTS:Adults aged 20 years or older starting warfarin for anticoagulation with a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) goal of 2-3 who were KTRs (n=65) or non-KTRs (n=1630). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Warfarin dose requirement, anticoagulation control, and risk of hemorrhage were assessed in each group. KTRs required an approximately 20% lower warfarin dose (4.7 vs 5.6 mg/day, p=0.0005) compared with non-KTRs. Genetic variants had similar effects on dose in both groups. Mean percentage of time in therapeutic range (PTTR) was similar among KTRs and non-KTRs. Although the proportion of patients achieving good anticoagulation control (PTTR ? 60%) was low in both groups, it was similar among KTRs and non-KTRs. KTRs had a higher risk of major hemorrhage (hazard ratio 2.1, p=0.0081), but this difference was not statistically significant after controlling for kidney function, clinical, and genetic factors. CONCLUSION:KTRs initiating warfarin require lower doses and closer monitoring to optimize anticoagulation therapy. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although multiple reports have documented the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants on warfarin dose, risk of over-anticoagulation and hemorrhage, their influence on anticoagulation maintenance and individual proportion of time spent in target INR range (PPTR) is limited. Moreover the potential benefit of genotype-guided dosing implemented after initiation of therapy in a racially diverse population has not been explored. Herein we present the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 C1173T on warfarin response during the first 30 days of therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Warfarin dose was empirically determined in 250 African Americans 271 European Americans. The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on rate of INR increase, anticoagulation maintenance, risk of over-anticoagulation, and change in dose over 30 days was evaluated after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Possession of variant VKORC1 (+/- variant CYP2C9) genotype was associated with a more rapid attainment of target INR and higher frequency of dose adjustments. Patients possessing variant genotypes spent less time in target range. However adjustment for rate of INR increase rendered the association non-significant. European Americans (but not African Americans) possessing variant VKORC1 (+/- variant CYP2C9) genotype had a higher risk of over-anticoagulation. Neither CYP2C9 nor VKORC1 influenced the risk of minor hemorrhage. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 explained 6.3% of the variance in dose change over the first 30 days of therapy demonstrating that the usefulness of genotype-guided dosing may extend beyond first day of therapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The benefit of genotype-based dose prediction may extend beyond first few days of therapy. Whether genotype-guided dosing will decrease the risk of over-anticoagulation, improve anticoagulation control and most importantly improve outcomes for chronic warfarin users remains to be proven.
Project description:The influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose, time to target International Normalized Ratio (INR), time to stabilization, and risk of over-anticoagulation (INR: > 4) was assessed after adjustment for clinical factors, intraindividual variation in environmental factors and unobserved heterogeneity.Common CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms were assessed in 302 European-Americans and 273 African-Americans receiving warfarin. Race-stratified multivariable analyses evaluated the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin response.CYP2C9 and VKORC1 accounted for up to 30% of the variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 10% among African-Americans. Neither CYP2C9 nor VKORC1 influenced the time to target INR or stabilization among patients of either race, and neither influenced the risk of over-anticoagulation among African-Americans. The risk of over-anticoagulation was higher among European-Americans with variant VKORC1 1173C/T (p < 0.01) and marginally significant among those with variant CYP2C9 (p = 0.08) genotype. Although CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping can facilitate individualized initiation of warfarin dose in African and European-Americans, the ability to predict the risk of over-anticoagulation is inconsistent across race. Identification of other factors that can predict such risk consistently in a racially diverse group will facilitate individualized maintenance of warfarin therapy.
Project description:Anticoagulation management is difficult in chronic kidney disease, with frequent supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs ? 4) increasing hemorrhagic risk. We evaluated whether the interaction of INR and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increases hemorrhage risk and whether patients with lower eGFRs experience slower anticoagulation reversal.Prospective cohort study.Warfarin pharmacogenetics cohort (1,273 long-term warfarin users); warfarin reversal cohort (74 warfarin users admitted with INRs ? 4).eGFR, INR as time-dependent covariate, and their interaction in the pharmacogenetics cohort; eGFR in the reversal cohort.In the pharmacogenetics cohort, hemorrhagic (serious, life-threatening, and fatal bleeding) risk was assessed using proportional hazards regression. In the reversal cohort, anticoagulation reversal was assessed from changes in INR, warfarin and metabolite concentrations, clotting factors (II, VII, IX, and X), and PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II) levels at presentation and after reversal, using linear regression and path analysis.In the pharmacogenetics cohort, 454 (35.7%) had eGFRs < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). There were 137 hemorrhages in 119 patients over 1,802 person-years of follow-up (incidence rate, 7.6 [95% CI, 6.4-8.9]/100 person-years). Patients with lower eGFRs had a higher frequency of INR ? 4 (P<0.001). Risk of hemorrhage was affected significantly by eGFR-INR interaction. At INR<4, there was no difference in hemorrhage risk by eGFR (all P ? 0.4). At INR?4, patients with eGFRs of 30 to 44 and < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had 2.2-fold (95% CI, 0.8-6.1; P=0.1) and 5.8-fold (95% CI, 2.9-11.4; P<0.001) higher hemorrhage risks, respectively, versus those with eGFRs ? 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). In the reversal cohort, 35 (47%) had eGFRs < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients with eGFRs < 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) experienced slower anticoagulation reversal as assessed by INR (P=0.04) and PIVKA-II level (P=0.008) than those with eGFRs ? 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2).Limited sample size in the reversal cohort, unavailability of antibiotic use and urine albumin data.Patients with lower eGFRs have differentially higher hemorrhage risk at INR ? 4. Moreover, because the INR reversal rate is slower, hemorrhage risk is prolonged.
Project description:It is unknown whether renal dysfunction conveys poor anticoagulation control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation and whether poor anticoagulation control associates with the risk of adverse outcomes in these patients.This was an observational study from the Stockholm CREatinine Measurements (SCREAM) cohort including all newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients initiating treatment with warfarin (n=7738) in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; mL/min per 1.73 m2) was calculated from serum creatinine. Time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) was assessed from international normalized ratio (INR) measurements up to warfarin cessation, adverse event, or end of follow-up (2 years). Adverse events considered a composite of intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. During median 254 days, TTR was 83%, based on median 21 INR measurements per patient. TTR was 70% among patients with eGFR <30, around 10% lower than in those with normal renal function. During observation, adverse events occurred in 4.0% of patients, and those with TTR ?75% were at higher adverse event risk. This was independent of patient characteristics, comorbidities, number of INR tests, days exposed to warfarin, and, notably, independent of eGFR: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.84 (95% CI, 1.41-2.40) for TTR 75% to 60% and adjusted OR 2.09 (1.59-2.74) for TTR <60%. No interaction was observed between eGFR and TTR in association to adverse events (P=0.2).Severe chronic kidney disease (eGFR <30) patients with atrial fibrillation have worse INR control while on warfarin. An optimal TTR (>75%) is associated with lower risk of adverse events, independently of underlying renal function.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Dosing algorithms for warfarin incorporate clinical and genetic factors but may not account for the numerous comorbidities affecting patients who start warfarin while hospitalized. We aimed to determine whether these algorithms perform differently when warfarin is initiated for inpatients compared with outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We analyzed a prospective cohort of 1015 participants from the Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial who were randomized to either pharmacogenetically or clinically guided warfarin dosing algorithms. Clinicians and participants were blinded to dose during the first 28 days. We compared groups, based on location at the time of the first warfarin dose request, in relation to the following outcomes: percentage of time in the therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) range (PTTR) during the first 4 weeks, time to first therapeutic INR, time to maintenance dose, and the difference between predicted and observed maintenance doses. RESULTS:A total of 527 participants started warfarin as inpatients and 488 as outpatients. There was no difference in PTTR based on location: 43.2 % for inpatient versus 47.4 % for outpatient initiation [mean adjusted difference -2.2 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -5.9 to 1.6]. Similarly, there were no differences in time to first therapeutic INR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95 % CI 0.91-1.24] or to maintenance dose (HR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.81-1.14). There was no evidence of interaction between study intervention (pharmacogenetically vs. clinically guided therapy) and location of initiation for these main outcomes. The difference between predicted and observed maintenance doses was similar for both locations. CONCLUSION:The warfarin dosing algorithms performed similarly for subjects who initiated warfarin as inpatients and outpatients, regardless of whether dosing was pharmacogenetically or clinically guided.
Project description:Background and Purpose- The effects of anticoagulation therapy and elevated international normalized ratio (INR) values on the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between anticoagulation therapy, elevated INR values, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Methods- We conducted a case-control study of 4696 patients with 6403 intracranial aneurysms, including 1198 prospective patients, diagnosed at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital between 1990 and 2016 who were on no anticoagulant therapy or on warfarin for anticoagulation. Patients were divided into ruptured and nonruptured groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of anticoagulation therapy, INR values, and presentation with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, taking into account the interaction between anticoagulant use and INR. Inverse probability weighting using propensity scores was used to minimize differences in baseline demographics characteristics. The marginal effects of anticoagulant use on rupture risk stratified by INR values were calculated. Results- In unweighted and weighted multivariable analyses, elevated INR values were significantly associated with rupture status among patients who were not anticoagulated (unweighted odds ratio, 22.78; 95% CI, 10.85-47.81 and weighted odds ratio, 28.16; 95% CI, 12.44-63.77). In anticoagulated patients, warfarin use interacts significantly with INR when INR ?1.2 by decreasing the effects of INR on rupture risk. Conclusions- INR elevation is associated with intracranial aneurysm rupture, but the effects may be moderated by warfarin. INR values should, therefore, be taken into consideration when counseling patients with intracranial aneurysms.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the influence of regular physical activity on stable warfarin dose and risk of major hemorrhage in patients on chronic anticoagulation therapy. DESIGN:Regular physical activity (maintained over > 80% of visits) was ascertained by self-report at initiation of warfarin therapy (target international normalized ratio [INR] = 2-3) in 1272 patients, with changes documented at monthly anticoagulation clinic visits in a population-based prospective cohort. Multi-variable linear regression and survival analysis, respectively, were used to assess influence on warfarin and risk of hemorrhage. SETTING:Outpatient anticoagulation clinic PARTICIPANTS:1272 anticoagulated patients MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS:There were 683 (53.7%) patients who were regularly physically active (? 30 min ? 3 times/week). Physically active patients required warfarin doses that were 6.9% higher (p=0.006) than in physically inactive patients after controlling for sociodemographic factors, vitamin K intake, clinical factors, and genetic variations.The overall incidence of major hemorrhagic events was 7.6/100 person-years (p-yrs, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4-8.9) in our population. The incidence was lower for physically active patients (5.6/100 p-yrs, 95% CI 4.2-7.2) than in inactive patients (10.3/100 p-yrs, 95% CI 8.2-12.9, p=0.0004). Active patients had a 38% lower risk of hemorrhage (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.98, p=0.03) compared with inactive patients. CONCLUSIONS:Regular physical activity is associated with higher warfarin dose requirements and lower risk of hemorrhage. The influence of physical activity on drug response needs to be further explored, and the mechanisms through which it exerts these effects need to be elucidated