Updated Recommendations for Use of MenB-FHbp Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2016.
ABSTRACT: Two serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines are currently licensed for use in persons aged 10-25 years in the United States. The two vaccines are MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Pfizer, Inc.) (1) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Inc.) (2). In February 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of MenB vaccines among certain groups of persons aged ?10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease* (Category A) (3), and in June 2015, ACIP recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16-23 years may be vaccinated with MenB vaccines to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (Category B†) (4). Consistent with the original Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure for the two available MenB vaccines, ACIP recommended either a 3-dose series of MenB-FHbp or a 2-dose series of MenB-4C. Either MenB vaccine can be used when indicated; ACIP does not state a product preference. The two MenB vaccines are not interchangeable; the same vaccine product must be used for all doses in a series. In April 2016, changes to the dosage and administration of MenB-FHbp were approved by FDA to allow for both a 2-dose series (administered at 0 and 6 months) and a 3-dose series (administered at 0, 1-2, and 6 months) (5,6). In addition, the package insert now states that the choice of dosing schedule depends on the patient's risk for exposure and susceptibility to serogroup B meningococcal disease. These recommendations are regarding use of the 2- and 3-dose schedules of MenB-FHbp vaccine (Trumenba) and replace previous ACIP recommendations for use of MenB-FHbp vaccine published in 2015 (3,4). Recommendations regarding use of MenB-4C (Bexsero) are unchanged (3,4).
Project description:Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a major protective antigen in 4C-MenB (Bexsero®) and Trumenba®, two serogroup B meningococcal vaccines, wherein expression level is a determinant of protection. Examination of promoter-containing intergenic region (IGR) sequences indicated that nine fHbp IGR alleles covered 92% of 1,032 invasive meningococcal strains with variant 1 fHbp alleles. Relative expression values for fHbp were determined for 79 meningococcal isolates covering ten IGR alleles by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). Derivation of expression clusters of IGR sequences by linear regression identified five expression clusters with five nucleotides and one insertion showing statistically associations with differences in expression level. Sequence analysis of 273 isolates examined by the Meningococcal Antigen Typing Scheme, a sandwich ELISA, found that coverage depended on the IGR expression cluster and vaccine peptide homology combination. Specific fHbp peptide-IGR expression cluster combinations were designated as 'at risk' for coverage by 4C-MenB and were detected in multiple invasive meningococcal disease cases confirmed by PCR alone and occurring in partially-vaccinated infants. We conclude that sequence-based analysis of IGR sequences is informative for assessing protein expression and has utility for culture-independent assessments of strain coverage by protein-based vaccines.
Project description:Meningococcal epidemics in Sub-Sahara caused by serogroup A strains are controlled by a group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Strains with serogroups C, W and X continue to cause epidemics. Protein antigens in licensed serogroup B vaccines are shared among serogroup B and non-B strains.Compare serum bactericidal antibody responses elicited by an investigational native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed Factor H binding protein (NOMV-FHbp) and a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) against African serogroup A, B, C, W and X strains.Human Factor H (FH) transgenic mice were immunized with NOMV-FHbp prepared from a mutant African meningococcal strain containing genetically attenuated endotoxin and a mutant sub-family B FHbp antigen with low FH binding, or with MenB-4C, which contains a recombinant sub-family B FHbp antigen that binds human FH, and three other antigens, NHba, NadA and PorA P1.4, capable of eliciting bactericidal antibody.The NOMV-FHbp elicited serum bactericidal activity against 12 of 13 serogroup A, B, W or X strains from Africa, and four isogenic serogroup B mutants with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. There was no activity against a serogroup B mutant with sub-family A FHbp, or two serogroup C isolates from a recent outbreak in Northern Nigeria, which were mismatched for both PorA and sub-family of the FHbp vaccine antigen. For MenB-4C, NHba was expressed by all 16 African isolates tested, FHbp sub-family B in 13, and NadA in five. However, MenB-4C elicited titers ? 1:10 against only one isolate, and against only two of four serogroup B mutant strains with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants.NOMV-FHbp has greater potential to confer serogroup-independent protection in Africa than the licensed MenB-4C vaccine. However, the NOMV-FHbp vaccine will require inclusion of sub-family A FHbp for coverage against recent serogroup C strains causing outbreaks in Northern Nigeria.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Capsular polysaccharide vaccines are available against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y. More recently two protein-based vaccines, Bexsero and Trumenba, against meningococcal serogroup B strains have been licensed; both vaccines contain meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp). fHbp is a surface-exposed lipoprotein that binds the negative complement regulator complement factor H (CFH), thereby inhibiting the alternative pathway of complement activation. Recent analysis of available genomes has indicated that some commensal Neisseria species also contain genes that potentially encode fHbp, although the functions of these genes and how immunization with fHbp-containing vaccines could affect the commensal flora have yet to be established. Here, we show that the commensal species Neisseria cinerea expresses functional fHbp on its surface and that it is responsible for recruitment of CFH by the bacterium. N. cinerea fHbp binds CFH with affinity similar to that of meningococcal fHbp and promotes survival of N. cinerea in human serum. We examined the potential impact of fHbp-containing vaccines on N. cinerea We found that immunization with Bexsero elicits serum bactericidal activity against N. cinerea, which is primarily directed against fHbp. The shared function of fHbp in N. cinerea and N. meningitidis and cross-reactive responses elicited by Bexsero suggest that the introduction of fHbp-containing vaccines has the potential to affect carriage of N. cinerea and other commensal species.
Project description:Meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccines contain recombinant factor H binding protein (FHbp), which can complex with complement factor H (CFH) and thereby risk eliciting anti-FH autoantibodies. While anti-FH antibodies can be present in sera of healthy persons, the antibodies are implicated in autoimmune atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathies. We immunized 120 students with a MenB vaccine (Bexsero). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), there were small increases in serum anti-FH levels at 3?weeks postvaccination (geometric mean optical density at 405 nm [OD405], 0.54 versus 0.51 preimmunization, P???0.003 for each schedule tested). There was a similar small increase in anti-FH antibody levels in a second historical MenB study of 20 adults with stored paired preimmunization and postimmunization sera (P?=?0.007) but not in three other studies of 57 adults immunized with other meningococcal vaccines that did not contain recombinant FHbp (P?=?0.17, 0.84, and 0.60, respectively). Thus, humans vaccinated with MenB-4C develop small increases in serum anti-FH antibody reactivity. Although not likely to be clinically important, the data indicate a host response to FH. In the prospective MenB study, three subjects (2.5%) developed higher anti-FH titers postimmunization. The elevated titers returned to baseline within 3 to 4?months, and none of the subjects reported adverse events during the follow-up. Although anti-FH antibodies can decrease FH function, the postimmunization sera with high anti-FH antibody levels did not impair serum FH function as measured using a hemolytic assay. Thus, while additional studies are warranted, there is no evidence that the anti-FH antibodies elicited by MenB-4C are likely to cause anti-FH-mediated autoimmune disorders. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02583412.)IMPORTANCE Meningococci are bacteria that cause sepsis and meningitis. Meningococcal species are subdivided into serogroups on the basis of different sugar capsules. Vaccines that target serogroup A, C, Y, and W capsules are safe and highly effective. New serogroup B (MenB) vaccines target a bacterial protein that can bind to a blood protein called complement factor H (FH). While serogroup B vaccines appear to be safe and effective, there is a theoretical risk that immunization with a bacterial protein that binds host FH might elicit anti-FH autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to FH have been detected in healthy persons but in rare cases can cause certain autoimmune diseases. We found small and/or transient increases in serum antibody to FH after MenB immunization. While no serious adverse events were reported in the subjects with elevated anti-FH titers, since onset of autoimmune disease is a rare event and may occur months or years after vaccination, additional, larger studies are warranted.
Project description:Serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is increasing in China, but little is known about the causative meningococci. Here, IMD and carriage isolates in Shanghai characterised and the applicability of different vaccines assessed. Seven IMD epidemic periods have been observed in Shanghai since 1950, with 460 isolates collected including 169 from IMD and 291 from carriage. Analyses were divided according to the period of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPV) introduction: (i) pre-MPV-A, 1965-1980; (ii) post-MPV-A, 1981-2008; and (iii) post-MPV-A?+?C, 2009-2016. Over this period, IMD incidence decreased from 55.4/100,000 to 0.71 then to 0.02, corresponding to successive changes in meningococcal type from serogroup A ST-5 complex (MenA:cc5) to MenC:cc4821, and finally MenB:cc4821. MenB IMD became predominant (63.2%) in the post-MPV-A?+?C period, and 50% of cases were caused by cc4821, with the highest incidence in infants (0.45/100,000) and a case-fatality rate of 9.5%. IMD was positively correlated with population carriage rates. Using the Bexsero Antigen Sequence Type (BAST) system, fewer than 25% of MenB isolates in the post-MPV-A?+?C period contained exact or predicted cross reactive matches to the vaccines Bexsero, Trumenba, or an outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-based vaccine, NonaMen. A unique IMD epidemiology was seen in China, changing periodically from epidemic to hyperepidemic and low-level endemic disease. At the time of writing, MenB IMD dominated IMD in Shanghai, with isolates potentially beyond coverage with licenced OMV- and protein-based MenB vaccines.
Project description:MenB-FHbp is a recombinant meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccine composed of 2 factor H binding proteins (FHbps). Meningococcal vaccines targeting polysaccharide serogroup A, C, Y, and W capsules were licensed upon confirmation of bactericidal antibody induction after initial efficacy studies with serogroup A and C vaccines. Unlike meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines, wherein single strains demonstrated bactericidal antibodies per serogroup for each vaccine, MenB-FHbp required a more robust approach to demonstrate that bactericidal antibody induction could kill strains with diverse FHbp sequences. Serum bactericidal assays using human complement were developed for 14 MenB strains, representing breadth of meningococcal FHbp diversity of ~80% of circulating MenB strains. This work represents an innovative approach to license a non-toxin protein vaccine with 2 antigens representing a single virulence factor by an immune correlate, and uniquely demonstrates that such a vaccine provides coverage across bacterial strains by inducing broadly protective antibodies.
Project description:MenB-4C (Bexsero®) is a multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. For vaccine licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) against three antigen-specific indicator strains. The bactericidal role of antibody to the fourth vaccine antigen, Neisserial Heparin binding antigen (NHba), is incompletely understood.We identified nine adults immunized with two or three doses of MenB-4C who had sufficient volumes of sera and >3-fold increases in SBA titer against a strain with high NHba expression, which was mismatched with the other three MenB-4C antigens that elicit SBA. Using 1month-post-immunization sera we measured the effect of depletion of anti-NHba and/or anti-Factor H binding protein (FHbp) antibodies on SBA.Against three strains matched with the vaccine only for NHba, depletion of anti-NHba decreased SBA titers by an average of 43-79% compared to mock-adsorbed sera (P<0.05). Despite expression of sub-family A FHbp (mismatched with the sub-family B vaccine antigen), depletion of anti-FHbp antibodies also decreased SBA by 45-64% (P<0.05). Depletion of both antibodies decreased SBA by 84-100%. Against a strain with sub-family B FHbp and expression of NHba with 100% identity to the vaccine antigen, depletion of anti-NHba decreased SBA by an average of 26%, compared to mock-adsorbed sera (P<0.0001), and depletion of anti-FHbp antibody decreased SBA by 92% (P<0.0001).Anti-NHba antibody can contribute to SBA elicited by MenB-4C, particularly in concert with anti-FHbp antibody. However, some high NHba-expressing strains are resistant, even with an exact match between the amino acid sequence of the vaccine and strain antigens.
Project description:Summary This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of meningococcal vaccines in the United States. As a comprehensive summary and update of previously published recommendations, it replaces all previously published reports and policy notes. This report also contains new recommendations for administration of booster doses of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine for persons at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease. These guidelines will be updated as needed on the basis of availability of new data or licensure of new meningococcal vaccines. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) for adolescents aged 11 or 12 years, with a booster dose at age 16 years. ACIP also recommends routine vaccination with MenACWY for persons aged ?2 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W, or Y, including persons who have persistent complement component deficiencies; persons receiving a complement inhibitor (e.g., eculizumab [Soliris] or ravulizumab [Ultomiris]); persons who have anatomic or functional asplenia; persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection; microbiologists routinely exposed to isolates of Neisseria meningitidis; persons identified to be at increased risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak caused by serogroups A, C, W, or Y; persons who travel to or live in areas in which meningococcal disease is hyperendemic or epidemic; unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated first-year college students living in residence halls; and military recruits. ACIP recommends MenACWY booster doses for previously vaccinated persons who become or remain at increased risk. In addition, ACIP recommends routine use of MenB vaccine series among persons aged ?10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease, including persons who have persistent complement component deficiencies; persons receiving a complement inhibitor; persons who have anatomic or functional asplenia; microbiologists who are routinely exposed to isolates of N. meningitidis; and persons identified to be at increased risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak caused by serogroup B. ACIP recommends MenB booster doses for previously vaccinated persons who become or remain at increased risk. In addition, ACIP recommends a MenB series for adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years on the basis of shared clinical decision-making to provide short-term protection against disease caused by most strains of serogroup B N. meningitidis.
Project description:Meningococcal lipoprotein, Factor H binding protein (FHbp), is the sole antigen of the Trumenba vaccine (Pfizer) and one of four antigens of the Bexsero vaccine (GSK) targeting Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B isolates. Lipidation of FHbp is assumed to occur for all isolates. We show in the majority of a collection of United Kingdom isolates (1742/1895) non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the signal peptide (SP) of FHbp. A single SNP, common to all, alters a polar amino acid that abolishes processing: lipidation and SP cleavage. Whilst some of the FHbp precursor is retained in the cytoplasm due to reduced binding to SecA, remarkably some is translocated and further surface-localized by Slam. Thus we show Slam is not lipoprotein-specific. In a panel of isolates tested, the overall reduced surface localization of the precursor FHbp, compared to isolates with an intact SP, corresponded with decreased susceptibility to antibody-mediated killing. Our findings shed new light on the canonical pathway for lipoprotein processing and translocation of important relevance for lipoprotein-based vaccines in development and in particular for Trumenba.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) is the most common cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in many parts of the world. A MenB vaccine directed against the polysaccharide capsule remains elusive due to poor immunogenicity and safety concerns. The vaccines licensed for the prevention of MenB disease, 4CMenB (Bexsero) and MenB-fHbp (Trumenba), are serogroup B 'substitute' vaccines, comprised of subcapsular proteins and are designed to provide protection against most MenB disease-causing strains. In many high-income countries, such as the UK, adolescents are at increased risk of IMD and have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage. Beginning in the late 1990s, immunisation of this age group with the meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine reduced asymptomatic carriage and disrupted transmission of this organism, resulting in lower group C IMD incidence across all age groups. Whether vaccinating teenagers with the novel 'MenB' protein-based vaccines will prevent acquisition or reduce duration of carriage and generate herd protection was unknown at the time of vaccine introduction and could not be inferred from the effects of the conjugate vaccines. 4CMenB and MenB-fHbp may also impact on non-MenB disease-causing capsular groups as well as commensal Neisseria spp. This study will evaluate the impact of vaccination with 4CMenB or MenB-fHbp on oropharyngeal carriage of pathogenic meningococci in teenagers, and consequently the potential for these vaccines to provide broad community protection against MenB disease. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The 'Be on the TEAM' (Teenagers Against Meningitis) Study is a pragmatic, partially randomised controlled trial of 24?000 students aged 16-19?years in their penultimate year of secondary school across the UK with regional allocation to a 0+6?month schedule of 4CMenB or MenB-fHbp or to a control group. Culture-confirmed oropharyngeal carriage will be assessed at baseline and at 12 months, following which the control group will be eligible for 4CMenB vaccination. The primary outcome is the carriage prevalence of potentially pathogenic meningococci (defined as those with genogroups B, C, W, Y or X), in each vaccine group compared separately to the control group at 12 months post-enrolment, that is, 12 months after the first vaccine dose and 6 months after the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include impact on carriage of: genogroup B meningococci; hyperinvasive meningococci; all meningococci; those meningococci expressing vaccine antigens and; other Neisseria spp. A sample size of 8000 in each arm will provide 80% power to detect a 30% reduction in meningococcal carriage, assuming genogroup B, C, W, Y or X meningococci carriage of 3.43%, a design effect of 1.5, a retention rate of 80% and a significance level of 0.05. Study results will be available in 2021 and will inform the UK and international immunisation policy and future vaccine development. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study is approved by the National Health Service South Central Research Ethics Committee (18/SC/0055); the UK Health Research Authority (IRAS ID 239091) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Publications arising from this study will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Study results will be disseminated in public forums, online, presented at local and international conferences and made available to the participating schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS:ISRCTN75858406; Pre-results, EudraCT 2017-004609-42.