Intrapancreatic injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells alleviates hyperglycemia and modulates the macrophage state in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic ?-cells, resulting in insulin dependency and hyperglycemia. While transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs) have been explored as an alternative therapeutic approach for diseases, the choice of delivery route may be a critical factor determining their sustainability. This study evaluated the effects of intrapancreatic and intravenous injection of human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 115 mg/kg STZ on day 0. hBMMSCs (1 × 106 cells) or vehicle were injected into the pancreas or jugular vein on day 7. Intrapancreatic, but not intravenous, hBMMSC injection significantly reduced blood glucose levels on day 28 compared with vehicle injection by the same route. This glucose-lowering effect was not induced by intrapancreatic injection of human fibroblasts as the xenograft control. Intrapancreatically injected fluorescence-labeled hBMMSCs were observed in the intra- and extra-lobular spaces of the pancreas, and intravenously injected cells were in the lung region, although the number of cells mostly decreased within 2 weeks of injection. For hBMMSCs injected twice into the pancreatic region on days 7 and 28, the injected mice had further reduced blood glucose to borderline diabetic levels on day 56. Animals injected with hBMMSCs twice exhibited increases in the plasma insulin level, number and size of islets, insulin-positive proportion of the total pancreas area, and intensity of insulin staining compared with vehicle-injected animals. We found a decrease of Iba1-positive cells in islets and an increase of CD206-positive cells in both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The hBMMSC injection also reduced the number of CD40-positive cells merged with glucagon immunoreactions in the islets. These results suggest that intrapancreatic injection may be a better delivery route of hBMMSCs for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:An injection of hydrogel-encapsulated islets that controls blood glucose levels over long term would provide a much needed alternative treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). To this end, we tested the feasibility of using an injectable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel as a scaffold for islet encapsulation. Encapsulated islets cultured in vitro for 6 days showed excellent cell viability and released insulin with higher basal and stimulated insulin secretion than control islets. Host responses to PEG hydrogels were studied by injecting PEG hydrogels (no treatment and vehicle controls used) into the peritoneal cavities of B6D2F1 mice and monitoring alterations in body weight, food and water intake, and blood glucose levels. After 2 weeks, peritoneal cavity cells were harvested, followed by hydrogel retrieval, and extraction of spleens. Body weights, food and water intake, and blood glucose levels were unaltered in mice injected with hydrogels compared to no treatment and vehicle-injected control mice. Frozen sections of a hydrogel showed the presence of tissues and small number of immune cells surrounding the hydrogel but no cell infiltration into the hydrogel bulk. Spleen sizes were not significantly different under the experimental conditions. Peritoneal cavity cells were slightly higher in mice injected with hydrogels compared to control mice but no statistical difference between vehicle- and hydrogel-injected mice was noted. As an in vivo feasibility study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were injected with vehicle or hydrogels containing 50 islets each into two sites, the peritoneal cavity and a subcutaneous site on the back. Transient control of blood glucose levels were observed in mice injected with hydrogels containing islets. In summary, we developed an injectable PEG hydrogel that supported islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo and elicited only a mild host response. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using injectable PEG hydrogels for islet encapsulation.
Project description:Epidemiologic data show the incidence of gastric cancer in men is twofold higher than in women worldwide. Oestrogen is reported to have the capacity against gastric cancer development. Endogenous oestrogen reduces gastric cancer incidence in women. Cancer patients treated with oestrogens have a lower subsequent risk of gastric cancer. Accumulating studies report that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) might contribute to the progression of gastric cancer through paracrine effect of soluble factors. Here, we further explore the effect of oestrogen on BMMSCs-mediated human gastric cancer invasive motility. We founded that HBMMSCs notably secrete interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein. Administration of IL-8 specific neutralizing antibody significantly inhibits HBMMSCs-mediated gastric cancer motility. Treatment of recombinant IL-8 soluble protein confirmed the role of IL-8 in mediating HBMMSCs-up-regulated cell motility. IL-8 up-regulates motility activity through Src signalling pathway in human gastric cancer. We further observed that 17? -estradiol inhibit HBMMSCS-induced cell motility via suppressing activation of IL8-Src signalling in human gastric cancer cells. 17?-estradiol inhibits IL8-up-regulated Src downstream target proteins including p-Cas, p-paxillin, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, MMP9, tPA and uPA. These results suggest that 17?-estradiol significantly inhibits HBMMSCS-induced invasive motility through suppressing IL8-Src signalling axis in human gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Pulsatile insulin secretion into the portal vein from the many pancreatic islets of Langerhans is critical for efficient glucose homeostasis. The islets are themselves endogenous oscillators, but since they are not physically coupled it is not obvious how their oscillations are synchronized across the pancreas. It has been proposed that synchronization of islets is achieved through periodic activity of intrapancreatic ganglia, and indeed there are data supporting this proposal. Postganglionic nerves are cholinergic, and their product, acetylcholine, can influence islet ?-cells through actions on M3 muscarinic receptors which are coupled to Gq type G-proteins. In addition, the neurons secrete several peptide hormones that act on ?-cell receptors. The data supporting synchronization via intrapancreatic ganglia are, however, limited. In particular, it has not been shown that trains of muscarinic pulses are effective at synchronizing islets in vitro. Also, if as has been suggested, there is a ganglionic pacemaker driving islets to a preferred frequency, no neural circuitry for this pacemaker has been identified. In this study, both points are addressed using a microfluidic system that allows for the pulsed application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. We find that murine islets are entrained and synchronized over a wide range of frequencies when the carbachol pulsing is periodic, adding support to the hypothesis that ganglia can synchronize islets in vivo. We also find that islet synchronization is very effective even if the carbachol pulses are applied at random times. This suggests that a neural pacemaker is not needed; all that is required is that islets receive occasional coordinated input from postganglionic neurons. The endogenous rhythmic activity of the islets then sets the frequency of the islet population rhythm, while the input from ganglia acts only to keep the islet oscillators in phase.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of insulin-producing ? cells in the pancreatic islets by effector T cells. Tregs, defined by the markers CD4 and FoxP3, regulate immune responses by suppressing effector T cells and are recruited to sites of action by the chemokine CCL22. Here, we demonstrate that production of CCL22 in islets after intrapancreatic duct injection of double-stranded adeno-associated virus encoding CCL22 recruits endogenous Tregs to the islets and confers long-term protection from autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In addition, adenoviral expression of CCL22 in syngeneic islet transplants in diabetic NOD recipients prevented ? cell destruction by autoreactive T cells and thereby delayed recurrence of diabetes. CCL22 expression increased the frequency of Tregs, produced higher levels of TGF-? in the CD4+ T cell population near islets, and decreased the frequency of circulating autoreactive CD8+ T cells and CD8+ IFN-?–producing T cells. The protective effect of CCL22 was abrogated by depletion of Tregs with a CD25-specific antibody. Our results indicate that islet expression of CCL22 recruits Tregs and attenuates autoimmune destruction of ? cells. CCL22-mediated recruitment of Tregs to islets may be a novel therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are non-haematopoietic, fibroblast-like multipotent stromal cells. In the injured pancreas, these cells are assumed to secrete growth factors and immunomodulatory molecules, which facilitate the regeneration of pre-existing ?-cells. However, when MSC are delivered intravenously, their majority is entrapped in the lungs and does not reach the pancreas. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to compare the regenerative support of hTERT-MSC (human telomerase reverse transcriptase mesenchymal stem cells) via intrapancreatic (IPR) and intravenous route (IVR). METHODS:hTERT-MSC were administered by IPR and IVR to 50% pancreatectomized NMRI nude mice. After eight days, blood glucose level, body weight, and residual pancreatic weight were measured. Proliferating pancreatic ?-cells were labelled and identified with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vivo. The number of residual islets and the frequency of proliferating ?-cells were compared in different groups with sequential pancreatic sections. The pancreatic insulin content was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the presence of hTERT-MSC with human Alu sequence. Murine gene expression of growth factors, ?-cell specific molecules and proinflammatory cytokines were inspected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. RESULTS:This study evaluated the regenerative potential of the murine pancreas post-hTERT-MSC administration through the intrapancreatic (IPR) and intravenous route (IVR). Both routes of hTERT-MSC transplantation (IVR and IPR) increased the incorporation of BrdU by pancreatic ?-cells compared to control. MSC induced epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression and inhibited proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-? and TNF-?). FOXA2 and PDX-1 characteristics for pancreatic progenitor cells were activated via AKT/ PDX-1/ FoxO1 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION:The infusion of hTERT-MSC after partial pancreatectomy (Px) through the IVR and IPR facilitated the proliferation of autochthonous pancreatic ?-cells and provided evidence for a regenerative influence of MSC on the endocrine pancreas. Moderate benefit of IPR over IVR was observed which could be a new treatment option for preventing diabetes mellitus after pancreas surgery.
Project description:The transcription factor Pax4 plays a critical role in the determination of ?- versus ?-cell lineage during endocrine pancreas development. In this study, we explored whether Pax4 gene transfer into ?-cells could convert them into functional ?-cells and thus provide therapeutic benefits for insulin-deficient diabetes. We found that Pax4 delivered by adenoviral vector, Ad5.Pax4, induced insulin expression and reduced glucagon expression in ?TC1.9 cells. More importantly, these cells exhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, a key feature of functional ?-cells. When injected into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, Pax4-treated ?TC1.9 cells significantly reduced blood glucose, and the mice showed better glucose tolerance, supporting that Pax4 gene transfer into ?TC1.9 cells resulted in the formation of functional ?-cells. Furthermore, treatment of primary human islets with Ad5.Pax4 resulted in significantly improved ?-cell function. Detection of glucagon(+)/Pax4(+)/Insulin(+) cells argued for Pax4-induced ?-to-? cell transitioning. This was further supported by quantification of glucagon and insulin bi-hormonal cells, which was significantly higher in Pax4-treated islets than in controls. Finally, direct administration of Ad5.Pax4 into the pancreas of insulin-deficient mice ameliorated hyperglycemia. Taken together, our data demonstrate that manipulating Pax4 gene expression represents a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes.
Project description:Streptozotocin (STZ) is a cytotoxic glucose analogue that causes beta cell death and is widely used to induce experimental diabetes in rodents. The sensitivity of beta cells to STZ is species-specific and human beta cells are resistant to STZ. In experimental islet transplantation to rodents, STZ-diabetes must be induced before transplantation to avoid destruction of grafted islets by STZ. In human islet transplantation, injection of STZ before transplantation is inconvenient and costly, since human islet availability depends on organ donation and frail STZ-diabetic mice must be kept for unpredictable lapses of time until a human islet preparation is available. Based on the high resistance of human beta cells to STZ, we have tested a new model for STZ-diabetes induction in which STZ is injected after human islet transplantation. Human and mouse islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of athymic nude mice, and 10-14 days after transplantation mice were intraperitoneally injected with five consecutive daily doses of STZ or vehicle. Beta-cell death increased and beta-cell mass was reduced in mouse islet grafts after STZ injection. In contrast, in human islet grafts beta cell death and mass did not change after STZ injection. Mice transplanted with rodent islets developed hyperglycemia after STZ-injection. Mice transplanted with human islets remained normoglycemic and developed hyperglycemia when the graft was harvested. STZ had no detectable toxic effects on beta cell death, mass and function of human transplanted islets. We provide a new, more convenient and cost-saving model for human islet transplantation to STZ-diabetic recipients in which STZ is injected after islet transplantation.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Exposure to environmental pollution has been consistently linked to diabetes incidence in humans, but the potential causative mechanisms remain unclear. Given the critical role of regulated insulin secretion in maintaining glucose homeostasis, environmental chemicals that reach the endocrine pancreas and cause beta cell injury are of particular concern. We propose that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which are involved in metabolising xenobiotics, could serve as a useful biomarker for direct exposure of islets to pollutants. Moreover, functional CYP enzymes in islets could also impact beta cell physiology. The aim of this study was to determine whether CYP1A enzymes are activated in islets following direct or systemic exposure to environmental pollutants. METHODS:Immortalised liver (HepG2) and rodent pancreatic endocrine cell lines (MIN6, ?TC-6, INS1, ?-TC1, ?-TC3), as well as human islets, were treated in vitro with known CYP1A inducers 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In addition, mice were injected with either a single high dose of TCDD or multiple low doses of TCDD in vivo, and islets were isolated 1, 7 or 14 days later. RESULTS:CYP1A enzymes were not activated in any of the immortalised beta or alpha cell lines tested. However, both 3-MC and TCDD potently induced CYP1A1 gene expression and modestly increased CYP1A1 enzyme activity in human islets after 48 h. The induction of CYP1A1 in human islets by TCDD was prevented by cotreatment with a cytokine mixture. After a systemic single high-dose TCDD injection, CYP1A1 enzyme activity was induced in mouse islets ~2-fold, ~40-fold and ~80-fold compared with controls after 1, 7 and 14 days, respectively, in vivo. Multiple low-dose TCDD exposure in vivo also caused significant upregulation of Cyp1a1 in mouse islets. Direct TCDD exposure to human and mouse islets in vitro resulted in suppressed glucose-induced insulin secretion. A single high-dose TCDD injection resulted in lower plasma insulin levels, as well as a pronounced increase in beta cell death. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Transient exposure to TCDD results in long-term upregulation of CYP1A1 enzyme activity in islets. This provides evidence for direct exposure of islets to lipophilic pollutants in vivo and may have implications for islet physiology.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for proper pancreatic development, islet vascularisation and insulin secretion. In the adult pancreas, VEGF is thought to be predominantly secreted by beta cells. Although human duct cells have previously been shown to secrete VEGF at angiogenic levels in culture, an analysis of the kinetics of VEGF synthesis and secretion, as well as elucidation of an in vivo role for this ductal VEGF in affecting islet function and physiology, has been lacking.We analysed purified duct cells independently prepared by flow cytometry, surgical isolation or laser-capture microdissection. We infected duct cells in vivo with Vegf (also known as Vegfa) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in an intrapancreatic ductal infusion system and examined the effect of VEGF knockdown in duct cells in vitro and in vivo.Pancreatic duct cells express high levels of Vegf mRNA. Compared with beta cells, duct cells had a much higher ratio of secreted to intracellular VEGF. As a bioassay, formation of tubular structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was essentially undetectable when cultured alone and was substantially increased when co-cultured with pancreatic duct cells but significantly reduced when co-cultured with duct cells pretreated with Vegf shRNA. Compared with islets transplanted alone, improved vascularisation and function was detected in the islets co-transplanted with duct cells but not in islets co-transplanted with duct cells pretreated with Vegf shRNA.Human islet preparations for transplantation typically contain some contaminating duct cells and our findings suggest that the presence of duct cells in the islet preparation may improve transplantation outcomes.
Project description:There is emerging evidence to support an important role for the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) sensory innervation in glucose homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the glucoregulatory action of these afferent neurons is sex-biased and whether it is pancreatic β-cell-mediated. OBJECTIVE:We investigated in male and female mice whether denervation of whole-body or pancreas-projecting TRPV1 sensory neurons regulates adult functional β-cell mass and alters systemic glucose homeostasis. METHODS:We used a combination of pharmacological and surgical approaches to ablate whole-body or pancreatic TRPV1 sensory neurons and assessed islet β-cell function and mass, aspects of glucose and insulin homeostasis, and energy expenditure. RESULTS:Capsaicin-induced chemodenervation of whole-body TRPV1 sensory neurons improved glucose clearance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without alterations in β-cell proliferation and mass, systemic insulin sensitivity, body composition, and energy expenditure. Similarly, denervation of intrapancreatic TRPV1 afferents by pancreas intraductal injection of capsaicin or surgical removal of the dorsal root ganglia projecting into the pancreas lowered post-absorptive glucose levels and increased insulin release upon glucose stimulation. The beneficial effects of TRPV1 sensory denervation on glucose tolerance and β-cell function were observed in male but not female mice. CONCLUSION:Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV1 neurons regulate glucose homeostasis, at least partly, through direct modulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion and that this regulation operates in a sex-dependent manner.