Effects of Novel Nitric Oxide-Releasing Molecules against Oxidative Stress on Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of retinal degenerations such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Enhancement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity in the retina would exert beneficial effects by protecting cells from oxidative stress, therefore promoting cell survival. Because a crosstalk exists between nitric oxide (NO) and HO-1 in promotion of cell survival under oxidative stress, we designed novel NO-releasing molecules also capable to induce HO-1. Starting from curcumin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), two known HO-1 inducers, the molecules were chemically modified by acylation with 4-bromo-butanoyl chloride and 2-chloro-propanoyl chloride, respectively, and then treated in the dark with AgNO3 to obtain the nitrate derivatives VP10/12 and VP10/39. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) subjected to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress were treated with the described NO-releasing compounds. VP10/39 showed significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant and protecting activity against oxidative damage, in comparison to VP10/12, which in turn showed at 100??M concentration a slight but significant cell toxicity. Only VP10/39 significantly (p < 0.05) induced HO-1 in ARPE-19, most likely through covalent bond formation at Cys151 of the Keap1-BTB domain, as revealed from molecular docking analysis. In conclusion, the present data indicate VP10/39 as a promising candidate to protect ARPE-19 cells against oxidative stress.
Project description:Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of AMD. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are essential for maintaining the homeostasis of the retina, and RPE cell death and the resultant photoreceptor apoptosis have been observed in dry AMD, especially in geographic atrophy. The purpose of this article was to identify and repurpose the Food and Drug Administration-approved natural compound 4-Acetoxyphenol (4-AC), and to evaluate its effect and mechanism in protecting against oxidative stress-induced RPE necrosis.We exposed ARPE-19 cells to tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) after pretreatment with 4-AC, and measured cell viability by MTT assay. Aggregation of RIPK3 and HMGB1 nuclear release were analyzed by transfected reporter genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a commercially available ROS detection system. The importance of the NRF2/NQO1/HO-1 pathway in mediating 4-AC function was corroborated by siRNA studies, qRT-PCR, and immunostaining.We have identified a natural antioxidant, 4-AC, which demonstrates strong abilities to protect RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced necrosis. Mechanistically, 4-AC blocked the increase of cellular ROS induced by oxidative stress, and upregulated NQO1 and HO-1 genes by stabilizing and inducing the nuclear translocation of NRF2 transcription factor. The NQO1, HO-1, and NRF2 were further shown to be required for 4-AC protection of RPE cells from death induced by tBHP. The tBHQ, an NRF2 stabilizer, consistently mimicked the protective effect of 4-AC against tBHP-induced RPE death.The compound 4-AC protects ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced necrosis through upregulation of NQO1 and HO-1 genes by stabilization of NRF2.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive and degenerative ocular disease associated with oxidative stress. Madecassoside (MADE) is a major bioactive triterpenoid saponin that possesses antioxidative activity. However, the role of MADE in AMD has never been investigated. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of MADE on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells under oxidative stress condition. We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce oxidative damage in human RPE cells (ARPE-19 cells). Our results showed that H2O2-caused significant decrease in cell viability and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were dose-dependently attenuated by MADE. MADE treatment also attenuated H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in RPE cells. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells were elevated after MADE treatment. MADE also suppressed caspase-3 activity and bax expression, as well as increased bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase in expression levels of HO-1 and nuclear Nrf2 were enhanced by MADE treatment. Finally, knockdown of Nrf2 reversed the protective effects of MADE on H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that MADE protected ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis by inducing the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Project description:In this work, we investigated the ability of pinosylvin (PS), 3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene, to modulate oxidative stress in human RPE cells. PS, a stilbenoid polyphenol, occurs in high concentrations in bark byproducts and therefore represents an attractive bioactive compound for health-promoting applications.First, we evaluated the toxicity range of PS by exposing ARPE-19 cells to 0.1-200 µM concentrations of PS for 24 h followed by the cell viability test. In the next stage, the ARPE-19 cells were preincubated in PS for 24 h followed by hydroquinone (HQ) exposure without PS for another 24 h. The cell viability test was conducted after HQ exposure. To elucidate the potential mechanisms behind PS-mediated protection against oxidative stress, the ARPE-19 cells were treated with 5 µM PS for 6 h, and mRNA was extracted at four time points (2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h) to determine changes in the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) genes. To clarify the molecular mechanism behind PS-mediated protection further, the ARPE-19 cells were transfected with p62 and Nrf2 siRNAs for 24 h, and the roles of p62, Nrf2, and its target gene HO-1 in conferring protection against oxidative stress were studied with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the cell viability test.PS treatment at concentrations of 5 and 10 µM significantly enhanced cell survival from oxidative stress. The expression levels of an enzyme with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, HO-1, were increased by PS treatment and correlated strongly with cell survival. PS treatment did not elevate the expression levels of Nrf2 or its target genes, p62 or GSTP1, even though it had a clear effect on the expression of HO-1, another gene controlled by Nrf2. RNA interference analysis further confirmed the important role of Nrf2 and HO-1 in PS-mediated protection against oxidative stress whereas the role of p62 seemed to be insignificant at the gene expression and cell viability levels.Our results suggest that PS treatment conferred protection against oxidative stress through the induction of HO-1 in human RPE cells. Consequently, PS-stilbene compounds, which can be isolated in significant amounts from bark waste, may possess health-promoting properties against aging-related diseases associated with oxidative stress such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease. These natural compounds may offer opportunities for high-value use of bark waste in diverse health-related applications.
Project description:Oxidative stress-induced damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and chronic inflammation have been suggested as major contributors to a range of retinal diseases. Here, we examined the effects of oxidative stress on endogenous complement components and proinflammatory and angiogenic responses in RPE cells. ARPE-19 cells exposed for 1-48 h to H2O2 had reduced cell-cell contact and increased markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition but showed insignificant cell death. Stressed ARPE-19 cells increased the expression of complement receptors CR3 (subunit CD11b) and C5aR1. CD11b was colocalized with cell-derived complement protein C3, which was present in its activated form in ARPE-19 cells. C3, as well as its regulators complement factor H (CFH) and properdin, accumulated in the ARPE-19 cells after oxidative stress independently of external complement sources. This cell-associated complement accumulation was accompanied by increased nlrp3 and foxp3 expression and the subsequently enhanced secretion of proinflammatory and proangiogenic factors. The complement-associated ARPE-19 reaction to oxidative stress, which was independent of exogenous complement sources, was further augmented by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib. Our results indicate that ARPE-19 cell-derived complement proteins and receptors are involved in ARPE-19 cell homeostasis following oxidative stress and should be considered as targets for treatment development for retinal degeneration.
Project description:Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is considered to be a major contributor to the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous investigations have shown that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) can alleviate oxidative stress in haemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage and cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice. However, whether STS has a protective effect in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress and its exact mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we utilized H2O2 to establish an oxidative stress environment. Our findings show that STS activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to inhibit autophagy and diminished the expression of the autophagic proteins Beclin 1, ATG3, ATG7 and ATG9 in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress. Detection of the intrinsic apoptosis-related factors BAX, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-9, caspase-3 and BCL-2, as well as the extrinsic apoptosis-related factors c-FLIP, v-FLIP and caspase-8, confirmed that STS inhibited the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, and attenuated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress conditions. These findings shed new light on the protective effects of STS in ARPE-19 cells and its mechanisms under oxidative stress to provide novel and promising therapeutic strategies for AMD.
Project description:Background:Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a severe blinding complication of retinal detachment surgery. Increasing evidence demonstrate that PVR is associated with oxidative stress. Scutellarin is a natural flavone compound that has been reported to have anti-oxidative activity. However, the effect of scutellarin on PVR remains unknown. In the current study, we assessed the effect of scutellarin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19). Methods:ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of scutellarin for 2 h, and then challenged with H2O2 (1 mM) for 24 h. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activity were measured to assess the level of oxidative stress. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis rate of ARPE-19 cells. Expression levels of bcl-2, bax, cleaved-caspase-3, p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, and STAT3 were measured using western blot. Results:Our results revealed that scutellarin improved the cell viability of H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Scutellarin alleviated the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells, which was illustrated by reduced levels of ROS and MDA, accompanied by increased SOD activity and GSH level. The increased apoptosis rate of ARPE-19 cells caused by H2O2 induction was significantly decreased after scutellarin treatment. H2O2 treatment resulted in significant increase in bax expression and decrease in bcl-2 expression, while the changes in the expressions of bax and bcl-2 were reversed by scutellarin treatment. In addition, scutellarin promoted the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Suppression of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway abolished the protective effects of scutellarin on H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells. Conclusion:These findings suggested that scutellarin was capable for alleviating H2O2-induced oxidative damage in ARPE-19 cells, which might be ascribed to the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Project description:Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness among aged people in the Western world. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital roles in the development of this disease. Here, we assess the ability of fisetin and luteolin, to protect ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and to decrease intracellular inflammation. We also compare the growth and reactivity of human ARPE-19 cells in serum-free and serum-containing conditions. The absence of serum in the culture medium did not prevent ARPE-19 cells from reaching full confluency but caused an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Both fisetin and luteolin protected ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. They also significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the culture medium. The decrease in inflammation was associated with reduced activation of MAPKs and CREB, but was not linked to NF- ?B or SIRT1. The ability of fisetin and luteolin to protect and repair stressed RPE cells even after the oxidative insult make them attractive in the search for treatments for AMD.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial pathology and its progression is exacerbated by oxidative stress. Oxidation and photo-oxidation reactions modify lipids in retinal cells, contribute to tissue injury, and lead to the formation of toxic adducts. In particular, autofluorescent pigments such as N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) accumulate as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial cells, contribute to the production of additional reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lead to cell degeneration. In an effort to develop efficient antioxidants to reduce damage caused by lipid oxidation, various natural polyphenols were structurally modified to increase their lipophilicity (lipophenols). In this study, resveratrol, phloroglucinol, quercetin and catechin were selected and conjugated to various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) using classical chemical strategies or enzymatic reactions. After screening for cytotoxicity, the capacity of the synthesized lipophenols to reduce ROS production was evaluated in ARPE-19 cells subjected to H?O? treatment using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. The positions of the PUFA on the polyphenol core appear to influence the antioxidant effect. In addition, two lipophenolic quercetin derivatives were evaluated to highlight their potency in protecting ARPE-19 cells against A2E photo-oxidation toxicity. Quercetin conjugated to linoleic or ?-linolenic acid were promising lipophilic antioxidants, as they protected ARPE-19 cells from A2E-induced cell death more effectively than the parent polyphenol, quercetin.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular disease with retinal degeneration. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is mainly caused by long-term oxidative stress. Kinase activity could be either protective or detrimental to cells during oxidative stress; however, few reports have described the role of kinases in oxidative stress. In this study, high-throughput screening of kinome siRNA library revealed that erb-b2 receptor tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (ERBB2) knockdown reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in ARPE-19 cells during oxidative stress. Silencing ERBB2 caused an elevation in microtubule associated protein light chain C3-II (MAP1LC3B-II/I) conversion and sequesterone (SQSTM)1 protein level. ERBB2 deprivation largely caused an increase in autophagy-regulating protease (ATG4B) expression, a protease that negatively recycles MAP1LC3-II at the fusion step between the autophagosome and lysosome, suggesting ERBB2 might modulate ATG4B for autophagy induction in oxidative stress-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. ERBB2 knockdown also caused an accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced its transcriptional activity. In addition, ERBB2 ablation or treatment with autophagy inhibitors reduced oxidative-induced cytotoxic effects in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, ERBB2 silencing had little or no additive effects in ATG5/7-deficient cells. Taken together, our results suggest that ERBB2 may play an important role in modulating autophagic RPE cell death during oxidative stress, and ERBB2 may be a potential target in AMD prevention.
Project description:Fibroblast-like transformation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a pathological feature of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) that may cause blindness. The effect of oxidative stress alone or together with transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-?2) on epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is not fully understood in RPE. TGF-?2 induced the upregulation EMT markers including ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), Snail, and Slug and downregulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in ARPE-19 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) not only upregulated ?-SMA but also enhanced the effect of TGF-?2 on the expression of Snail and Slug. The CXCL family of cytokines could be the mediators of EMT induced by H2O2 and TGF-?2. H2O2 induced CXCL1, that upregulated ?-SMA and fibronectin. Both SB225002, an inhibitor of CXCR2, and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed the TGF-?2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that oxidative stress enhanced TGF-?2-induced EMT through the possible autocrine effect of CXCL1 on CXCR2 in ARPE-19 cells.