Troxerutin Reduces Kidney Damage against BDE-47-Induced Apoptosis via Inhibiting NOX2 Activity and Increasing Nrf2 Activity.
ABSTRACT: 2,2,4,4-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), one of the persistent organic pollutants, seriously influences the quality of life; however, its pathological mechanism remains unclear. Troxerutin is a flavonoid with pharmacological activity of antioxidation and anti-inflammation. In the present study, we investigated troxerutin against BDE-47-induced kidney cell apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. The results show that troxerutin reduced renal cell apoptosis and urinary protein secretion in BDE-47-treated mice. Western blot analysis shows that troxerutin supplement enhanced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax; inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the activation of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP; and reduced FAS, FASL, and caspase-8 levels induced by BDE-47. In addition, troxerutin decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, troxerutin blunted Nrf2 ubiquitylation, enhanced the activity of Nrf2, decreased the activity of NOX2, and ameliorated kidney oxidant status of BDE-47-treated mice. Together, these results confirm that troxerutin could alleviate the cytotoxicity of BDE-47 through antioxidation and antiapoptosis, which suggests that its protective mechanism is involved in the inhibition of apoptosis via suppressing NOX2 activity and increasing Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Project description:2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) induces oxidative stress in kidney cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Troxerutin, a natural flavonoid, has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we assessed the effect of troxerutin on kidney damage caused by BDE-47 and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results showed troxerutin reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), decreased the activities of inflammatory factors including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the kidney tissues of BDE-47-treated mice. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly weakened the expression of kidney NLRP3 inflammasome containing NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, contributing to the decline of IL-1?. Additionally, troxerutin inhibited the increased protein level of stromal-derived factor-1(SDF-1), C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 receptor 4 (CXCR4), and thioredoxin interaction protein (TXNIP) caused by BDE-47. Specifically, the immunoprecipitation assay indicated that there was a direct interaction between CXCR4 and TXNIP. CXCR4 siRNA and TXNIP siRNA also decreased the inflammatory damage, which was similar to the action of troxerutin. Our data demonstrated that troxerutin regulated the inflammatory lesions via CXCR4-TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome in the kidney of mice induced by BDE-47.
Project description:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants, and BDE-47 is a prevalent PBDE congener detected in human tissues. Exposure to PBDEs has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans. Although the underlying mechanisms of adverse birth outcomes are poorly understood, critical roles for oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated. The present study investigated antioxidant responses in a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, and examined the role of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an antioxidative transcription factor, in BDE-47-induced inflammatory responses in the cells. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with 5, 10, 15, and 20?M BDE-47 for 24h increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels compared to solvent control. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with 20?M BDE-47 for 24h induced the antioxidant response element (ARE) activity, indicating Nrf2 transactivation by BDE-47 treatment, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes compared to solvent control. Pretreatment with tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) or sulforaphane, known Nrf2 inducers, reduced BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release with increased ARE reporter activity, reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) reporter activity, increased GSH production, and stimulated expression of antioxidant genes compared to non-Nrf2 inducer pretreated groups, suggesting that Nrf2 may play a protective role against BDE-47-mediated inflammatory responses in HTR-8/SVneo cells. These results suggest that Nrf2 activation significantly attenuated BDE-47-induced IL-6 release by augmentation of cellular antioxidative system via upregulation of Nrf2 signaling pathways, and that Nrf2 induction may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with toxicant-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
Project description:Troxerutin, a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, has been reported to possess many beneficial effects in human bodies, such as vasoprotection, immune support, anti-inflammation and anti-aging. However, the effects of troxerutin on genome-wide transcription in blood cells are still unknown. In order to find out effects of troxerutin on gene transcription, a high-throughput RNA sequencing was employed to analysis differential gene expression in blood cells consisting of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets isolated from the mice received subcutaneous injection of troxerutin. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the expression of only fifteen genes was significantly changed by the treatment with troxerutin, among which 5 genes were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated. Bioinformatic analysis of the fifteen differentially expressed genes was made by utilizing the Gene Ontology (GO), and the differential expression induced by troxerutin was further evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR).
Project description:Flavonoid glycosides have many beneficial effects on health, but these bioactivities tend to decrease after oral administration owing to their poor lipophilicity. In this study, a facile whole-cell-based method was developed for selective preparation of monoester or diester of troxerutin, a flavonoid derivative. In addition, the bioavailabilities and antioxidant properties of troxerutin and its acylated derivatives were also investigated in cells.Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri cells showed high catalytic efficiency (substrate conversion?>?90%) and different preferences for troxerutin, resulting in the production of its monoester (TME) and diester (TDE), respectively. The logP values of troxerutin, TME, and TDE were -?2.04?±?0.10, -?0.75?±?0.08, and 1.51?±?0.05 and their Papp values were 0.34?×?10-6?±?0.05, 0.99?×?10-6?±?0.12, and 1.54?×?10-6?±?0.17 cm/s, respectively. The results of hydroxyl radical, ABTS, and ORAC assays indicated that the antiradical activities of acylated derivatives did not exceed that of troxerutin, but showed higher inhibition effects upon 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced erythrocyte hemolysis than that of troxerutin (P?<?0.05).A facile and efficient whole-cell biocatalysis method was developed to synthesize troxerutin-acylated derivatives, markedly enhancing the bioavailability and antioxidant activities of troxerutin in cells. Additionally, the mechanism underlying the observed difference in the antioxidant activities of troxerutin and its esters was ascribed to both their free radical scavenging abilities and distribution on the cell membrane surface.
Project description:This study has investigated the effect of a potent bioflavonoid, troxerutin, on diabetes-induced changes in pro-inflammatory mediators and expression of microRNA-146a and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-?B) signaling pathway in aortic tissue of type-I diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/each): healthy, healthy-troxerutin, diabetic, and diabetic-troxerutin. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) and lasted 10 weeks. Troxerutin (150 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for last month of experiment. Inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II), and inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured on aortic samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expressions for transcription factor NF-?B, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and microRNA-146a were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten-week diabetes significantly increased mRNA levels of IRAK-1, TRAF-6, NF-?B, and protein levels of cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, and iNOS, COX-II, and decreased expression of microRNA-146a as compared with healthy rats (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, one month treatment of diabetic rats with troxerutin restored glucose and insulin levels, significantly decreased expression of inflammatory genes and pro-inflammatory mediators and increased microRNA level in comparison to diabetic group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). In healthy rats, troxerutin had significant reducing effect only on NF-?B, TNF-? and COXII levels (p < 0.05). Beside slight improvement of hyperglycemia, troxerutin prevented the activation of NF-?B-dependent inflammatory signaling in the aorta of diabetic rats, and this response may be regulated by microRNA-146a.
Project description:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxyl-metabolites (OH-BDEs) are commonly detected contaminants in human serum in the US population. They are also considered to be endocrine disruptors, and are specifically known to affect thyroid hormone regulation. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of a PBDE and its OH-BDE metabolite on developmental pathways regulated by thyroid hormones using zebrafish as a model. Exposure to 6-OHBDE 47 (10-100 nM), but not BDE 47 (1-50 ?M), led to decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis in the retina of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner in short-term exposures (4 - 30 hours). Six-OH-BDE 47 exposure also significantly decreased thyroid hormone receptor ? (THR?) mRNA expression, which was confirmed using both RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (whole mount and paraffin- section). Interestingly, exposure to the native thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3) also led to similar responses: decreased THR? mRNA expression, decreased melanin pigmentation and increased apoptosis, suggesting that 6-OH-BDE 47 may be acting as a T3 mimic. To further investigate short-term effects that may be regulated by THR?, experiments using a morpholino gene knock down and THR? mRNA over expression were conducted. Knock down of THR? led to decreases in melanin pigmentation and increases in apoptotic cells in the eye of zebrafish embryos, similar to exposure to T3 and 6-OH-BDE 47, but THR? mRNA overexpression rescued these effects. Histological analysis of eyes at 22 hpf from each group revealed that exposure to T3 or to 6-OH-BDE 47 was associated with a decrease of melanin and diminished proliferation of cells in layers of retina near the choroid. This study suggests that 6-OH-BDE 47 disrupts the activity of THR? in early life stages of zebrafish, and warrants further studies on effects in developing humans.
Project description:NADPH oxidases synthesize reactive oxygen species that may participate in fibrosis progression. NOX4 and NOX2 are NADPH oxidases expressed in the kidneys, with the former being the major renal isoform, but their contribution to renal disease is not well understood. Here, we used the unilateral urinary obstruction model of chronic renal injury to decipher the role of these enzymes using wild-type, NOX4-, NOX2-, and NOX4/NOX2-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type mice, NOX4-deficient mice exhibited more interstitial fibrosis and tubular apoptosis after obstruction, with lower interstitial capillary density and reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor in obstructed kidneys. Furthermore, NOX4-deficient kidneys exhibited increased oxidative stress. With NOX4 deficiency, renal expression of other NOX isoforms was not altered but NRF2 protein expression was reduced under both basal and obstructed conditions. Concomitant deficiency of NOX2 did not modify the phenotype exhibited by NOX4-deficient mice after obstruction. NOX4 silencing in a mouse collecting duct (mCCD(cl1)) cell line increased TGF-?1-induced apoptosis and decreased NRF2 protein along with expression of its target genes. In addition, NOX4 silencing decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and expression of its target genes in response to hypoxia. In summary, these results demonstrate that the absence of NOX4 promotes kidney fibrosis, independent of NOX2, through enhanced tubular cell apoptosis, decreased microvascularization, and enhanced oxidative stress. Thus, NOX4 is crucial for the survival of kidney tubular cells under injurious conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cisplatin resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to the successful treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Scribble contributes to ROS-induced inflammation and cisplatin-elevated toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes cell death. However, it is unknown whether and how Scribble is involved in the cisplatin-related cell death and the underlying mechanism of Scribble in response to chemotherapies and in the process of oxidative stress in NSCLC. METHODS:We used two independent cohorts of NSCLC samples derived from patients treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy and xenograft modeling in vivo. We analyzed the correlation between Scribble and Nox2 or Nrf2/PD-L1 both in vivo and in vitro, and explored the role of Scribble in cisplatin-induced ROS and apoptosis. FINDINGS:Clinical analysis revealed that Scribble expression positively correlated with clinical outcomes and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in NSCLC patients. Scribble protected Nox2 protein from proteasomal degradation. Scribble knockdown induced cisplatin resistance by blocking Nox2/ROS and apoptosis in LRR domain-dependent manner. In addition, low levels of Scribble correlated with high levels of PD-L1 via activation of Nrf2 transcription in vivo and in vitro. INTERPRETATIONS:Our study revealed that polarity protein Scribble increased cisplatin-induced ROS generation and is beneficial to chemotherapeutic outcomes in NSCLC. Although Scribble deficiency tends to lead to cisplatin resistance by Nox2/ROS and Nrf2/PD-L1, it is still possible that Scribble deficiency-induced PD-L1 may yield benefits in immunotherapy. FUND: National Key R&D Program of China, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.
Project description:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants. Although many reports have indicated an association between exposure to PBDEs and developmental neurotoxicity, the relative contributions of different sources of dust PBDE congeners to the levels in various tissues of mother-baby pairs is not well understood. The aims of this study were thus to measure the quantitative relationship between the level of PBDEs in house dust and tissues of mother-neonate pairs, and to investigate the chemical sources of the PBDEs. Forty-one mother-neonate pairs were recruited and provided samples of maternal serum (n = 29), umbilical cord serum (n = 25), breast milk (n = 50), and house dust (n = 41), where PBDEs were determined with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. While deca- (e.g., BDE 209, detected 100%), nona- (BDE 206/207, 95.1%), octa- (BDE 183, 100%), penta- (BDE 99/153, 100%, 98%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 100%) were detected abundantly in dust, penta- (BDE 99, 76%, 92%) and tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 84%, 98%) were detected abundantly in umbilical cord serum and breast milk, respectively; tetra-BDEs (BDE 47, 86%) were detected more often relative to other congeners in maternal serum. Spearman's pairwise comparison showed that the levels of BDE 47 (? = 0.52, p < 0.001) and -99 (? = 0.64, p < 0.01) in umbilical cord serum were associated with BDE 209 levels in dust; BDE 47 in maternal serum also showed correlation with BDE 99 in cord serum (? = 0.48, p < 0.01) but there was no significant correlation between maternal BDE 47 and dust BDE 209. On the other hand, a comparison of the distribution among congeners suggested probable associations of BDE 47 in maternal serum, breast milk, and umbilical cord serum with BDE 209 in dust; and of BDE 99 in maternal and umbilical cord serum, breast milk, and dust with BDE 209 in dust. Although further studies are needed, a radar chart-based distributional comparison among congeners supported associations between BDE 47 or -99 in human tissues and BDE 209 in dust.
Project description:High levels of the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) have been detected in Pacific salmon sampled near urban areas, raising concern over the safety of salmon consumption. However, salmon fillets also contain the antioxidants eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whose oxidation products induce cellular antioxidant responses. Because oxidative stress is a mechanism of BDE 47 toxicity, we hypothesized that oxidized EPA and DHA can ameliorate the cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of BDE 47. HepG2 cells were treated with a mixture of oxidized EPA and DHA (oxEPA/oxDHA) at a ratio relevant to salmon consumption (1.5/1 oxEPA/oxDHA) followed by exposure to 100 ?M BDE 47. Pretreatment with oxEPA/oxDHA for 12 h prior to BDE 47 exposure prevented BDE 47-mediated depletion of glutathione, and increased expression of antioxidant response genes. oxEPA/oxDHA also reduced the level of reactive oxygen species production by BDE 47. The oxEPA/oxDHA antioxidant responses were associated with partial protection against BDE 47-induced loss of viability and also mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial electron transport system functional analysis revealed extensive inhibition of State 3 respiration and maximum respiratory capacity by BDE 47 were partially reversed by oxEPA/oxDHA. Our findings indicate that the antioxidant effects of oxEPA/oxDHA protect against short exposures to BDE 47, including a protective role of these compounds on maintaining cellular and mitochondrial function.