A phase I/II study of gemcitabine during radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this phase I/II, open-label, single-arm trial is to investigate the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose and preliminary efficacy of the potential radiosensitizer gemcitabine, administered concomitantly to radiotherapy, in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Six doses of weekly gemcitabine were administered intravenously, concomitantly to 6 weeks of hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Successive cohorts received increasing doses of 140, 175 and 200 mg/m2 gemcitabine, respectively, following a 3?+?3 dose-escalation schedule without expansion cohort. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were monitored during treatment period. Clinical response was assessed using predefined case report forms and radiological response was assessed using the modified RANO criteria. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using PedsQL questionnaires. Between June 2012 and December 2016, nine patients were enrolled. Treatment was well tolerated, and no DLTs were observed up to the maximum dose of 200 mg/m2. All patients experienced reduction of tumor-related symptoms. QoL tended to improve during treatment. PFS and MOS were 4.8 months (95% CI 4.0-5.7) and 8.7 months (95% CI 7.0-10.4). Classifying patients according to the recently developed DIPG survival prediction model, intermediate risk patients (n?=?4), showed a PFS and MOS of 6.4 and 12.4 months, respectively, versus a PFS and MOS of 4.5 and 8.1 months, respectively, in high risk patient (n?=?5). Gemcitabine up to 200 mg/m2/once weekly, added to radiotherapy, is safe and well tolerated in children with newly diagnosed DIPG. PFS and MOS were not significantly different from literature.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Locally advanced inoperable pancreatic cancer (LAPC) has a poor prognosis. By increasing intensity of systemic therapy combined with an established safe chemoradiation technique, our intention was to enhance the outcomes of LAPC. In preparation for phase III evaluation, the feasibility and efficacy of our candidate regimen gemcitabine-oxaliplatin chemotherapy with sandwich 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) needs to be established. METHODS: A total of 48 patients with inoperable LAPC without metastases were given gemcitabine (1000 mg m(-2) d1 + d15 q28) and oxaliplatin (100 mg m(-2) d2 + d16 q28) in induction (one cycle) and consolidation (three cycles), and 5FU 200 mg m(-2) per day over 6 weeks during 3DCRT 54?Gy. RESULTS: Median duration of sustained local control (LC) was 15.8 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 months, and overall survival was 15.7 months. Survival rates for 1, 2, and 3 years were 70.2%, 21.3%, and 12.8%, respectively. Global quality of life did not significantly decline from baseline during treatment, which was associated with modest treatment-related toxicity. CONCLUSION: Fixed-dose gemcitabine and oxaliplatin, combined with an effective and safe regimen of 5FU and 3DCRT radiotherapy, was feasible and reasonably tolerated. The observed improved duration of LC and PFS with more intensive therapy over previous trials may be due to patient selection, but suggest that further evaluation in phase III trials is warranted.
Project description:LESSONS LEARNED:The safety profile in the gemcitabine/simtuzumab group was similar to that in the gemcitabine/placebo group.The addition of simtuzumab to gemcitabine does not improve clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma ABSTRACT: Background.The humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody simtuzumab inhibits the extracellular matrix-remodeling enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 2 maintaining pathological stroma in tumors. METHODS:Adult patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPaCa) were randomly assigned to receive intravenous gemcitabine, 1,000 mg/m2, in combination with 200 or 700 mg simtuzumab or placebo. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. RESULTS:Of 240 patients, 80 were randomly assigned to gemcitabine/simtuzumab 700 mg, 79 to gemcitabine/simtuzumab 200 mg, and 81 to gemcitabine/placebo. After a median follow-up of 3.0, 1.9, and 3.4 months for gemcitabine/simtuzumab 700 mg, gemcitabine/simtuzumab 200 mg, and gemcitabine/placebo, respectively, the median PFS was 3.7 months (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI], p value vs placebo: 1.09 [0.74-1.61]; p = .73), 3.5 months (1.13 [0.76-1.66], p = .61]), and 3.7 months, respectively. Median OS was 7.6 months (0.83 [0.57-1.22]; p = .28), 5.9 months (1.07 [0.73-1.55]; p = .69), and 5.7 months, respectively. ORRs were 13.9%, 14.5%, and 23.5%, respectively. Simtuzumab was well tolerated. CONCLUSION:The addition of simtuzumab to gemcitabine did not improve clinical outcomes in patients with mPaCa. The Oncologist 2017;22:241-e7.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We conducted a phase II study of oral capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablets given concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) to assess progression-free survival (PFS) in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Children 3-17 years with newly diagnosed DIPG were eligible. Capecitabine, 650 mg/m2 /dose BID (maximum tolerated dose [MTD] in children with concurrent radiation), was administered for 9 weeks starting the first day of RT. Following a 2-week break, three courses of capecitabine, 1,250 mg/m2 /dose BID for 14 days followed by a 7-day rest, were administered. As prospectively designed, 10 evaluable patients treated at the MTD on the phase I trial were included in the phase II analyses. The design was based on comparison of the PFS distribution to a contemporary historical control (n = 140) with 90% power to detect a 15% absolute improvement in the 1-year PFS with a type-1 error rate, ? = 0.10. RESULTS:Forty-four patients were evaluable for the phase II objectives. Capecitabine and RT was well tolerated with low-grade palmar plantar erythrodyesthesia, increased alanine aminotransferase, cytopenias, and vomiting the most commonly reported toxicities. Findings were significant for earlier progression with 1-year PFS of 7.21% (SE = 3.47%) in the capecitabine-treated cohort versus 15.59% (SE = 3.05%) in the historical control (P = 0.007), but there was no difference for overall survival (OS) distributions (P = 0.30). Tumor enhancement at diagnosis was associated with shorter PFS and OS. Capecitabine was rapidly absorbed and converted to its metabolites. CONCLUSION:Capecitabine did not improve the outcome for children with newly diagnosed DIPG.
Project description:This study is an investigator-initiated randomized phase II trial focusing on the treatment of advanced biliary tract cancer with either oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on day 1 in a two-week cycle with capecitabine 650 mg/m2 twice-daily continuously or cisplatin 25 mg/m2 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8 in a three-week cycle. One-hundred patients were included. Forty-seven patients received oxaliplatin, gemcitabine, and capecitabine with a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 5.7 months (95% CI 3.0-7.8) and a median overall survival (mOS) of 8.7 months (95% CI 6.5-11.2). Forty-nine patients received cisplatin and gemcitabine with a mPFS of 7.3 months (95% CI 6.0-8.7) and a mOS of 12.0 months (95% CI 8.3-16.7). This trial confirms a mOS of 12 months with cisplatin and gemcitabine, as found in earlier trials. With a superior tumor control rate of 79% vs. 60% (p = 0.045), a difference in the mPFS of 1.6 months (HR = 0.721, p = 0.1), and a difference in the mOS of 3.3 months (HR = 0.731, p = 0.1), cisplatin and gemcitabine should still be considered the standard first-line treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer.
Project description:Vandetanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that affects vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and rearranged during transfection (RET) mediated receptors which are important for growth and invasion of biliary and pancreatic cancers. This phase I study evaluated the safety profile of vandetanib in combination with standard doses of gemcitabine and capecitabine in order to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).In this single center phase I trial, patients received gemcitabine intravenously (i.v.) at 1000 mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15 in a 28 day cycle, capecitabine orally at 850 mg/m2 twice daily on days 1-21, and escalating doses of vandetanib (200 or 300 mg orally daily). Once the MTD was defined, an expansion cohort of patients with advanced biliary cancers and locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer was enrolled. Blood samples were also collected at predetermined time points for biomarker analysis.Twenty-three patients were enrolled: 9 in the dose escalation and 14 in the dose expansion cohort. One dose limiting toxicity (DLT), of grade 4 neutropenia, occurred in the 200 mg vandetanib cohort. The most common adverse effects were diarrhea (39 %), nausea and vomiting (34%), and rash (33%). There were 3 partial responses and stable disease of >2 months (range 2-45, median 5) was observed in 15/23 patients. There was no association between changes in biomarker analytes and disease response.The combination of gemcitabine, capecitabine and vandetanib is well tolerated at the recommended phase II dose of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for three consecutive weeks, capecitabine 850 mg/m2 BID days 1-21, and vandetanib 300 mg daily, every 28 days. This combination demonstrated promising activity in pancreaticobiliary cancers and further evaluation is warranted in these diseases. NCT00551096.
Project description:Gemcitabine is a potent radiosensitizer. When combined with standard radiotherapy (XRT) the gemcitabine dose must be reduced to about 10% of its conventional dose. Oxaliplatin and erlotinib also have radiosensitizing properties. Oxaliplatin and gemcitabine have demonstrated synergy in vitro. We aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine with concurrent XRT, then oxaliplatin, gemcitaibine, and erlotinib with XRT in the treatment of locally advanced and low-volume metastatic pancreatic or biliary cancer.A modified 3+3 dose-escalation design was used for testing 4 dose levels of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine given once weekly for a maximum of 6 weeks with daily XRT in fractions of 1.8 Gy to a total dose of 50.4 Gy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any grade 4 toxicity or grade 3 toxicity resulting in a treatment delay of >1 week. In addition, dose reduction in 2 of the 3 patients in a given cohort was counted as a DLT in dose escalation-deescalation rule in the modified 3+3 design.Eighteen patients were enrolled, all with pancreatic cancer. Grade 4 transaminitis in a patient in cohort 3 resulted in cohort expansion. Cohort 4, the highest planned dose cohort, had no DLTs. The recommended phase II dose is oxaliplatin 50 mg/m(2)/wk with gemcitabine 200 mg/m(2)/wk and 50.4 Gy XRT. The most prevalent grade 3 toxicities were nausea (22%), elevated transaminases (17%), leucopenia (17%), and hyperglycemia (17%). Median progression-free survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 4.6-11.1 mo) and median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% confidence interval, 7.1-16.7 mo). The addition of erlotinib was poorly tolerated at the first planned dose level, but full study of the combination was hindered by early closure of the study.Weekly oxaliplatin 50 mg/m/wk combined with gemcitabine 200 mg/m/wk and XRT for pancreatic cancer has acceptable toxicity and interesting activity.
Project description:Importance:Taxanes with trastuzumab and pertuzumab for initial treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer is associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. While continued use of trastuzumab in therapeutic combinations after disease progression is standard, the efficacy of continuing pertuzumab is unknown. Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab in combination with gemcitabine and trastuzumab after prior treatment with pertuzumab for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This is a phase 2 single-arm clinical trial of dual anti-ERBB2 therapy after prior treatment with pertuzumab. The study took place at a single academic center from March 2015 to April 2017 among women with ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, prior pertuzumab-based treatment, and 3 or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens. Data were analyzed between January 2019 and March 2019. Intervention:Treatment consisted of gemcitabine, 1200 mg/m2 (later amended to 1000 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks, plus trastuzumab (8-mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg) and pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose, then 420 mg) once every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was 3-month PFS. Based on prior trials, a target rate of 70% or higher was selected as the promising progression-free rate at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included safety, tolerability, and overall survival. Results:A total of 45 patients (median [range] age, 57.1 [31.7-77.2] years) were enrolled; 22 (49%) were treated in the second-line setting, and 23 (51%) were treated in the third-line setting or beyond. Of these, 22 (49%) received prior trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). At a median (range) follow-up of 27.6 (8.3-36.0) months, 3-month PFS was 73.3% (95% CI, 61.5%-87.5%). Overall, median PFS was 5.5 months (95% CI, 5.4-8.2 months). Treatment was well tolerated, with no occurrences of febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance:In this phase 2 trial, treatment with gemcitabine, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab after prior pertuzumab-based therapy for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer was associated with a 3-month PFS rate of 73.3% and was well tolerated. Continuation of pertuzumab beyond progression was associated with apparent clinical benefit. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02252887.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains resistant to chemotherapy and immunotherapy individually because of its desmoplastic stroma and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Synergizing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) immune checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy could overcome these barriers. Here we present results of a phase Ib trial combining ipilimumab and gemcitabine in advanced PDAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a single-institution study with a 3 +?3 dose-escalation design. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives included determining the toxicity profile, objective response rate (ORR), median progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Twenty-one patients were enrolled, 13 during dose escalation and 8 at the MTD. The median age was 66?years, 62% were female, 95% had stage IV disease, and 67% had received at least one prior line of therapy. The primary objective to establish the MTD was achieved at doses of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 . The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were anemia (48%), leukopenia (48%), and neutropenia (43%). The ORR was 14% (3/21), and seven patients had stable disease. Median response duration for the three responders was 11 months, with one response duration of 19.8 months. Median PFS was 2.78 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-4.83 months), and median OS was 6.90 months (95% CI, 2.63-9.57 months). CONCLUSION:Gemcitabine and ipilimumab is a safe and tolerable regimen for PDAC with a similar response rate to gemcitabine alone. As in other immunotherapy trials, responses were relatively durable in this study. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Gemcitabine and ipilimumab is a safe and feasible regimen for treating advanced pancreatic cancer. Although one patient in this study had a relatively durable response of nearly 20 months, adding ipilimumab to gemcitabine does not appear to be more effective than gemcitabine alone in advanced pancreatic cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is demonstrately superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer not suitable for surgery. Docetaxel is considered to enhance the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy on the tumour cells. Tomotherapy (HT) is a novel radiotherapeutic technique, which allows the delivery of Image Guided-IMRT (IG-IMRT), with a highly conformal radiation dose distribution.The goal of the study was to estimate tolerability of Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT and to find the maximum tolerated dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with IMRT delivered with HT Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel in patients affected with stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. METHODS: We designed a phase I, dose-finding study to determine the dose of weekly Docetaxel concurrent with Tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy, in patients affected by Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Stage III disease, not suitable for surgery. RESULTS: Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible; we did not reach a maximum tolerated dose, because no life-threatening toxicity was observed, stopping the accrual at a level of weekly docetaxel 38 mg/m2, a greater dose than in previous assessments, from both phase-I studies with weekly docetaxel alone and with Docetaxel concomitant with standard radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent weekly Docetaxel and Tomotherapy are feasible, and even with Docetaxel at 38 mg/m2/week we did not observe any limiting toxicity. For those patients who completed the combined chemo-radio treatment, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20 months and median overall survival (OS) was 24 months.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thymic carcinomas (TCs) are rare aggressive tumors with no standard first-line treatment. This study was conducted to determine the optimal chemotherapy regimen for advanced TC. METHODS:This retrospective study included 67 patients treated for stage IV TC in 2006-2015. The primary endpoints were the objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) with different chemotherapy regimens. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with PFS, including metastatic status, radiotherapy post-chemotherapy, primary lesion resection before chemotherapy, and chemotherapy regimen. RESULTS:A total of 36 patients received a paclitaxel-platinum regimen, 31 received a gemcitabine-platinum regimen, 14 underwent primary lesion resection, and 33 underwent radiotherapy. ORR was 31% (11/36) and 29% (9/31) in the paclitaxel-platinum and gemcitabine-platinum groups, respectively (P = 0.890). Median PFS, one-year PFS rate, and two-year PFS rate were 7.0 months, 26%, and 6% with paclitaxel-platinum treatment and 12 months, 48%, and 24% with gemcitabine-platinum treatment (log-rank P = 0.030). Median PFS, one-year PFS rate, and two-year PFS rate were 18.0 months, 57%, and 33% with surgical resection and 7.3 months, 31%, and 7% without resection (log-rank P = 0.030). Median PFS, one-year PFS rate, and two-year PFS rate were 13.0 months, 52%, and 20% with radiotherapy and 4.3 months, 22%, and 7% without radiotherapy (log-rank P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, metastatic status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.33, P = 0.004), surgical resection (HR, 0.32; P = 0.004), and radiotherapy (HR, 0.32; P < 0.001) were associated with superior PFS. CONCLUSIONS:Both gemcitabine-platinum and paclitaxel-platinum regimens were efficacious for advanced TC. Primary lesion resection and radiotherapy may also benefit selected patients.