Concordance of programmed death-ligand 1 expression between primary and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the concordance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression between primary cancer at initial diagnosis and metastasis at recurrence in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PD-L1 expression was evaluated using the SP142 assay in 37 NSCLC patients with paired primary lung cancer and surgically resected metastases at recurrence. PD-L1 positivity was defined as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and also evaluated by RNA in situ hybridization (RISH). The concordance rate of PD-L1 between primaries and metastases and correlation with clinicopathological factors were analyzed. PD-L1 expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma, wild-type EGFR, and smokers than in non-squamous carcinoma, mutant EGFR, and never smokers, respectively. PD-L1 positivity was observed in 18.9% of primaries and 21.6% of metastases. IHC demonstrated 78.4% concordance of PD-L1 positivity between primary and metastatic cancers. In 10.8% of cases, PD-L1 positivity was higher in primaries than in metastases, and vice versa in the remaining 10.8%. By PD-L1 RISH, 35.1% of primaries and 27.0% of metastases demonstrated PD-L1 positivity. There was 62.2% concordance in PD-L1 by RISH between the primaries and metastases. Our results thus highlight the clinical importance of replacing metastases with primary archival tissue, particularly when re-biopsy is difficult at recurrence.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:The prognostic impact of tumoral programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in correlation with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was retrospectively assessed in 83 patients with completely resected stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, as PD-L1 is a potent regulator of cancer immunity and NLR is a potential surrogate of immune status. Forty-three patients (51.8%) had tumor with positive PD-L1 expression. There was no significant correlation between PD-L1 expression and NLR. PD-L1-positivity failed to provide a significant prognostic impact (overall survival [OS] rate at 5 years, 53.0% in PD-L1-positive patients versus 70.1% in PD-L1-negative patients; P?=?0.117). Among NLR-low (<2.2) patients, however, PD-L1-positivity was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis (OS rate at 5 years, 46.1% versus 86.0%; P?=?0.020). In contrast, among NLR-high (?2.2) patients, PD-L1-positivity provided no prognostic impact (P?=?0.680). When NLR status and tumoral PD-L1 status were combined, "NLR-low and PD-L1-negative" was a significant and independent factor to predict a favorable recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.237 [95% confidence interval, 0.083 to 0.674]; P?=?0.007) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.260 [0.091 to 0.745]; P?=?0.012). These results suggest the prognostic impact of tumoral PD-L1 expression might be influenced by the status of NLR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brain metastases (Bmets) are frequent; however, limited data exist on the efficacy of immunotherapy in these lesions. The aims of the study were to analyze the immunohistochemical expressions of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD8 in Bmets and to compare them with their expressions in paired primary tumors, as well as correlate the results with clinicopathological features. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of 233 patients with Bmets and 111 paired primaries. Clinical, histological, and molecular data were recorded and compared with the immunohistochemical results of PD-L1 and CD8 expressions. The statistical analysis included ?2 test, Cramer's V test, factorial analyses of variance, simple regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank product limit estimation. RESULTS:PD-L1 expression was found in 23.6% of Bmets and in 29.0% of primary tumors with concordant expression between them in 75.5% of cases. Bmets PD-L1 expression was associated with primary tumor PD-L1 expression and the primary tumor type. Significant CD8 peritumoral expression was found in 68.6% of Bmets and in 87.7% of primary tumors. CD8 expression was concordant between primary and metastatic tumors in 73.3% of cases. Bmets CD8 expression was associated with primary tumor CD8 expression and primary tumor type. PD-L1 expression was associated with CD8 expression in both primary and metastatic tumors. The concordance between primary and metastatic tumor PD-L1 expression was independent of all factors studied. The concordance between primary and metastatic CD8 expressions was marginally associated to the time of Bmets development. No prognostic role for PD-L1 and CD8 expression in Bmets was found. CONCLUSION:PD-L1 and CD8 Bmets expressions are associated with the primary tumor type and its PD-L1 and CD8 expressions. No factor predicts the discordance for PD-L1 expression, while time to Bmets development is associated with CD8 expression discordance.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Immune checkpoint inhibition has shifted treatment paradigms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the immune infiltrate and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a prognostic marker. We correlated the immune infiltrate and PD-L1 expression with clinicopathologic characteristics in a cohort of resected NSCLC.<h4>Methods</h4>A tissue microarray was constructed using triplicate cores from consecutive resected NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD8, FOXP3 and PD-L1. Strong PD-L1 expression was predefined as greater than 50% tumor cell positivity. Matched nodal samples were assessed for concordance of PD-L1 expression.<h4>Results</h4>Of 522 patients, 346 were node-negative (N0), 72 N1 and 109 N2; 265 were adenocarcinomas (AC), 182 squamous cell cancers (SCC) and 75 other. Strong PD-L1 expression was found in 24% cases. In the overall cohort, PD-L1 expression was not associated with survival. In patients with N2 disease, strong PD-L1 expression was associated with significantly improved disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis (HR 0.49, 95%CI 0.36-0.94, p = 0.031; HR 0.46, 95%CI 0.26-0.80, p = 0.006). In this resected cohort only 5% harboured EGFR mutations, whereas 19% harboured KRAS and 23% other. KRAS mutated tumors were more likely to highly express PD-L1 compared to EGFR (22% vs 3%). A stromal CD8 infiltrate was associated with significantly improved DFS in SCC (HR 0.70, 95%CI 0.50-0.97, p = 0.034), but not AC, whereas FOXP3 was not prognostic. Matched nodal specimens (N = 53) were highly concordant for PD-L1 expression (89%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>PD-L1 expression was not prognostic in the overall cohort. PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and matched nodal specimens were highly concordant. The observed survival benefit in N2 disease requires confirmation.
Project description:In this study, we present the clinicopathological features associated with PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression in a large Asian cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assessed the prognostic implications of PD-L1 expression, particularly in early stage NSCLC. We retrospectively analyzed 687 NSCLC specimens (476 adenocarcinoma and 211 squamous cell carcinoma) using tissue microarray. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using Dako 22C3 pharmDx assay and PDL1 mRNA was measured using RNA in situ hybridization (RISH). The overall prevalence of PD-L1 protein expression was 25.2% in tumor cells and PDL1 mRNA expression was 11.9%. There was a strong positive correlation between PD-L1 IHC and RISH results (Spearman's rho = 0.6, p<0.001). In adenocarcinoma, PD-L1 protein and mRNA expressions significantly correlated with poorly differentiated histologic subtype (p<0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). PD-L1 expression was also associated with genetic alteration in adenocarcinoma. High PD-L1 expression level was associated with EGFR-naïve and KRAS-mutant subgroup (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). With a 1% cut-off value, PD-L1 protein expression showed a short overall survival duration in early stage adenocarcinoma with marginal significance (p = 0.05, Hazard ratio = 1.947). Our study revealed that PD-L1 expression varied with histologic subtype and genomic alteration status in lung adenocarcinoma, and activation of the PD-L1 pathway may be a poor prognostic factor especially in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, PDL1 RISH showed promising results in predicting PD-L1 protein expression in NSCLC.
Project description:PD-L1 expression in primary clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) increases the likelihood of response to anti-PD-1 inhibition, but fails to identify all responders. We hypothesized that PD-L1 levels assessed in randomly selected areas of the primary tumors may not accurately reflect expression levels in metastatic lesions, which are the target of systemic therapy. Therefore, we compared PD-L1 expression in a series of primary ccRCC and their metastases. Tissue blocks from 53 primary ccRCCs and 76 corresponding metastases were retrieved. Areas with predominant and highest nuclear grade were selected. Slides were immunostained with a validated anti-PD-L1 antibody (405.9A11). Membranous expression in tumor cells was quantified using H-score. Expression in tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMC) was quantified using a combined score. Discordant tumor cell PD-L1 staining between primary tumors and metastases was observed in 11 of 53 cases (20.8%). Overall, tumor cell PD-L1 levels were not different in primary tumors and metastases (P = 0.51). Tumor cell PD-L1 positivity was associated with higher T stage (P = 0.03) and higher Fuhrman nuclear grade (P < 0.01). Within individual lesions, PD-L1 positivity was heterogeneous and almost exclusively detected in high nuclear grade areas (P < 0.001). No difference was found in PD-L1 levels in TIMCs between primary tumors and metastases (P = 0.82). The heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression in ccRCC suggests that its assessment as a predictive biomarker for PD-1 blockade may require analysis of metastatic lesions. Notably, because PD-L1 expression was mostly detected in high nuclear grade areas, to avoid false-negative results, these areas should be specifically selected for assessment.
Project description:PD-L1 is expressed in a percentage of lung cancer patients and those patients show increased likelihood of response to PD-1 axis therapies. However, the methods and assays for the assessment of PD-L1 using immunohistochemistry are variable and PD-L1 expression appears to be highly heterogeneous. Here, we examine assay heterogeneity parameters toward the goal of determining variability of sampling and the variability due to pathologist-based reading of the immunohistochemistry slide. SP142, a rabbit monoclonal antibody, was used to detect PD-L1 by both chromogenic immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunofluorescence using a laboratory-derived test. Five pathologists scored the percentage of PD-L1 positivity in tumor- and stromal-immune cells of 35 resected non-small cell lung cancer cases, each represented on three separate blocks. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 94% agreement was seen among the pathologists for the assessment of PD-L1 in tumor cells, but only 27% agreement was seen in stromal/immune cell PD-L1 expression. The block-to-block reproducibility of each pathologist's score was 94% for tumor cells and 75% among stromal/immune cells. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient between pathologists' readings and the mean immunofluorescence score among blocks was 94% in tumor and 68% in stroma. Pathologists were highly concordant for PD-L1 tumor scoring, but not for stromal/immune cell scoring. Pathologist scores and immunofluorescence scores were concordant for tumor tissue, but not for stromal/immune cells. PD-L1 expression was similar among all the three blocks from each tumor, indicating that staining of one block is enough to represent the entire tumor and that the spatial distribution of heterogeneity of expression of PD-L1 is within the area represented in a single block. Future studies are needed to determine the minimum representative tumor area for PD-L1 assessment for response to therapy.
Project description:Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard of care in metastatic bladder cancer. With the approval of various checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has revolutionized the traditional treatment modalities. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs) can be used as biomarker to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in bladder cancer patients after radical cystectomy (RC) developing disease recurrence followed by first-line chemotherapy. PD-L1 was measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of RC specimens in all patients (n=61) and in 27 matched metastatic biopsy samples by immunohistochemistry. PD-L1 expression on TCs was defined by the percentage of PD-L1 positive tumor cells (< 1%= IC0, ?1% but <5%=IC1, ?5 %=IC2/3), and was considered negative or positive for ICs. On 27 paired samples, IC1/2/3 score on TCs was homogeneous distributed with 59.3% in primary tumors and metastases, but with a high discordance rate of 44.4% of PD-L1 positivity on ICs. High PD-L1 expression (IC2/3) on TCs was more frequently seen in histologic subtypes of urothelial cancer compared to pure urothelial cancers (46.2% vs. 20.8%; p=0.002). PD-L1 expression on TCs in primary tumors (IC2/3 vs. IC0, median: 3.2 vs. 13.8 months, p=0.019) and metastatic sites (IC2/3 vs. IC0, median: 6.1 vs. 21.8 months, p=0.014) was associated with poor chemo-response, represented by significant shortened DSS. These results suggest that PD-L1 may be a potential target being involved in chemo-resistance mechanisms and poses potential for therapy stratification in the future.
Project description:Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.
Project description:While the importance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), mutation burden caused by microsatellite instability (MSI), and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has become evident, the significance of PD-L1 expression on prognosis still remains controversial. We evaluated the usefulness of combined markers of PD-L1 and MSI or CD8+ TILs as a prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer. A total of 283 patients with gastric cancer were reviewed retrospectively. PD-L1 expression on >5% tumor cells was defined as PD-L1-positive. PD-L1-positive rate was 15.5% (44/283). PD-L1 positivity was significantly correlated with invasive and advanced cancer and also significantly correlated with MSI, whereas no significance was observed with CD8+ TILs. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that PD-L1 positivity significantly correlated with a poor prognosis (p?=?0.0025). Multivariate analysis revealed that PD-L1 positivity was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.97, p?=?0.0106) along with diffuse histological type and lymph node metastases. Combinations of PD-L1 and MSI (HR: 2.18) or CD8+ TILs (HR: 2.57) were stronger predictive factors for prognosis than PD-L1 alone. In conclusion, combined markers of PD-L1 and MSI or CD8+ TILs may be more useful prognostic biomarkers in gastric cancer, and better clarify the immune status of gastric cancer patients.