Integration of novel approaches demonstrates simultaneous metabolic inactivation and CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis of a nitrification inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: Nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, produces liver tumors in mice at high doses. Several experiments were performed to investigate molecular, cellular, and apical endpoints to define the key events leading to the tumor formation. These data support a mode-of-action (MoA) characterized by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor activation, increased hepatocellular proliferation leading to hepatocellular foci and tumor formation. Specifically, nitrapyrin induced a dose-related increase in the Cyp2b10/CAR-associated transcript and protein. Interestingly, the corresponding enzyme activity (7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) was not enhanced due to nitrapyrin-mediated suicide inhibition of PROD activity. Nitrapyrin exposure elicited a clear dose-responsive increase in hepatocellular proliferation in wild-type mice, but not in CAR knock-out mice, informing that CAR activation is an obligatory key event in this test material-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, nitrapyrin exposure induced a clear, concentration-responsive increase in cell proliferation in mouse, but not human, hepatocytes in vitro. Evaluation of the data from repeat dose and MoA studies by the Bradford Hill criteria and a Human Relevance Framework (HRF) suggested that nitrapyrin-induced mouse liver tumors are not relevant to human health risk assessment because of qualitative differences between these two species.
Project description:Characterisation of the mode of action (MOA) of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)-mediated rodent liver tumours involves measurement 5 key events including activation of the CAR receptor, altered gene expression, hepatocellular proliferation, clonal expansion and increased hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas. To test whether or not liver 3D microtissues (LiMTs) recapitulate CAR- mediated procarcinogenic key events in response to the prototypical CAR activator phenobarbital (PB) we performed hepatocyte proliferation (LI%) analysis in rat and human LiMTs using a microTMA technology in conjunction with integrated transcriptomics (microarray) and proteomics analysis. The rationale for this approach was that LiMTs containing parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) are more physiologically representative of liver and thus would generate data more relevant to the in vivo situation. Rat and human LiMTs were treated with PB over a range of concentrations (500 uM - 2000 uM) and times (24 h - 96 h) in a dose-response/time-course analysis. There was a dose-dependent induction of LI% in rat LiMTs, however there was little or no effect of PB on LI% in human LiMTs. ATP levels in the rat and human LiMTs were similar to control in all of the PB treatments. There was also a dose- and time-dependent PB-mediated RNA induction of CAR regulated genes CYP2B6/Cyp2b2, CYP3A7/Cyp3a9 and UGT1A6/Ugt1a6 in human and rat LiMTs, respectively. These CAR regulated genes were also upregulated at the protein level. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) indicated that there was a significant (Z score >2.0;-log p value >) activation of CAR by PB in both human and rat LiMTs. These results indicate that human and rat LiMTs showed the expected responses at the level of PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation and enzyme induction with rat LiMTs showing significant dose-dependent effects while human LiMTs showed no proliferation response but did show dose-dependent enzyme induction at the RNA and protein levels. In conclusion LiMTs serve as a model to provide mechanistic data for 3 of the 5 key events considered necessary to establish a CAR-mediated MOA for liver tumourigenesis and thus can potentially reduce the use of animals when compiling mechanistic data packages.
Project description:This work tests the mode-of-action (MOA) hypothesis that maternal and developmental triclosan (TCS) exposure decreases circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations via up-regulation of hepatic catabolism and elimination of T4. Time-pregnant Long-Evans rats received TCS po (0-300mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Serum and liver were collected from dams (GD20, PND22) and offspring (GD20, PND4, PND14, PND21). Serum T4, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Ethoxy-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase (PROD) and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) enzyme activities were measured in liver microsomes. Custom Taqman(®) qPCR arrays were employed to measure hepatic mRNA expression of select cytochrome P450s, UGTs, sulfotransferases, transporters, and thyroid hormone-responsive genes. TCS was quantified by LC/MS/MS in serum and liver. Serum T4 decreased approximately 30% in GD20 dams and fetuses, PND4 pups and PND22 dams (300mg/kg/day). Hepatic PROD activity increased 2-3 fold in PND4 pups and PND22 dams, and UGT activity was 1.5 fold higher in PND22 dams only (300mg/kg/day). Minor up-regulation of Cyp2b and Cyp3a expression in dams was consistent with hypothesized activation of the constitutive androstane and/or pregnane X receptor. T4 reductions of 30% for dams and GD20 and PND4 offspring with concomitant increases in PROD (PND4 neonates and PND22 dams) and UGT activity (PND22 dams) suggest that up-regulated hepatic catabolism may contribute to TCS-induced hypothyroxinemia during development. Serum and liver TCS concentrations demonstrated greater fetal than postnatal internal exposure, consistent with the lack of T4 changes in PND14 and PND21 offspring. These data support the MOA hypothesis that TCS exposure leads to hypothyroxinemia via increased hepatic catabolism; however, the minor effects on thyroid hormone metabolism may reflect the low efficacy of TCS as thyroid hormone disruptor or highlight the possibility that other MOAs may also contribute to the observed maternal and early neonatal hypothyroxinemia.
Project description:Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants found as complex mixtures of coplanar and non-coplanar congeners. The hepatic temporal and dose-dependent effects of the most abundant non-dioxin-like congener, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice, and compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. Animals were gavaged once with 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil vehicle and sacrificed 4, 12, 24, 72 or 168 h post dose. In the dose-response study, mice were gavaged with 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil for 24 h. Significant increases in relative liver weights were induced with 300 mg/kg PCB153 between 24 and 168 h, accompanied by slight vacuolization and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The hepatic differential expression of 186 and 177 genes was detected using Agilent 4 x 44 K microarrays in the time course (|fold change|> or =1.5, P1(t)> or =0.999) and dose-response (|fold change|> or =1.5, P1(t)> or =0.985) studies, respectively. Comparative analysis with TCDD suggests that the differential gene expression elicited by PCB153 was not mediated by the AhR. Furthermore, constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptor (CAR/PXR) regulated genes including Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ces2, Insig2 and Abcc3 were dose-dependently induced by PCB153. Collectively, these results suggest that the hepatocellular effects elicited by PCB153 are qualitatively and quantitatively different from TCDD and suggestive of CAR/PXR regulation.
Project description:Rodent carcinogenicity studies are useful for screening for human carcinogens but they are not perfect. Some modes of action (MOAs) lead to cancers in both experimental rodents and humans, but others that lead to cancers in rodents do not do so in humans. Therefore, analysing the MOAs by which chemicals produce tumours in rodents and determining the relevance of such tumour data for human risk are critical. Recently, experimental data were obtained as case examples of an evaluation of the human relevance of pyrethroid (metofluthrin and momfluorothrin)- and pyrethrins-induced liver tumours in rats based on MOA. The MOA analysis, based on the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) framework, concluded that experimental data strongly support that the postulated MOA for metofluthrin-, momfluorothrin- and pyrethrins-produced rat hepatocellular tumours is mediated by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation. Since metofluthrin and momfluorothrin are close structural analogues, reproducible outcomes for both chemicals provide confidence in the MOA findings. Furthermore, cultured human hepatocyte studies and humanized chimeric mouse liver studies demonstrated species difference between human hepatocytes (refractory to the mitogenic effects of these compounds) and rat hepatocytes (sensitive to their mitogenic effects). These data strongly support the hypothesis that the CAR-mediated MOA for liver tumorigenesis is of low carcinogenic risk for humans. In this research, in addition to cultured human hepatocyte studies, the usefulness of the humanized chimeric liver mouse models was clearly demonstrated. These data substantially influenced decisions in regulatory toxicology. In this review I comprehensively discuss the human relevance of the CAR-mediated MOA for rodent liver tumorigenesis based on published information, including our recent molecular research on CAR-mediated MOA.
Project description:Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by overconsumption of alcohol. Because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression inPpar?/?+/+ mice but not in Ppar?/?-/- mice. Nuclear and cytosolic localization of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor known to regulate Cyp2b10 expression, was not different between genotypes. PPAR? co-activator 1?, a co-activator of both CAR and PPAR?/?, was up-regulated in Ppar?/?+/+ liver following ethanol exposure, but not in Ppar?/?-/- liver. Functional mapping of the Cyp2b10 promoter and ChIP assays revealed that PPAR?/?-dependent modulation of SP1 promoter occupancy up-regulated Cyp2b10 expression in response to ethanol. These results suggest that PPAR?/? regulates Cyp2b10 expression indirectly by modulating SP1 and PPAR? co-activator 1? expression and/or activity independent of CAR activity. Ligand activation of PPAR?/? attenuates ethanol-induced Cyp2b10 expression in Ppar?/?+/+ liver but not in Ppar?/?-/- liver. Strikingly, Cyp2b10 suppression by ligand activation of PPAR?/? following ethanol treatment occurred in hepatocytes and was mediated by paracrine signaling from Kupffer cells. Combined, results from the present study demonstrate a novel regulatory role of PPAR?/? in modulating CYP2B10 that may contribute to the etiology of alcoholic liver disease.
Project description:Aberrant epigenetic alterations during development may result in long-term epigenetic memory and have a permanent effect on the health of subjects. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a central regulator of drug/xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we report that transient neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism. CAR activation by neonatal exposure to the CAR-specific ligand 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) led to persistently induced expression of the CAR target genes Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 throughout the life of exposed mice. These mice showed a permanent reduction in sensitivity to zoxazolamine treatment as adults. Compared with control groups, the induction of Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 in hepatocytes isolated from these mice was more sensitive to low concentrations of the CAR agonist TCPOBOP. Accordingly, neonatal activation of CAR led to a permanent increase of histone 3 lysine 4 mono-, di-, and trimethylation and decrease of H3K9 trimethylation within the Cyp2B10 locus. Transcriptional coactivator activating signal cointegrator-2 and histone demethylase JMJD2d participated in this CAR-dependent epigenetic switch.Neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism.
Project description:Phenobarbital (PB) promotes liver tumorigenesis in rodents, in part through activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the consequent changes in hepatic gene expression and increases in hepatocyte proliferation. A typical effect of CAR activation by PB is a marked induction of Cyp2b10 expression in the liver; the latter has been suspected to be vital for PB-induced hepatocellular proliferation. This hypothesis was tested here by using a Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null (null) mouse model in which all Cyp2b genes are deleted. Adult male and female wild-type (WT) and null mice were treated intraperitoneally with PB at 50 mg/kg once daily for 5 successive days and tested on day 6. The liver-to-body weight ratio, an indicator of liver hypertrophy, was increased by 47% in male WT mice, but by only 22% in male Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null mice, by the PB treatment. The fractions of bromodeoxyuridine-positive hepatocyte nuclei, assessed as a measure of the rate of hepatocyte proliferation, were also significantly lower in PB-treated male null mice compared with PB-treated male WT mice. However, whereas few proliferating hepatocytes were detected in saline-treated mice, many proliferating hepatocytes were still detected in PB-treated male null mice. In contrast, female WT mice were much less sensitive than male WT mice to PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation, and PB-treated female WT and PB-treated female null mice did not show significant difference in rates of hepatocyte proliferation. These results indicate that CYP2B induction plays a significant, but partial, role in PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation in male mice.
Project description:Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a chlorinated phenolic antibacterial compound found in consumer products. In vitro human pregnane X receptor activation, hepatic phase I enzyme induction, and decreased in vivo total thyroxine (T4) suggest adverse effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis. Current research tested the hypothesis that triclosan decreases circulating T4 via upregulation of hepatic catabolism and transport. Weanling female Long-Evans rats received triclosan (0-1000 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 days. Whole blood and liver were collected 24 h later. Total serum T4, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hepatic microsomal assays measured ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase enzyme activities. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytochrome P450s 1a1, 2b1/2, and 3a1/23; UGTs 1a1, 1a6, and 2b5; sulfotransferases 1c1 and 1b1; and hepatic transporters Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Mrp2, and Mdr1b was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Total T4 decreased dose responsively, down to 43% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. Total T3 was decreased to 89 and 75% of control at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. TSH did not change. Triclosan dose dependently increased PROD activity up to 900% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. T4 glucuronidation increased nearly twofold at 1000 mg/kg/day. Cyp2b1/2 and Cyp3a1/23 mRNA expression levels were induced twofold and fourfold at 300 mg/kg/day. Ugt1a1 and Sult1c1 mRNA expression levels increased 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold at 300 mg/kg/day. Transporter mRNA expression levels were unchanged. These data denote important key events in the mode of action for triclosan-induced hypothyroxinemia in rats and suggest that this effect may be partially due to upregulation of hepatic catabolism but not due to mRNA expression changes in the tested hepatic transporters.
Project description:High doses of sodium phenobarbital (NaPB), a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator, have been shown to produce hepatocellular tumors in rodents by a mitogenic mode of action (MOA) involving CAR activation. The effect of 1 week dietary treatment with NaPB on liver weight and histopathology, hepatic CYP2B enzyme activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA expression, replicative DNA synthesis and selected genes related to cell proliferation and functional transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses was studied in male CD-1 mice, Wistar Hannover (WH) rats and chimeric mice with human hepatocytes. The treatment of chimeric mice with 1000-1500 ppm NaPB resulted in plasma levels around 3-5 fold higher than those observed in human subjects given therapeutic doses of NaPB. NaPB produced dose-dependent increases in hepatic CYP2B activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA levels in all animal models. Integrated functional metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses demonstrated the responses to NaPB in human liver were clearly different from those in rodents. While NaPB produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice and WH rats, no increase in replicative DNA synthesis was observed in human hepatocyte-originated areas of chimeric mice. In addition, treatment with NaPB had no effect on Ki-67, PCNA, GADD45β, and MDM2 mRNA expression in chimeric mice, whereas significant increases were observed in CD-1 mice and/or WH rats. Thus, while NaPB could activate CAR in rodent and human hepatocytes, NaPB did not increase replicative DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes of chimeric mice, whereas it was mitogenic to rat and mouse hepatocytes. As human hepatocytes are refractory to the mitogenic effects of NaPB, the MOA for NaPB-induced rodent liver tumor formation is thus not relevant for humans. Male WH rats (4 animals/dose) were fed diets containing 0 (control) or 2500 ppm NaPB for 7 days. Liver samples were used for gene expression analysis.