Germline hemizygous deletion of CDKN2A-CDKN2B locus in a patient presenting with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare cancer predisposition syndrome usually associated with TP53 germline alterations. Its genetic basis in TP53 wild-type pedigrees is less understood. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified a germline hemizygous deletion ablating CDKN2A-CDKN2B in a TP53 wild-type patient presenting with high-grade sarcoma, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and a family history suggestive of LFS. Patient-derived cells demonstrated reduced basal gene and protein expression of the CDKN2A-encoded tumour suppressors p14ARF and p16INK4A with concomitant decrease in p21 and faster cell proliferation, implying potential deregulation of p53-mediated cell cycle control. Review of 13 additional patients with pathogenic CDKN2A variants suggested associations of germline CDKN2A mutations with an expanded spectrum of non-melanoma familial cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a germline gross deletion of the CDKN2A-CDKN2B locus in an LFS family. These findings highlight the potential contribution of germline CDKN2A deletions to cancer predisposition and the importance of interrogating the full extent of CDKN2A locus in clinical testing gene panels.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive analysis of the 9p21 locus including the CDKN2A, ARF, and CDKN2B genes in 53 individuals from melanoma index cases considered to be at heightened risk of melanoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a combination of DNA sequencing, gene copy number by real time quantitative PCR, linkage analysis, and transcript analysis in haploid somatic cell hybrids, we found no evidence for germline alteration in either coding or non-coding domains of CDKN2A and CDKN2B. However, we identified a p14ARF exon 1beta missense germline mutation (G16D) in a melanoma-neural system tumour syndrome (CMM+NST) family and a 8474 bp germline deletion from 196 bp upstream of p14ARF exon 1beta initiation codon to 11233 bp upstream of exon 1alpha of p16(INK4A) in a family with five melanoma cases. For three out of 10 families with at least three melanoma cases, the disease gene was unlinked to the 9p21 region, while linkage analysis was not fully conclusive for seven families. CONCLUSIONS: These data reinforce the hypothesis that ARF is a melanoma susceptibility gene and suggest that germline deletions specifically affecting p14ARF may not be solely responsible for NST susceptibility. Predisposition to CMM+NST could either be due to complete disruption of the CDKN2A locus or be the result of more complex genetic inheritance. In addition, the absence of any genetic alteration in 50 melanoma prone families or patients suggests the presence of additional tumour suppressor genes possibly in the 9p21 region, and on other chromosomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited rare cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by a variety of early-onset tumors. Although germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 account for over 50% of the families matching LFS criteria, the lack of TP53 mutation in a significant proportion of LFS families, suggests that other types of inherited alterations must contribute to their cancer susceptibility. Recently, increases in copy number variation (CNV) have been reported in LFS individuals, and are also postulated to contribute to LFS phenotypic variability. METHODS: Seventy probands from families fulfilling clinical criteria for either Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFS/LFL) syndromes and negative for TP53 mutations were screened for germline CNVs. RESULTS: We found a significantly increased number of rare CNVs, which were smaller in size and presented higher gene density compared to the control group. These data were similar to the findings we reported previously on a cohort of patients with germline TP53 mutations, showing that LFS/LFL patients, regardless of their TP53 status, also share similar CNV profiles. CONCLUSION: These results, in conjunction with our previous analyses, suggest that both TP53-negative and positive LFS/LFL patients present a broad spectrum of germline genetic alterations affecting multiple loci, and that the genetic basis of LFS/LFL predisposition or penetrance in many cases might reside in germline transmission of CNVs.
Project description:Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a complex hereditary cancer predisposition disorder associated with early-onset cancers in diverse tissues of origin. Germline TP53 mutations are identified in 75% of patients with classic LFS. The lifetime likelihood of a TP53 mutation carrier developing cancer approaches 75% in males and almost 100% in females. Several genetic modifiers have been implicated to account for the phenotypic variability within and across LFS families; however, efforts to develop predictive algorithms of age of onset and type of cancers in individual patients have not yet found clinical use. Although it is not possible to prevent cancers from forming in LFS patients, novel protocols have been developed for surveillance for early tumor detection, leading to improvements in survival. Comprehensive studies of the genome and epigenome in LFS families in the context of germline TP53 mutations is anticipated to shed light on this intriguing, yet devastating, disease and to transform the clinical management of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS:To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS:We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS:Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.
Project description:Germline alterations of the tumour suppressor TP53 gene are detected approximately in 25% of the families suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), characterised by a genetic predisposition to a wide tumour spectrum, including soft-tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancers, brain tumours, adrenocortical tumours, plexus choroid tumours, leukaemia and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of germline copy number variations (CNVs) to LFS in families without detectable TP53 mutation. Using a custom-designed high-resolution array CGH, we evaluated the presence of rare germline CNVs in 64 patients fulfilling the Chompret criteria for LFS, but without any detectable TP53 alteration. In 15 unrelated patients, we detected 20 new CNVs absent in 600 controls. Remarkably, in four patients who had developed each brain tumour, the detected CNV overlap the KDM1A, MTA3, TRRAP or SIRT3 genes encoding p53 partners involved in histone methylation or acetylation. Focused analysis of SIRT3 showed that the CNV encompassing SIRT3 leads to SIRT3 overexpression, and that in vitro SIRT3 overexpression prevents apoptosis, increases G2/M and results in a hypermethylation of numerous genes. This study supports the causal role of germline alterations of genes involved in chromatin remodelling in genetic predisposition to cancer and, in particular, to brain tumours.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition, mostly caused by germline TP53 mutations. Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) has been identified as the most frequent LFS-related cancer outside the common LFS core spectrum. EGFR-kinase domain duplication (KDD) is rare in lung cancer and the effective therapy for LFS patients with EGFR-KDD mutated ADC is unclear. This study reports the first case of a TP53-mutated LFS patient with confirmed family history, developing advanced lung ADC harboring EGFR-KDD. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The patient's lung tumor, lymph nodes, liquid biopsies and germline control sample at various disease stages were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS). The TP53 germline mutation was confirmed using the peripheral blood of the patient's relatives by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:A rare EGFR-KDD somatic mutation that was missed in the routine EGFR hotspots test, and a TP53-E285K temperature-sensitive germline mutation were identified by NGS. The patient was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2006 and her family cancer history review revealed that seven out of 13 relatives were diagnosed or died from LFS-spectrum cancers before the age of 45 years. Three of the six relatives were positive for the TP53-E285K germline mutation. This patient received multi-line chemotherapy followed by anlotinib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, upon the identification of EGFR-KDD, and achieved an overall survival of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS:Our study highlights the importance of NGS in discovering rare genetic alterations to guide treatment decision-making, and provides meaningful insight into the potential treatment options for LFS patients with EGFR-KDD mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni-Syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited tumour predisposition syndrome associated with heterozygous germline mutations in the TP53 gene. Patients with LFS are at a high risk to develop early-onset breast cancer and multiple malignancies, among which sarcomas are the most common. A high incidence of childhood tumours and close to 100% penetrance has been described. Knowledge of the genetic status of the TP53 gene in these patients is critical not only due to the increased risk of malignancies, but also because of the therapeutic implications, since a higher rate of radiation-induced secondary tumours in these patients has been observed. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with LFS harbouring heterozygous, pathogenic TP53 germline mutation, who was affected by four synchronous malignancies at the age of 40: a myxofibrosarcoma of the right upper arm, bilateral breast cancer and a periadrenal liposarcoma. Radiological treatments and a surveillance program were adjusted according to recommendations for LFS patients. CONCLUSION: Management of tumour treatment of patients with LFS is different to the general population because of their risk for secondary cancers in the radiation field. Screening procedures should take a possibly elevated risk for radiation induced cancer into account.
Project description:Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited, autosomal-dominant condition that predisposes individuals to a wide-spectrum of tumors at an early age. Approximately 70% of families with classic LFS have pathogenic variants in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 that disrupt protein function or stability. While more than 70% of pathogenic variants in TP53 are missense variants, the vast majority occur very infrequently, and thus their clinical significance is uncertain or conflicting. Here, we report an extremely rare TP53 missense variant, c.799C?>?T (p.Arg267Trp), identified in a 2-year-old Saudi proband diagnosed with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) and six of his first- and second-degree relatives. CPC is frequently found in families with LFS, and this is the first detailed report of a family with this variant. Intriguingly, the proband's father is homozygous for TP53 c.799C?>?T and phenotypically normal at 39 years of age. While loss of TP53 heterozygosity is often observed in tumors from individuals with LFS, homozygous germline TP53 pathogenic variants are rare. Based on our analysis of this single family, we hypothesize that TP53 c.799C?>?T has low or variable penetrance for LFS, with predisposition to the development of CPC. The observations from this family have furthered our understanding of the phenotypic variability that may be caused by one variant of TP53, even in the same family, and suggest that other factors (genetic and/or environmental) may play a role in mechanism of disease manifestation in LFS.
Project description:Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in TP53 that can lead to increased mitochondrial metabolism in patients. However, the implications of altered mitochondrial function for tumorigenesis in LFS are unclear. Here, we have reported that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of mitochondrial respiration improves cancer-free survival in a mouse model of LFS that expresses mutant p53. Mechanistically, inhibition of mitochondrial function increased autophagy and decreased the aberrant proliferation signaling caused by mutant p53. In a pilot study, LFS patients treated with metformin exhibited decreases in mitochondrial activity concomitant with activation of antiproliferation signaling, thus reproducing the effects of disrupting mitochondrial function observed in LFS mice. These observations indicate that a commonly prescribed diabetic medicine can restrain mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis in an LFS model, supporting its further consideration for cancer prevention in LFS patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a highly penetrant autosomal dominant cancer predisposition disorder caused by germline <i>TP53</i> pathogenic variants. Patients with LFS have increased oxidative phosphorylation capacity in skeletal muscle and oxidative stress in blood. Metformin inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, reducing available energy for cancer cell proliferation and decreasing production of reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage. Thus, metformin may provide pharmacologic risk reduction for cancer in patients with LFS, but its safety in nondiabetic patients with germline <i>TP53</i> pathogenic variants has not been documented.<h4>Methods</h4>This study assessed safety and tolerability of metformin in nondiabetic LFS patients and measured changes in metabolic profiles. Adult patients with LFS and germline <i>TP53</i> variant received 14?weeks of metformin. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Hepatic mitochondrial function was assessed with fasting exhaled CO<sub>2</sub> after ingestion of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled methionine. Changes in serum metabolome were measured. All statistical tests were 2-sided.<h4>Results</h4>We enrolled 26 participants: 20 females and 6 males. The most common adverse events were diarrhea (50.0%) and nausea (46.2%). Lactic acidosis did not occur, and there were no changes in fasting glucose. Cumulative mean <sup>13</sup>C exhalation was statistically significantly suppressed by metformin (<i>P</i> = .001). Mean levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and insulin-like growth factor-1 were statistically significantly lowered (<i>P</i> = .02). Lipid metabolites and branched-chain amino acids accumulated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Metformin was safe and tolerable in patients with LFS. It suppressed hepatic mitochondrial function as expected in these individuals. This study adds to the rationale for development of a pharmacologic risk-reduction clinical trial of metformin in LFS.