Outcomes of Preterm Infants following Discussions about Withdrawal or Withholding of Life Support.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To describe the frequency of postnatal discussions about withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapy (WWLST), ensuing WWLST, and outcomes of infants surviving such discussions. We hypothesized that such survivors have poor outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:This retrospective review included registry data from 18 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants born at 22-28 weeks of gestation who survived >12 hours during 2011-2013 were included. Regression analysis identified maternal and infant factors associated with WWLST discussions and factors predicting ensuing WWLST. In-hospital and 18- to 26-month outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS:WWLST discussions occurred in 529 (15.4%) of 3434 infants. These were more frequent at 22-24 weeks (27.0%) compared with 27-28 weeks of gestation (5.6%). Factors associated with WWLST discussion were male sex, gestational age (GA)?of ?24 weeks, birth weight small for GA, congenital malformations or syndromes, early onset sepsis, severe brain injury, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Rates of WWLST discussion varied by center (6.4%-29.9%) as did WWLST (5.2%-20.7%). Ensuing WWLST occurred in 406 patients; of these, 5 survived to discharge. Of the 123 infants for whom intensive care was continued, 58 (47%) survived to discharge. Survival after WWLST discussion was associated with higher rates of neonatal morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment compared with babies for whom WWLST discussions did not occur. Significant predictors of ensuing WWLST were maternal age >25 years, necrotizing enterocolitis, and days on a ventilator. CONCLUSIONS:Wide center variations in WWLST discussions occur, especially at ?24 weeks GA. Outcomes of infants surviving after WWLST discussions are poor. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00063063.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A count of 3 neonatal morbidities (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy of prematurity) strongly predict the risk of death or neurosensory impairment in extremely low birth weight infants who survive to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Neonatal infection has also been linked with later impairment. We examined whether the addition of infection to the count of 3 neonatal morbidities further improves the prediction of poor outcome. METHODS:We studied 944 infants who participated in the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms and survived to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Culture-proven sepsis, meningitis, and stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis were recorded prospectively. We investigated the incremental prognostic importance of neonatal infection by adding terms for the different types of infection to a logistic model that already contained terms for the count of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy. Poor outcome at 18 months of age was death or survival with 1 or more of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, severe hearing loss, and bilateral blindness. RESULTS:There were 414 (44%) infants with at least 1 episode of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis. Meningitis and the presence of any type of infection added independent prognostic information to the morbidity-count model. The odds ratio associated with infection or necrotizing enterocolitis in this model was 50% smaller than the odds ratio associated with each count of the other 3 neonatal morbidities. Meningitis was rare and occurred in 22 (2.3%) of 944 infants. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, neonatal infection increased the risk of a late death or survival with neurosensory impairment. However, infection was a weaker predictor of poor outcome than bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To characterize in-hospital outcomes of premature infants diagnosed with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study including premature infants with severe BPD discharged from 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2015. RESULTS:There were 10?752 infants with severe BPD, and 549/10?752 (5%) died before discharge. Infants who died were more likely to be male, small for gestational age, have received more medical interventions and more frequently diagnosed with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, culture-proven sepsis and pulmonary hypertension following 36 weeks of postmenstrual age compared with survivors. Approximately 70% of infants with severe BPD were discharged by 44 weeks of postmenstrual age, and 86% were discharged by 48 weeks of postmenstrual age. CONCLUSIONS:A majority of infants diagnosed with severe BPD were discharged home by 44 weeks of postmenstrual age. These results may inform discussions with families regarding the expected hospital course of infants diagnosed with severe BPD.
Project description:Among infants born prematurely, competence at oral feeding is necessary for growth and hospital discharge. Extremely preterm (EP) infants (28 weeks of gestational age [GA]) are at risk for a variety of medical complications, which can limit the infant's capacity to develop oral feeding competence.This study examined feeding progression by assessing timing of acquisition of five early feeding milestones among EP infants and the impact of immaturity and medical complications.A chart review was conducted for 94 EP infants who participated in a larger longitudinal randomized study. Feeding progression was defined as infants' postmenstrual age (PMA) at five milestones: first enteral feeding, full enteral feeding, first oral feeding, half oral feeding, and full oral feeding. GA at birth and five medical complications (neurological risk, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and gastroesophageal reflux disease) were used as potential factors influencing the feeding progression. Linear mixed models were used to examine feeding progression across the milestones and contributions of GA at birth and five medical complications on the progression, after controlling for milk type as a covariate.EP infants gradually achieved feeding milestones; however, the attainment of the feeding milestones slowed significantly for infants with younger GA at birth and the presence of medical complications, including neurological risk, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and patent ductus arteriosus but not gastroesophageal reflux disease. Milk type was a significant covariate for all analyses, suggesting that infants fed with breast milk achieved each of five milestones earlier than formula-fed infants.Improved understanding of the timing of essential feeding milestones among EP infants and the contribution of specific medical conditions to the acquisition of these milestones may allow for more targeted care to support feeding skill development.
Project description:Background:Premature infants are at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Serum creatinine (Cr) has limitations for evaluating kidney function in premature infants. We evaluated whether urine biomarkers could be used to monitor AKI in premature infants. Methods:A prospective cohort study was conducted among infants born at < 37 weeks. Urine biomarkers and serum Cr were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Infants were divided into 3 groups according to gestational age (GA); < 28, 28 to < 32 and 32 to < 37 weeks. Results:AKI occurred in 17 of 83 (20.5%) recruited infants at a median age of 7 (interquartile range 5-10) days. While the most common cause of AKI was hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (53.8%) in infants of GA < 28 weeks, necrotizing enterocolitis was the leading cause (50.0%) in infants of GA 28 to < 32 weeks. Urinary levels of neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin/Cr were higher and epidermal growth factor/Cr were lower in AKI group before the onset of AKI in infants of GA < 28 weeks. In infants of GA 28 to < 32 weeks, urinary interleukin-8/Cr levels were higher in AKI group at approximately the time of AKI onset. Conclusion:Several urine biomarkers were significantly different between AKI and no AKI groups, and some had changed before the onset of AKI. These groups were distinct according to causative factors of AKI and GA. Urine biomarkers could be useful for monitoring the development of AKI in premature infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Very preterm infants (<?32?weeks gestation) have a relatively high nutrient requirement for growth and development. The composition of human milk is often inadequate to ensure optimal growth so it is common to fortify human milk for very preterm infants with nutrient fortifiers based on bovine milk. However, there are concerns that bovine milk-based fortifiers may increase the risk of feeding intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis. We hypothesize that a bovine colostrum-based product is a suitable alternative to bovine milk-based products when used as a fortifier to human milk in very preterm infants. METHODS/DESIGN:In an open-label multicentre randomised controlled pilot trial, 200 very preterm infants (26?+?0 to 30?+?6?weeks gestation at birth) will be randomly allocated to a bovine colostrum-based or a bovine milk-based fortifier added to mother's own milk and/or human donor milk. Outcomes are growth rate, incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis, a series of paraclinical endpoints, and practical feasibility of using the novel fortifier for very preterm infants. DISCUSSION:The optimal enteral diet and feeding regimen for very preterm infants remain debated; this clinical trial will document the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of using bovine colostrum, rich in nutrients and bioactive factors, as a novel fortifier for human milk to very preterm infants. Data on infant growth, metabolism, gut function and immunity will be assessed from clinical data as well as blood and stool samples. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered retrospectively 25 May 2018 at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03537365 .
Project description:Extremely premature (birth weight < 1250 g) infants are at high risk for acquiring late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Own mother's milk contains protective (immune and trophic) biofactors which provide antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory functions, enhance intestinal microbiota, and promote intestinal maturation. Many of these biofactors are most highly concentrated in the milk expressed by mothers of extremely premature infants. However, since extremely premature infants do not receive oral milk feeds until 32 weeks post-conceptional age, they lack the potential benefit provided by milk (biofactor) exposure to oropharyngeal immunocompetent cells, and this deficiency could contribute to late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Therefore, oropharyngeal administration of own mother's milk may improve the health outcomes of these infants.To compare the effects of oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk to a placebo, for important clinical outcomes, including (1A) reducing the incidence of late-onset sepsis (primary outcome) and (1B) necrotizing enterocolitis and death (secondary outcomes). To identify the biomechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of oropharyngeal mother's milk for extremely premature infants, including; (2A) enhancement of gastrointestinal (fecal) microbiota (2B) improvement in antioxidant defense maturation or reduction of pro-oxidant status, and (2C) maturation of immunostimulatory effects as measured by changes in urinary lactoferrin.A 5-year, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oropharyngeal mother's milk to reduce the incidence of (1A) late-onset sepsis and (1B) necrotizing enterocolitis and death in a large cohort of extremely premature infants (n = 622; total patients enrolled). Enrolled infants are randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group A infants receive 0.2 mL of own mother's milk, via oropharyngeal administration, every 2 hours for 48 hours, then every 3 hours until 32 weeks corrected-gestational age. Group B infants receive a placebo (0.2 mL sterile water) following the same protocol. Milk, urine, oral mucosal swab, and stool samples are collected at various time points, before, during and after the treatment periods. Health outcome and safety data are collected throughout the infant's stay.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02116699 on 11 April 2014. Last updated: 26 May 2015.
Project description:Fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) reflect human and gut microbiota metabolic pathways and their interaction. VOC behold potential as non-invasive preclinical diagnostic biomarkers in various diseases, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. There is a need for standardization and assessment of the influence of clinical and environmental factors on the VOC outcome before this technique can be applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gestational age (GA) and mode of delivery on the fecal VOC pattern in preterm infants born below 30 weeks of gestation. Longitudinal fecal samples, collected on days 7, 14, and 21 postnatally, were analyzed by an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®). In total, 58 preterm infants were included (29 infants born at GA 24-26 weeks vs. 29 at 27-29 completed weeks, 24 vaginally born vs. 34 via C-section). No differences were identified at any predefined time point in terms of GA and delivery mode (p > 0.05). We, therefore, concluded that correction for these factors in this population is not warranted when performing fecal VOC analysis in the first three weeks of life.
Project description:CONTEXT:Current guidelines, initially published in 1995, recommend antenatal corticosteroids for mothers with preterm labor from 24 to 34 weeks' gestational age, but not before 24 weeks due to lack of data. However, many infants born before 24 weeks' gestation are provided intensive care. OBJECTIVE:To determine if use of antenatal corticosteroids is associated with improvement in major outcomes for infants born at 22 and 23 weeks' gestation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Cohort study of data collected prospectively on inborn infants with a birth weight between 401 g and 1000 g (N = 10,541) born at 22 to 25 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2009, at 23 academic perinatal centers in the United States. Certified examiners unaware of exposure to antenatal corticosteroids performed follow-up examinations on 4924 (86.5%) of the infants born between 1993 and 2008 who survived to 18 to 22 months. Logistic regression models generated adjusted odds ratios (AORs), controlling for maternal and neonatal variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. RESULTS:Death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months was significantly lower for infants who had been exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and were born at 23 weeks' gestation (83.4% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 90.5% without exposure; AOR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.42-0.80]), at 24 weeks' gestation (68.4% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 80.3% without exposure; AOR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.49-0.78]), and at 25 weeks' gestation (52.7% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 67.9% without exposure; AOR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.50-0.74]) but not in those infants born at 22 weeks' gestation (90.2% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 93.1% without exposure; AOR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.29-2.21]). If the mothers had received antenatal corticosteroids, the following events occurred significantly less in infants born at 23, 24, and 25 weeks' gestation: death by 18 to 22 months; hospital death; death, intraventricular hemorrhage, or periventricular leukomalacia; and death or necrotizing enterocolitis. For infants born at 22 weeks' gestation, the only outcome that occurred significantly less was death or necrotizing enterocolitis (73.5% with exposure to antenatal corticosteroids vs 84.5% without exposure; AOR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.30-0.97]). CONCLUSION:Among infants born at 23 to 25 weeks' gestation, antenatal exposure to corticosteroids compared with nonexposure was associated with a lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months.
Project description:Objectives: To describe the rates and variability of mortality and morbidity of preterm infants born in China. Methods: This prospective cohort study included infants born at <34 weeks' gestation and admitted to 25 NICUs within 7 days of birth between May 1st, 2015 and April 30th, 2016. Infants were followed until death or NICU discharge. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or any major morbidity (sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular/periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) in infants who received complete care following medical advice. Secondary outcomes included rate of discharge against medical advice, mortality and individual morbidities. Results: Of the 8,065 infants, 6,852 (85%) received complete care and 1,213 (15%) were discharged against medical advice. Among infants who received complete care, the rate of the composite outcome was 27% (1,827/6,852), mortality 4% (248/6,852), sepsis 14% (990/6,852), necrotizing enterocolitis 3% (191/6,550), intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia 7% (422/6,307), retinopathy of prematurity 2% (67/3,349), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia 9% (616/6,852). There were significant variations between NICUs for all outcomes. Conclusions: Discharged against medical advice, mortality, and morbidity rates for preterm infants <34 weeks' gestation are high in China with significant variations between NICUs.
Project description:We previously demonstrated improvement in bronchopulmonary dysplasia and nosocomial infection among preterm infants at 12 neonatal units using the Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ). In the current study, we assessed the association of Canada-wide implementation of EPIQ with mortality and morbidity among preterm infants less than 29 weeks gestational age.This prospective cohort study included 6026 infants admitted to 25 Canadian units between 2008 and 2012 (baseline year, n = 1422; year 1, n = 1611; year 2, n = 1508; year 3, n = 1485). Following a 1-year baseline period and 6 months of training and planning, EPIQ was implemented over 3 years. Our primary outcome was a composite of neonatal mortality and any of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe neurologic injury, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis and nosocomial infection. We compared outcomes for baseline and year 3 using multivariable analyses.In adjusted analyses comparing baseline with year 3, the composite outcome (70% v. 65%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 0.79), severe retinopathy (17% v. 13%; OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.79), necrotizing enterocolitis (10% v. 8%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.98) and nosocomial infections (32% v. 24%; OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.82) were significantly reduced. The composite outcome was lower among infants born at 26 to 28 weeks gestation (62% v. 52%; OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.78) but not among infants born at less than 26 weeks gestational age (90% v. 88%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.20).EPIQ methodology was generalizable within Canada and was associated with significantly lower likelihood of the composite outcome, severe retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis and nosocomial infections. Infants born at 26 to 28 weeks gestational age benefited the most.