High-throughput SuperSAGE for gene expression analysis of Nicotiana tabacum-Rhizoctonia solani interaction.
ABSTRACT: The ubiquitous soil pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in different plant species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known regarding the molecular basis of susceptibility. SuperSAGE technology and next-generation sequencing were used to generate transcript libraries during the compatible Nicotiana tabacum-R. solani interaction. Also, we used the post-transcriptional silencing to evaluate the function of a group of important genes.A total of 8960 and 8221 unique Tag sequences identified as differentially up- and down-regulated were obtained. Based on gene ontology classification, several annotated UniTags corresponded to defense response, metabolism and signal transduction. Analysis of the N. tabacum transcriptome during infection identified regulatory genes implicated in a number of hormone pathways. Silencing of an mRNA induced by salicylic acid reduced the susceptibility of N. tabacum to R. solani. We provide evidence that the salicylic acid pathway was involved in disease development. This is important for further development of disease management strategies caused by this pathogen.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Drought is the major constraint to increase yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Improving drought tolerance is therefore of outmost importance for breeding. However, the complexity of the trait allowed only marginal progress. A solution to the current stagnation is expected from innovative molecular tools such as transcriptome analyses providing insight into stress-related gene activity, which combined with molecular markers and expression (e)QTL mapping, may accelerate knowledge-based breeding. SuperSAGE, an improved version of the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique, generating genome-wide, high-quality transcription profiles from any eukaryote, has been employed in the present study. The method produces 26 bp long fragments (26 bp tags) from defined positions in cDNAs, providing sufficient sequence information to unambiguously characterize the mRNAs. Further, SuperSAGE tags may be immediately used to produce microarrays and probes for real-time-PCR, thereby overcoming the lack of genomic tools in non-model organisms. RESULTS: We applied SuperSAGE to the analysis of gene expression in chickpea roots in response to drought. To this end, we sequenced 80,238 26 bp tags representing 17,493 unique transcripts (UniTags) from drought-stressed and non-stressed control roots. A total of 7,532 (43%) UniTags were more than 2.7-fold differentially expressed, and 880 (5.0%) were regulated more than 8-fold upon stress. Their large size enabled the unambiguous annotation of 3,858 (22%) UniTags to genes or proteins in public data bases and thus to stress-response processes. We designed a microarray carrying 3,000 of these 26 bp tags. The chip data confirmed 79% of the tag-based results, whereas RT-PCR confirmed the SuperSAGE data in all cases. CONCLUSION: This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the drought-response transcriptome of chickpea available to date. It demonstrates that--inter alias--signal transduction, transcription regulation, osmolyte accumulation, and ROS scavenging undergo strong transcriptional remodelling in chickpea roots already 6 h after drought stress. Certain transcript isoforms characterizing these processes are potential targets for breeding for drought tolerance. We demonstrate that these can be easily accessed by micro-arrays and RT-PCR assays readily produced downstream of SuperSAGE. Our study proves that SuperSAGE owns potential for molecular breeding also in non-model crops.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plants trigger and tailor defense responses after perception of the oral secretions (OS) of attacking specialist lepidopteran larvae. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the OS of the Manduca sexta larvae are necessary and sufficient to elicit the herbivory-specific responses in Nicotiana attenuata, an annual wild tobacco species. How FACs are perceived and activate signal transduction mechanisms is unknown. RESULTS: We used SuperSAGE combined with 454 sequencing to quantify the early transcriptional changes elicited by the FAC N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu) and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to examine the function of candidate genes in the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis targeted mRNAs encoding regulatory components: rare transcripts with very rapid FAC-elicited kinetics (increases within 60 and declines within 120 min). From 12,744 unique Tag sequences identified (UniTags), 430 and 117 were significantly up- and down-regulated >or= 2.5-fold, respectively, after 18:3-Glu elicitation compared to wounding. Based on gene ontology classification, more than 25% of the annotated UniTags corresponded to putative regulatory components, including 30 transcriptional regulators and 22 protein kinases. Quantitative PCR analysis was used to analyze the FAC-dependent regulation of a subset of 27 of these UniTags and for most of them a rapid and transient induction was confirmed. Six FAC-regulated genes were functionally characterized by VIGS and two, a putative lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) and a protein of unknown function, were identified as important mediators of the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the early changes in the transcriptome of N. attenuata after FAC elicitation using SuperSAGE/454 has identified regulatory genes involved in insect-specific mediated responses in plants. Moreover, it has provided a foundation for the identification of additional novel regulators associated with this process.
Project description:Multitoxin Bt-crops expressing insecticidal toxins with different modes of action, for example, Cry and Vip, are expected to improve resistance management in target pests. While Cry1A resistance has been relatively well characterized in some insect species, this is not the case for Vip3A, for which no mechanism of resistance has yet been identified. Here we applied HT-SuperSAGE to analyze the transcriptome of the gut tissue of tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) laboratory-selected for Vip3Aa resistance. From a total of 1 324 252 sequence reads, 5 895 126-bp tags were obtained representing 17 751 nonsingleton unique transcripts (UniTags) from genetically similar Vip3Aa-resistant (Vip-Sel) and susceptible control (Vip-Unsel) strains. Differential expression was significant (?2.5 fold or ?0.4; P < 0.05) for 1989 sequences (11.2% of total UniTags), where 420 represented overexpressed (OE) and 1569 underexpressed (UE) genes in Vip-Sel. BLASTN searches mapped 419 UniTags to H. virescens sequence contigs, of which, 416 (106 OE and 310 UE) were unambiguously annotated to proteins in NCBI nonredundant protein databases. Gene Ontology distributed 345 of annotated UniTags in 14 functional categories with metabolism (including serine-type hydrolases) and translation/ribosome biogenesis being the most prevalent. A UniTag homologous to a particular member of the REsponse to PAThogen (REPAT) family was found among most overexpressed, while UniTags related to the putative Vip3Aa-binding ribosomal protein S2 (RpS2) were underexpressed. qRT-PCR of a subset of UniTags validated the HT-SuperSAGE data. This study is the first providing lepidopteran gut transcriptome associated with Vip3Aa resistance and a foundation for future attempts to elucidate the resistance mechanism.
Project description:Background Drought is the major constraint to increase yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Improving drought tolerance is therefore of outmost importance for breeding. However, the complexity of the trait allowed only marginal progress. A solution to the current stagnation is expected from innovative molecular tools such as transcriptome analyses providing insight into stress-related gene activity and, combined with molecular markers and expression (e)QTL mapping, may accelerate knowledge-based breeding. SuperSAGE, an improved version of the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique, currently is the most advanced tool for transcriptome analysis. SuperSAGE generates genome-wide, high-quality transcription profiles from any eukaryote. The method produces 26bp long fragments (SuperTags26bp tags) from defined positions in cDNAs, providing sufficient sequence information to unambiguously characterize the mRNAs. Further, SuperSAGE Tags may be immediately used to produce so called SuperTag microarrays and probes for real-time-PCR thereby overcoming the lack of genomic tools in non-model organisms. Results We applied SuperSAGE to the analysis of gene expression in chickpea roots in response to drought. To this end, we sequenced 80,238 26bp SuperTtags representing 17,493 unique transcripts (UniTags) from drought-stressed and non-stressed control roots. A total of 7,532 (43%) UniTags were more than 2.7-fold differentially expressed , and 880 (5.0%) were regulated more than 8-fold upon stress. Their large size enabled the unambiguous annotation of 2,798 (16.3%) UniTags to genes or proteins in public data bases and thus to stress-response processes. We designed a microSuperTag array carrying 3,000 of these SuperTags26bp tags. The chip data confirmed the SuperSAGE results in 79 % of cases whereas RT-PCR confirmed the SuperSAGE data in all cases. Conclusions This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the drought-response transcriptome of chickpea available to date. It demonstrates that - inter alias - signal transduction, transcription regulation, osmolyte accumulation, chromosome organization, and ROS scavenging undergo strong transcriptional remodelling in chickpea roots already 6h after drought stress. Certain transcript isoforms characterizing these processes are potential targets for breeding for drought tolerance. We demonstrate that these can be easily accessed by micro-arrays and RT-PCR assays readily produced downstream of SuperSAGE. Our study proves that SuperSAGE has a good potential is best suited for molecular breeding also in non-model crops. Overall design: Chickpea drought-stressed root material was used to develop 2 SuperSAGE librareis Control: Normal greenhouse conditions (3-5 weeks old plants) Stress: Normal greenhouse conditions + 6h dehydration (3-5 weeks old plants) Biological replicas and confirmation: microarray spotting and qRT-PCR
Project description:The type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I was used in isolating fragments of 26 bp from defined positions of cDNAs. We call this substantially improved variant to the conventional serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) procedure "SuperSAGE." By applying SuperSAGE to Magnaporthe grisea (blast)-infected rice leaves, gene expression profiles of both the rice host and blast fungus were simultaneously monitored by making use of the fully sequenced genomes of both organisms, revealing that the hydrophobin gene is the most actively transcribed M. grisea gene in blast-infected rice leaves. Moreover, SuperSAGE was applied to study gene expression changes before the so-called hypersensitive response in INF1 elicitor-treated Nicotiana benthamiana, a "nonmodel" organism for which no DNA database is available. Again, SuperSAGE allowed rapid identification of genes up- or down-regulated by the elicitor. Surprisingly, many of the down-regulated genes coded for proteins involved in photosynthesis. SuperSAGE will be especially useful for transcriptome profiling of two or more interacting organisms like hosts and pathogens, and of organisms, for which no DNA database is available.
Project description:We established a protocol of the SuperSAGE technology combined with next-generation sequencing, coined "High-Throughput (HT-) SuperSAGE". SuperSAGE is a method of digital gene expression profiling that allows isolation of 26-bp tag fragments from expressed transcripts. In the present protocol, index (barcode) sequences are employed to discriminate tags from different samples. Such barcodes allow researchers to analyze digital tags from transcriptomes of many samples in a single sequencing run by simply pooling the libraries. Here, we demonstrated that HT-SuperSAGE provided highly sensitive, reproducible and accurate digital gene expression data. By increasing throughput for analysis in HT-SuperSAGE, various applications are foreseen and several examples are provided in the present study, including analyses of laser-microdissected cells, biological replicates and tag extraction using different anchoring enzymes.
Project description:One of the most challenging aspects of RT-qPCR data analysis is the identification of reliable reference genes. Ideally, they should be neither induced nor repressed under different experimental conditions. To date, few reference genes have been adequately studied for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) using statistical approaches. In this work, six candidate genes ( ?TUB, GAPDH, H1, SAMDC, UBQ, and 25S rRNA) were tested for gene expression normalization of sugarcane root tissues from drought-tolerant and -sensitive accessions after continuous dehydration (24 h). By undergoing different approaches (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), it was shown that most of them could be used in combinations for normalization purposes, with the exception of SAMDC. Nevertheless three of them (H1, ?TUB, and GAPDH) were considered the most reliable reference genes. Their suitability as reference genes validated the expression profiles of two targets (AS and PFP ?1), related to SuperSAGE unitags, in agreement with results revealed by previous in silico analysis. The other two sugarcane unitags (ACC oxidase and PIP1-1), after salt stress (100 mM NaCl), presented their expressions validated in the same way. In conclusion, these reference genes will be useful for dissecting gene expression in sugarcane roots under abiotic stress, especially in transcriptomic studies using SuperSAGE or RNAseq approaches.
Project description:Summary: Multi-toxins Bt-crops carrying insecticidal toxins with similar host spectrum and different mode of action e.g. Cry and Vip, are expected to improve resistance management in target pests. Control failure has been informed for Cry toxins but not for Vip3A, of which no mechanism of resistance has yet been identified. Here we applied HT-SuperSAGE to analyze the transcriptome profiling in the midgut tissue of a tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) strain laboratory-selected for Vip3A resistance. A total of 1324252 26-bp tags were sequenced representing 17751 unique transcripts (UniTags) from genetically similar Vip3A-resistant (Vip-Sel) strain and susceptible control (Vip-Unsel) strain. Differential expression was found significant (≥ 2.5-fold or ≤ 0.4) for 1845 unigenes that constitute 10.4% of the total number of UniTags, where 277 represented overexpressed (OE) and 1568 underexpressed (UE) genes in Vip-Sel compared to Vip-Unsel. BLASTN searches mapped 1141 of these UniTags to H. virescens EST sequences, of which, 816 (143 OE and 673 UE) were unambiguously annotated to proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Gene ontology revealed Vip3A adaptation induced major constitutive transcriptional differences in serine-proteases (SP)-mediated proteolysis, ribosome biogenesis and metabolic processes. Several unigenes homologous to a particular member of the REsponse to PAThogen (REPAT) family were found to be predominantly OE. Since UniTags related to SP and ribosomal proteins (RP) were the most represented in the libraries, they were further analyzed in details. Interestingly, UniTags related to the putative Vip3A-binding protein RpS2 were underexpressed, while, the tumorigenesis suppressor RpL37 accounted for the 35% of total overexpressed RP. A subset of unigenes was chosen to confirm the HT-SuperSAGE data by qRT-PCR. The present study is the first providing a lepidopteran gut transcriptome associated with Vip3A resistance and a foundation for future attempts to elucidate the resistance mechanism. Methods: Midgut transcriptional profiles of third-instar larvae from genetically similar Vip3A-resistant (Vip-Sel) and susceptible control (Vip-Unsel) strains were generated by HT-SuperSAGE. RNA pools of Vip-Sel and Vip-Unsel samples (five RNA preparations each) were prepared and used for the construction of SuperSAGE libraries HvR_GCCT and HvS_GCAC, respectively, according to the procedure described by [Matsumura et al., 2010]. Purified PCR products were mixed and applied to Illumina Genome Analyzer II sequencing with GEX (DpnII) primer in the sequencing reactions as recommended by the manufacturer. Sorting of sequence reads based on index sequences and the subsequent extraction of sequence tags from reads was conducted using a script written in Perl. Fold-change for each tag was calculated as in [Gilardoni et al., 2010]. qRT–PCR validation was performed using TaqMan and SYBR Green assays.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a main cause of allergic diseases in Northern America. The weed has recently become spreading as a neophyte in Europe, while climate change may also affect the growth of the plant and additionally may also influence pollen allergenicity. To gain better insight in the molecular mechanisms in the development of ragweed pollen and its allergenic proteins under global change scenarios, we generated SuperSAGE libraries to identify differentially expressed transcripts. RESULTS: Ragweed plants were grown in a greenhouse under 380 ppm CO2 and under elevated level of CO2 (700 ppm). In addition, drought experiments under both CO2 concentrations were performed. The pollen viability was not altered under elevated CO2, whereas drought stress decreased its viability. Increased levels of individual flavonoid metabolites were found under elevated CO2 and/or drought. Total RNA was isolated from ragweed pollen, exposed to the four mentioned scenarios and four SuperSAGE libraries were constructed. The library dataset included 236,942 unique sequences, showing overlapping as well as clear differently expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The analysis targeted ESTs known in Ambrosia, as well as in pollen of other plants. Among the identified ESTs, those encoding allergenic ragweed proteins (Amb a) increased under elevated CO2 and drought stress. In addition, ESTs encoding allergenic proteins in other plants were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of changes in the transcriptome of ragweed pollen upon CO2 and drought stress using SuperSAGE indicates that under global change scenarios the pollen transcriptome was altered, and impacts the allergenic potential of ragweed pollen.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors (TFs) modulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we characterized a WRKY IIc TF, NtWRKY50, isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The results showed that NtWRKY50 is a nuclear-localized protein and that its gene transcript is induced in tobacco when inoculated with the pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Overexpression of NtWRKY50 enhanced bacterial resistance, which correlated with enhanced SA and JA/ET signaling genes. However, silencing of the NtWRKY50 gene had no obvious effects on plant disease resistance, implying functional redundancy of NtWRKY50 with other TFs. In addition, it was found that NtWRKY50 can be induced by various biotic or abiotic stresses, such as Potato virus Y, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, hydrogen peroxide, heat, cold, and wounding as well as the hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). Importantly, additional analysis suggests that NtWRKY50 overexpression markedly promotes SA levels but prevents pathogen-induced JA production. These data indicate that NtWRKY50 overexpression leads to altered SA and JA content, increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced plant resistance to R. solanacearum. These probably due to increased activity of endogenous NtWRKY50 gene or could be gain-of-function phenotypes by altering the profile of genes affected by NtWRKY50.