ABSTRACT: Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective. However, outcomes remain poor secondary to corneal melting, scarring, and perforation. Adjuvant therapies aimed at reducing the immune response associated with keratitis include topical corticosteroids. The large, randomized, controlled Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial found that although steroids provided no significant improvement overall, they did seem beneficial for ulcers that were central, deep or large, non-Nocardia, or classically invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa; for patients with low baseline vision; and when started early after the initiation of antibiotics. Fungal ulcers often have worse clinical outcomes than bacterial ulcers, with no new treatments since the 1960s when topical natamycin was introduced. The randomized controlled Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) I showed a benefit of topical natamycin over topical voriconazole for fungal ulcers, particularly among those caused by Fusarium. MUTT II showed that oral voriconazole did not improve outcomes overall, although there may have been some effect among Fusarium ulcers. Given an increase in nonserious adverse events, the authors concluded that they could not recommend oral voriconazole. Viral keratitis differs from bacterial and fungal cases in that it is often recurrent and is common in developed countries. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) I showed a significant benefit of topical corticosteroids and oral acyclovir for stromal keratitis. HEDS II showed that oral acyclovir decreased the recurrence of any type of herpes simplex virus keratitis by approximately half. Future strategies to reduce the morbidity associated with infectious keratitis are likely to be multidimensional, with adjuvant therapies aimed at modifying the immune response to infection holding the greatest potential to improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:We compare results from regression discontinuity (RD) analysis to primary results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing data from two contemporaneous RCTs for treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS:Patients were enrolled in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials I and II (MUTT I & MUTT II) based on baseline visual acuity: patients with acuity ? 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) enrolled in MUTT I, and >20/400 in MUTT II. MUTT I investigated the effect of topical natamycin versus voriconazole on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. MUTT II investigated the effect of topical voriconazole plus placebo versus topical voriconazole plus oral voriconazole. We compared the RD estimate (natamycin arm of MUTT I [N = 162] versus placebo arm of MUTT II [N = 54]) to the RCT estimate from MUTT I (topical natamycin [N = 162] versus topical voriconazole [N = 161]). RESULTS:In the RD, patients receiving natamycin had mean improvement of 4-lines of visual acuity at 3 months (logMAR -0.39, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.17) compared to topical voriconazole plus placebo, and 2-lines in the RCT (logMAR -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.05) compared to topical voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS:The RD and RCT estimates were similar, although the RD design overestimated effects compared to the RCT.
Project description:Importance:Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. Objective:To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months. Results:Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P?=?.01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, -2.69 to -1.09 mm; P?<?.001) and a 0.83-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 months after correcting for baseline values (95% CI, -1.33 to -0.32 mm; P?=?.001) in eyes randomized to oral voriconazole vs placebo. Eyes treated with oral voriconazole also had a mean 0.29 decreased logMAR (improved) (Snellen equivalent 20/40) visual acuity at 3 months after controlling for baseline visual acuity, although this finding was not statistically significant (95% CI, -0.57 to 0.002; P?=?.052). Conclusions and Relevance:Although MUTT II could not find a benefit for all corneal ulcers, Fusarium keratitis may benefit from the addition of oral voriconazole to topical natamycin, and physicians should consider prescribing oral voriconazole in these cases. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:To perform a Bayesian analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) using expert opinion as a prior belief.MUTT I was a randomized clinical trial comparing topical natamycin or voriconazole for treating filamentous fungal keratitis. A questionnaire elicited expert opinion on the best treatment of fungal keratitis before MUTT I results were available. A Bayesian analysis was performed using the questionnaire data as a prior belief and the MUTT I primary outcome (3-month visual acuity) by frequentist analysis as a likelihood.Corneal experts had a 41.1% prior belief that natamycin improved 3-month visual acuity compared with voriconazole. The Bayesian analysis found a 98.4% belief for natamycin treatment compared with voriconazole treatment for filamentous cases as a group (mean improvement 1.1 Snellen lines, 95% credible interval 0.1-2.1). The Bayesian analysis estimated a smaller treatment effect than the MUTT I frequentist analysis result of 1.8-line improvement with natamycin versus voriconazole (95% confidence interval 0.5-3.0, P = 0.006). For Fusarium cases, the posterior demonstrated a 99.7% belief for natamycin treatment, whereas non-Fusarium cases had a 57.3% belief.The Bayesian analysis suggests that natamycin is superior to voriconazole when filamentous cases are analyzed as a group. Subgroup analysis of Fusarium cases found improvement with natamycin compared with voriconazole, whereas there was almost no difference between treatments for non-Fusarium cases. These results were consistent with, though smaller in effect size than, the MUTT I primary outcome by frequentist analysis. The accordance between analyses further validates the trial results. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00996736.).
Project description:To compare oral voriconazole with placebo in addition to topical antifungals in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis.The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II), a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, was conducted in India and Nepal, with 2133 individuals screened for inclusion. Patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; all participants received topical antifungal eyedrops. The study was conducted from May 24, 2010, to November 23, 2015. All trial end points were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis.Study participants were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; a voriconazole loading dose of 400 mg was administered twice daily for 24 hours, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily for 20 days, with dosing altered to weight based during the trial. All participants received topical voriconazole, 1%, and natamycin, 5%.The primary outcome of the trial was rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) within 3 months. Secondary outcomes included microbiologic cure at 6 days, rate of re-epithelialization, best-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, and complication rates associated with voriconazole use.A total of 2133 patients in India and Nepal with smear-positive ulcers were screened; of the 787 who were eligible, 240 (30.5%) were enrolled. Of the 119 patients (49.6%) in the oral voriconazole treatment group, 65 were male (54.6%), and the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 42-62 years). Overall, no difference in the rate of corneal perforation or the need for TPK was determined for oral voriconazole vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.18; P?=?.29). In prespecified subgroup analyses comparing treatment effects among organism subgroups, there was some suggestion that Fusarium species might have a decreased rate of perforation or TPK in the oral voriconazole-treated arm; however, this was not a statistically significant finding after Holms-Šidák correction for multiple comparisons (effect coefficient, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.92; P?=?.03). Patients receiving oral voriconazole experienced a total of 58 adverse events (48.7%) compared with 28 adverse events (23.1%) in the placebo group (P?<?.001 after Holms-Šidák correction for multiple comparisons).There appears to be no benefit to adding oral voriconazole to topical antifungal agents in the treatment of severe filamentous fungal ulcers. All patients in this study were enrolled in India and Nepal; therefore, it is possible that organisms in this region may exhibit characteristics different from those in other regions of the world.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:Importance:Corneal opacity is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide; however, the specific features of corneal scars, which decrease visual acuity, have not been well characterized. Objective:To investigate which features of a postfungal keratitis corneal scar contribute to decreased visual acuity after an episode of infectious keratitis and evaluate whether any corneal features may be used as outcomes for clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this ancillary, prospective cross-sectional study, a subset of study participants treated for fungal keratitis (n?=?71) as part of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) underwent best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and best contact lens-corrected visual acuity examination, Scheimpflug imaging, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography at a referral hospital in India approximately 2 years after enrollment. Data were collected from December 3, 2012, to December 19, 2012, and analyses were performed from December 2, 2013, to October 2, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Linear regression models were used to evaluate the importance of various corneal features for BSCVA and to assess whether these features could be used to differentiate the 2 treatment arms of the MUTT I trial. Results:Seventy-one patients (42 men [59.1%]; median age, 48 [range, 39-60] years) were examined at a median (IQR) time of 1.8 (1.4-2.2) years after enrollment. The mean (SD) logMAR BSCVA was 0.17 (0.19) (Snellen equivalent, 20/32). In multivariable linear regression models, BSCVA was most associated with irregular astigmatism (1.0 line of worse BSCVA per 1-line difference between BSCVA and contact lens visual acuity; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4) and corneal scar density (1.5 lines of worse vision per 10-unit increase in the mean central corneal density; 95% CI, 0.8-2.3). The thinnest point of the cornea was the metric that best discriminated between the natamycin- and voriconazole-treated ulcers in MUTT I, with 29.3 ?m (95% CI, 7.1-51.6 ?m) less thinning in natamycin-treated eyes. Conclusions and Relevance:Both irregular astigmatism and corneal scar density may be important risk factors for BSCVA in a population with relatively mild, healed fungal corneal ulcers. The thinnest point of the corneal scar may be a cornea-specific outcome that could be used to evaluate treatments for corneal ulcers.
Project description:Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation.
Project description:The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) was a double-masked, multicentre, randomised controlled trial, which found that topical natamycin is superior to voriconazole for the treatment of filamentous fungal corneal ulcers. In this study, we determine risk factors for low vision-related quality of life in patients with fungal keratitis.The Indian visual function questionnaire (IND-VFQ) was administered to MUTT I study participants at 3?months. Associations between patient and ulcer characteristics and IND-VFQ subscale score were assessed using generalised estimating equations.323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the IND-VFQ at 3?months. Out of a total possible score of 100, the average VFQ score for all participants was 81.3 (range 0-100, SD 23.6). After correcting for treatment arm, each logMAR line of worse baseline visual acuity in the affected eye resulted in an average 1.2 points decrease on VFQ at 3?months (95% CI -1.8 to 0.6, p<0.001). Those who required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty had an average of 25.2 points decrease on VFQ after correcting for treatment arm (95% CI -31.8 to -18.5, p<0.001). Study participants who were unemployed had on average 28.5 points decrease on VFQ (95% CI -46.9 to -10.2, p=0.002) after correcting for treatment arm.Monocular vision loss from corneal opacity due to fungal keratitis reduced vision-related quality of life. Given the relatively high worldwide burden of corneal opacity, improving treatment outcomes of corneal infections should be a public health priority.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine if there is a benefit to adjuvant intrastromal voriconazole (ISV) injections for primary treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. DESIGN:Outcome-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS:Patients with moderate vision loss resulting from a smear-positive fungal ulcer. METHODS:Study eyes were randomized to topical natamycin plus ISV injection versus topical natamycin alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome of the trial was microbiological cure on 3-day repeat culture analysis. Secondary outcomes included microbiological cure on 7-day repeat culture analysis; 3-week and 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity; infiltrate or scar size or both; rate of perforation; therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK); and other adverse events. RESULTS:A total of 151 patients with smear-positive ulcers were screened and 70 were enrolled at Aravind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry, India. Baseline cultures grew Fusarium in 19 samples (27%), Aspergillus in 17 samples (24%), and other filamentous fungi in 19 samples (27%) and showed negative results in 13 samples (19%). Those randomized to ISV injection had 1.82 times the odds of 3-day culture positivity after controlling for baseline culture status (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-5.23; P = 0.26, bias-corrected logistic regression) and 1.98 times the odds of positive 7-day culture results, after controlling for baseline culture status (95% CI, 0.69-5.91; P = 0.20, bias-corrected logistic regression). Those randomized to ISV injection showed 0.5 logMAR lines (approximately 0.5 Snellen lines) of decreased visual acuity (95% CI, -2.6 to 3.6 lines; P = 0.75) and 0.55 mm worse infiltrate or scar size or both at 3 months after controlling for baseline values (95% CI, -0.13 to 1.25; P = 0.11). Intrastromal voriconazole injections showed a 2.85-fold increased hazard of perforation after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.76-10.75; P = 0.12) but no difference in the rate of TPK (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.44-2.04; P = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS:There seems to be no benefit to adding ISV injections to topical natamycin in the primary treatment of moderate to severe filamentous fungal ulcers. Studies consistently suggest that voriconazole has a limited role in the treatment of filamentous fungal ulcers.
Project description:To conduct a therapeutic exploratory clinical trial comparing clinical outcomes of treatment with topical natamycin vs topical voriconazole for fungal keratitis.The multicenter, double-masked, clinical trial included 120 patients with fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in India who were randomized to receive either topical natamycin or topical voriconazole and either had repeated scraping of the epithelium or not.The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months. Other outcomes included scar size, perforations, and a subanalysis of BSCVA at 3 months in patients with an enrollment visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400.Compared with those who received natamycin, voriconazole-treated patients had an approximately 1-line improvement in BSCVA at 3 months after adjusting for scraping in a multivariate regression model but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .29). Scar size at 3 months was slightly greater with voriconazole after adjusting for scraping (P = .48). Corneal perforations in the voriconazole group (10 of 60 patients) were not significantly different than in the natamycin-treated group (9 of 60 patients) (P >.99). Scraping was associated with worse BSCVA at 3 months after adjusting for drug (P = .06). Patients with baseline BSCVA of 20/40 to 20/400 showed a trend toward a 2-line improvement in visual acuity with voriconazole (P = .07).Overall, there were no significant differences in visual acuity, scar size, and perforations between voriconazole- and natamycin-treated patients. There was a trend toward scraping being associated with worse outcomes. Application to Clinical Practice The benefit seen with voriconazole in the subgroup of patients with baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 needs to be validated in a confirmatory clinical trial. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00557362.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare topical natamycin vs voriconazole in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. METHODS:This phase 3, double-masked, multicenter trial was designed to randomize 368 patients to voriconazole (1%) or natamycin (5%), applied topically every hour while awake until reepithelialization, then 4 times daily for at least 3 weeks. Eligibility included smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcer and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months; secondary outcomes included corneal perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. RESULTS:A total of 940 patients were screened and 323 were enrolled. Causative organisms included Fusarium (128 patients [40%]), Aspergillus (54 patients [17%]), and other filamentous fungi (141 patients [43%]). Natamycintreated cases had significantly better 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity than voriconazole-treated cases (regression coefficient=0.18 logMAR; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.05; P=.006). Natamycin-treated cases were less likely to have perforation or require therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (odds ratio=0.42; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.80; P=.009). Fusarium cases fared better with natamycin than with voriconazole (regression coefficient=0.41 logMAR; 95% CI,0.61 to 0.20; P<.001; odds ratio for perforation=0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.28; P<.001), while non-Fusarium cases fared similarly (regression coefficient=0.02 logMAR; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.13; P=.81; odds ratio for perforation=1.08; 95% CI, 0.48 to 2.43; P=.86). CONCLUSIONS:Natamycin treatment was associated with significantly better clinical and microbiological outcomes than voriconazole treatment for smear-positive filamentous fungal keratitis, with much of the difference attributable to improved results in Fusarium cases. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Voriconazole should not be used as monotherapy in filamentous keratitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736