Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) as a Potential Indicator for Prevalence, Duration, and Severity of Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of the difficult-to-treat osteomyelitis (OM). To better diagnose and manage S. aureus OM, especially for severe and long duration cases, indicators for risk prediction and severity evaluation are needed. Here, 139 clinical S. aureus isolates from orthopedic infections were divided into OM group (60 isolates from 60 OM patients) and non-OM group (79 isolates from 79 non-OM patients). Molecular types, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factor profiles were evaluated and compared between the two groups to identify potential indicators associated with the prevalence of S. aureus OM. Clinical manifestations and laboratory data were analyzed to identify indicators affecting OM duration and severity. We found that some sequence types were specific to OM infection. The pvl, bbp, and ebps genes were associated with S. aureus OM prevalence. The pvl, bbp, and sei genes were associated with relatively longer OM duration. Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus OM presented more serious inflammatory responses. Our results emphasize the significance of PVL in affecting the prevalence, duration, and severity of S. aureus OM. Diagnosing and monitoring PVL-related S. aureus OM may help direct better prognosis and treatment of these patients.
Project description:Limited comprehensive molecular typing data exist currently for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MSSA) clinical isolates. Characterization of PVL-MSSA isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing in this study showed a genetic similarity to PVL-positive, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (PVL-MRSA) strains, although three novel spa types and a novel MLST (ST1518) were detected. Furthermore, the detection of PVL phages and haplotypes in PVL-MSSA identical to those previously found in PVL-MRSA isolates highlights the role these strains may play as precursors of emerging lineages of clinical significance.
Project description:We set out to investigate the impact of common antibiotics on Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) expression by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). PVL expression by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is reportedly enhanced by ?-lactams, but inhibited by protein-synthesis inhibitors, a fact that has influenced management of infections associated with PVL. Although PVL is more frequently associated with MSSA than MRSA in the UK, the effect of antibiotics on PVL expression by MSSA has not been fully addressed.MSSA was cultured in vitro with varying concentrations of flucloxacillin, clindamycin or linezolid and PVL expression measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. A murine MSSA abscess model was developed to measure leucocidin expression in vivo following antibiotic treatment.9% (27/314) of MSSA isolates from patients with uncomplicated community skin/soft tissue infections were positive for PVL genes (lukFS-PV). PVL expression by MSSA in broth was unaffected by varying concentrations of flucloxacillin, clindamycin or linezolid. In a murine abscess model, treatment with flucloxacillin did, however, enhance in vivo MSSA lukF-PV transcription and this was sustained even when flucloxacillin was combined with clindamycin, or clindamycin plus linezolid. Notwithstanding increased leucocidin transcription, functional leucotoxin activity was not enhanced. Treatment with flucloxacillin plus clindamycin significantly decreased leucotoxin activity, but the addition of a second protein synthesis inhibitor, linezolid, did not confer benefit.Our results suggest flucloxacillin in combination with a single protein-synthesis inhibitor such as clindamycin would give the best treatment outcome.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and colonization by <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> may affect up to 100% of these patients. Virulent and resistant isolates can worsen AD patient clinical condition and jeopardize the treatment. We aimed to detect virulence genes and to evaluate the biofilm production of <i>S. aureus</i> isolates from infected skin lesions of children with AD. Methicillin resistance was detected by phenotypic and molecular tests and the virulence genes were detected by PCR. Biofilm formation was assessed by bacterial growing on microtiter plates and later stained with safranin. Genotyping was performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Among 106 AD patients, 55 (51.8%) had developed <i>S. aureus</i> cutaneous infections and 23 (41.6%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). All 55 isolates carried the <i>fnbA, hla, icaA, sasG,</i> and <i>seu</i> genes, and more than 70% presented <i>cna, eap, ebpS, hlg,</i> and <i>pvl</i> genes. Clonal complex (CC) 30 was the main lineage found (34.5%), especially among MRSA isolates (52.2%). The <i>egc</i> cluster and the <i>bbp</i> gene were significantly the most frequent in MRSA isolates and in USA1100/ST30/CC30 lineage. Most of the isolates (74.5%) were non-biofilm producers and many of them only started to produce it in the presence of fibrinogen. There was no significant association between <i>S. aureus</i> isolates features and the AD severity. This study demonstrated a high frequency of CC30 MRSA isolates presenting several virulence genes in infected skin lesions of AD children in Brazil, that may influence the severity of the disease and the treatments required.
Project description:Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene is produced by Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates as a pore-forming toxin is largely responsible for skin and soft tissue illnesses. MRSA produces PVL toxins through lukS and lukF proteins causing tissue necrosis by damaging membrane of the defense cells. Presence of PVL toxin was tested from the 54 S. aureus clinical isolates obtained from Thika and Kiambu Level 5 Hospitals, in Kiambu County, Kenya, by Geno Type® MRSA assay (Hain Life Science, Nehren, Germany). DNA was isolated from freshly harvested bacterial cultures by spin column using Geno Type DNA isolation kit. The detection of PVL toxins was performed by amplification of genomic DNA and by reverse hybridization that identifies PVL genes using Geno Type MRSA kit. Out of 138 samples that were collected from patients in Kiambu County, 54 S. aureus isolates were obtained, of which 14 (25.9%; 95% CI?=?11.9-38.9) samples had PVL toxins. The isolates that were obtained from the female patients had a higher PVL toxin prevalence of 35.7%, while the isolates collected from the male patients had a lower prevalence of 15.4% (P = 0.09). The pediatrics department had the highest PVL gene prevalence compared to outpatient department and surgical units (P = 0.08). However, the age groups of patients and the hospital attended by patients showed no significant difference in terms of PVL gene prevalence (P = 0.26). Therefore, the patients' gender and hospital units were not significantly associated with PVL gene prevalence (P = 0.08). This study shows that PVL positive isolates occur in the sampled hospitals in the county and female as well as children must be taken into consideration among patients with wound infections when isolating S. aureus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA) predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins), S. aureus protein A (spa) types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST) were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%), enterotoxin B (20.6%), exfoliative toxin D (11.7%) and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7%) were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing community-and healthcare-acquired infections. The presence of the virulence factor Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is associated with recurrent infection and clinical severity and generally regarded as a feature of community associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To date, the focus of PVL-positive MRSA in hospitalized patients has been on outbreaks. We aimed to investigate whether PVL-positive MRSA has penetrated the community-hospital barrier by determining the prevalence of PVL in MRSA of hospitalized patients. MRSA strains isolated from patients hospitalized?>?48 h in Heidelberg University Hospital between 2015 and 2018 Isolates were analysed for the presence of PVL and subjected to spa-typing. PVL-positive MRSA were then characterized by whole genome sequencing. We analysed 740 MRSA isolates in the study period and identified 6.2% (n?=?46) PVL-positivity. 32.6% of PVL-positive MRSA met the criteria for nosocomial acquisition. The most frequent clones among the PVL-positive strains were ST80-t044 (21.7%, n?=?10/46) and ST8-t008 (19.5%, n?=?9/46). WGS identified three possible transmission clusters involving seven patients. In conclusion, we found successful epidemic PVL-positive MRSA clones entering the hospital and causing nosocomial infections. Preventive measures and constant surveillance should be maintained to prevent transmissions and clonal outbreaks.
Project description:Prevalence, drug resistance and genetic characteristics were analysed for a total of 128 clinical isolates of staphylococci obtained from a tertiary hospital in Myanmar. The dominant species were S. aureus (39%) and S. haemolyticus (35%), followed by S. epidermidis (6%) and S. saprophyticus (5%). The majority of S. haemolyticus isolates (71.1%) harboured mecA, showing high resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin and levofloxacin, while methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was only 8% (four isolates) among S. aureus with type IV SCCmec. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 20 isolates of S. aureus (40%), among which only one isolate was MRSA belonging to sequence type (ST) 88/agr-III/coa-IIIa, and the other 19 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were classified into six STs (ST88, ST121, ST1153, ST1155, ST1930, ST3206). An ST1153 MSSA isolate with PVL was revealed to belong to a novel coa type, XIIIa. ST121 S. aureus was the most common in the PVL-positive MSSA (47%, 9/19), harbouring genes of bone sialoprotein and variant of elastin binding protein as a distinctive feature. Although PVL-positive MSSA was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents examined, ST1930 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and levofloxacin. ST59 PVL-negative MRSA and MSSA had more resistance genes than other MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA, showing resistance to more antimicrobial agents. This study indicated higher prevalence of mecA associated with multiple drug resistance in S. haemolyticus than in S. aureus, and dissemination of PVL genes to multiple clones of MSSA, with ST121 being dominant, among hospital isolates in Myanmar.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus strains that are Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive cause severe skin and soft tissue infections as well as necrotizing pneumonia. The presence of PVL gene is a marker for methicillin-resistant S. aureus; therefore, survey on prevalence and phylogenetic distribution of PVL is of great importance for public health. The aim of this research was molecular epidemiology survey of S. aureus PVL positive, isolated from two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj.A total of 264 staphylococci isolates were collected from clinical specimens, hospital personnel and hospital environment of two tertiary hospitals of Sanandaj, in 2012 (Toohid and Besat). Bacterial cultures and biochemical tests were performed for S. aureus detection. Then, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were used for the determination of prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus PVL, respectively. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05).From 264 staphylococci isolates, 88 (33.33%) were detected as S. aureus. Furthermore, 20 out of 88 (22.72%) strains of S. aureus were PVL positive according to PCR results. Rep-PCR showed six main clusters of S. aureus samples. PVL had similar clonality between different samples. No significant relationship was observed between PVL positive S. aureus and rep-PCR patterns (P = 0.98).These results showed that a clone of S. aureus PVL positive has spread between the community and hospital settings. Therefore, appropriate measures are required to prevent the spread of staphylococci and other bacteria in hospitals.
Project description:Aim:The study aimed to investigate the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk due to its public health significance. Materials and Methods:A total of 400 milk samples of bovines taken from different dairy farms and outlets of Jabalpur were screened for the S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The strains were tested for the PVL gene and antimicrobial sensitivity toward 10 different classes of antimicrobial agents. The PVL-positive S. aureus strains were further characterized by staphylococcal protein A or spa typing. Result:The prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus was 10.53%. All the isolates positive for the PVL were resistant to methicillin, while the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates were negative for the PVL. Five different spa types were found. Conclusion:The presence of PVL-positive MRSA in bovine milk close to consumer poses a potential public health risk to the community.
Project description:Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.