Direct evidence of hidden local spin polarization in a centrosymmetric superconductor LaO0.55 F0.45BiS2.
ABSTRACT: Conventional Rashba spin polarization is caused by the combination of strong spin-orbit interaction and spatial inversion asymmetry. However, Rashba-Dresselhaus-type spin-split states are predicted in the centrosymmetric LaOBiS2 system by recent theory, which stem from the local inversion asymmetry of active BiS2 layer. By performing high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have investigated the electronic band structure and spin texture of superconductor LaO0.55F0.45BiS2. Here we present direct spectroscopic evidence for the local spin polarization of both the valence band and the conduction band. In particular, the coexistence of Rashba-like and Dresselhaus-like spin textures has been observed in the conduction band. The finding is of key importance for fabrication of proposed dual-gated spin-field effect transistor. Moreover, the spin-split band leads to a spin-momentum locking Fermi surface from which superconductivity emerges. Our demonstration not only expands the scope of spintronic materials but also enhances the understanding of spin-orbit interaction-related superconductivity.
Project description:Translation of chirality and asymmetry across structural motifs and length scales plays a fundamental role in nature, enabling unique functionalities in contexts ranging from biological systems to synthetic materials. Here, we introduce a structural chirality transfer across the organic-inorganic interface in two-dimensional hybrid perovskites using appropriate chiral organic cations. The preferred molecular configuration of the chiral spacer cations, R-(+)- or S-(-)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylammonium and their asymmetric hydrogen-bonding interactions with lead bromide-based layers cause symmetry-breaking helical distortions in the inorganic layers, otherwise absent when employing a racemic mixture of organic spacers. First-principles modeling predicts a substantial bulk Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-splitting in the inorganic-derived conduction band with opposite spin textures between R- and S-hybrids due to the broken inversion symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling. The ability to break symmetry using chirality transfer from one structural unit to another provides a synthetic design paradigm for emergent properties, including Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-polarization for hybrid perovskite spintronics and related applications.
Project description:We demonstrate theoretically all-electric control of the superconducting transition temperature using a device comprised of a conventional superconductor, a ferromagnetic insulator, and semiconducting layers with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. By using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we show that the transition temperature of such a device can be controlled by electric gating which alters the ratio of Rashba to Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The results offer a new pathway to control superconductivity in spintronic devices.
Project description:: Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation have been experimentally investigated in InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs step quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature. The Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE spectra are quite similar with each other during the spectral region corresponding to the transition of the excitonic state 1H1E (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction subband of electrons). The ratio of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE current for the transition 1H1E is estimated to be 8.8±0.1, much larger than that obtained in symmetric QWs (4.95). Compared to symmetric QWs, the reduced well width enhances the Dresselhaus-type spin splitting, but the Rashba-type spin splitting increases more rapidly in the step QWs. Since the degree of the segregation effect of indium atoms and the intensity of build-in field in the step QWs are comparable to those in symmetric QWs, as proved by reflectance difference and photoreflectance spectra, respectively, the larger Rashba-type spin splitting is mainly induced by the additional interface introduced by step structures.
Project description:Spin-orbit coupling plays an important role in various properties of very different materials. Moreover efforts are underway to control the degree and quality of spin-orbit coupling in materials with a concomitant control of transport properties. We calculate the frequency dependent optical conductivity in systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that when the linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is tuned to be equal to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the interband optical conductivity disappears. This is taken to be the signature of the recovery of SU(2) symmetry. The presence of the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling modifies the dispersion relation of the charge carriers and the velocity operator. Thus the conductivity is modified, but the interband contribution remains suppressed at most but not all photon energies for a cubic coupling of reasonable magnitude. Hence, such a measurement can serve as a diagnostic probe of engineered spin-orbit coupling.
Project description:Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has gained much attention for its rich physical phenomena and highly promising applications in spintronic devices. The Rashba-type SOC in systems with inversion symmetry breaking is particularly attractive for spintronics applications since it allows for flexible manipulation of spin current by external electric fields. Here, we report the discovery of a giant anisotropic Rashba-like spin splitting along three momentum directions (3D Rashba-like spin splitting) with a helical spin polarization around the M points in the Brillouin zone of trigonal layered PtBi2. Due to its inversion asymmetry and reduced symmetry at the M point, Rashba-type as well as Dresselhaus-type SOC cooperatively yield a 3D spin splitting with ?R???4.36?eV?Å in PtBi2. The experimental realization of 3D Rashba-like spin splitting not only has fundamental interests but also paves the way to the future exploration of a new class of material with unprecedented functionalities for spintronics applications.
Project description:The Dresselhaus and Rashba effects are well-known phenomena in solid-state physics, in which spin-orbit coupling splits spin-up and spin-down energy bands of nonmagnetic non-centrosymmetric crystals. Here, we discuss a phenomenon we dub band splitting with vanishing spin polarizations (BSVSP), in which, as usual, spin-orbit coupling splits the energy bands in nonmagnetic non-centrosymmetric systems. Surprisingly, however, both split bands show no net spin polarization along certain high-symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone. In order to rationalize this phenomenon, we propose a classification of point groups into pseudo-polar and non-pseudo-polar groups. By means of first-principles simulations, we demonstrate that BSVSP can take place in both symmorphic (e.g., bulk GaAs) and non-symmorphic systems (e.g., two dimensional ferroelectric SnTe). Furthermore, we identify a linear magnetoelectric coupling in reciprocal space, which could be employed to tune the spin polarization with an external electric field. The BSVSP effect and its manipulation could therefore form the basis for future spintronic devices.
Project description:Surfaces of semiconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling are of great interest for use in spintronic devices exploiting the Rashba effect. BiTeI features large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. Either can be shifted towards the Fermi level by surface band bending induced by the two possible polar terminations, making Rashba spin-split electron or hole bands electronically accessible. Here we demonstrate the first real-space microscopic identification of each termination with a multi-technique experimental approach. Using spatially resolved tunnelling spectroscopy across the lateral boundary between the two terminations, a previously speculated on p-n junction-like discontinuity in electronic structure at the lateral boundary is confirmed experimentally. These findings realize an important step towards the exploitation of the unique behaviour of the Rashba semiconductor BiTeI for new device concepts in spintronics.
Project description:We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.
Project description:Efficient manipulation of magnetic order with electric current pulses is desirable for achieving fast spintronic devices. The Rashba-Edelstein effect, wherein spin polarization is electrically induced in noncentrosymmetric systems, provides a mean to achieve staggered spin-orbit torques. Initially predicted for spin, its orbital counterpart has been disregarded up to now. Here we report a generalized Rashba-Edelstein effect, which generates not only spin polarization but also orbital polarization, which we find to be far from being negligible. We show that the orbital Rashba-Edelstein effect does not require spin-orbit coupling to exist. We present first-principles calculations of the frequency-dependent spin and orbital Rashba-Edelstein tensors for the noncentrosymmetric antiferromagnets CuMnAs and Mn[Formula: see text]Au. We show that the electrically induced local magnetization can exhibit Rashba-like or Dresselhaus-like symmetries, depending on the magnetic configuration. We compute sizable induced magnetizations at optical frequencies, which suggest that electric-field driven switching could be achieved at much higher frequencies.
Project description:Carrier-induced nature of ferromagnetism in a ferromagnetic semiconductor, (Ga,Mn)As, offers a great opportunity to observe novel spin-related phenomena as well as to demonstrate new functionalities of spintronic devices. Here, we report on low-temperature angle-resolved photoemission studies of the valence band in this model compound. By a direct determination of the distance of the split-off band to the Fermi energy EF we conclude that EF is located within the heavy/light hole band. However, the bands are strongly perturbed by disorder and disorder-induced carrier correlations that lead to the Coulomb gap at EF, which we resolve experimentally in a series of samples, and show that its depth and width enlarge when the Curie temperature decreases. Furthermore, we have detected surprising linear magnetic dichroism in photoemission spectra of the split-off band. By a quantitative theoretical analysis we demonstrate that it arises from the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit term in zinc-blende crystals. The spectroscopic access to the magnitude of such asymmetric part of spin-orbit coupling is worthwhile, as they account for spin-orbit torque in spintronic devices of ferromagnets without inversion symmetry.