Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.
ABSTRACT: Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a ?-fibrillizing peptide (?FP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a ?FP that forms ?-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems.
Project description:We present herein characteristics of a conjugate in which dL5, a fluorogen activating protein (FAP), and AEAEAKAK, an amphiphilic peptide, are combined to form a solid-phase fluorescence detection platform. The FAP dL5 is a covalently linked dimer of two identical light chain variable fragments which activates the fluorescence of the fluorogen malachite green (MG). The amphiphilic peptide of sequence AEAEAKAK is a building block of stimuli-responsive materials that undergoes sol-gel phase transition at high ionic strengths. We hypothesize that the novel bifunctional protein containing both the FAP and the amphiphile, termed dL5_EAK coassembles with the self-assembling peptide [AEAEAKAK]2 (EAK16-II) to form an insoluble membrane composite whereby the fluorescence enhancement function of the FAP domain remains intact. Denaturing polyacrylamide electrophoresis indicated that greater than 78% of dL5_EAK incorporates into the EAK16-II membrane. Conversely, less than 32% of dL5 without the EAK sequence associates with the insoluble fraction of EAK16-II in buffers. Membranes containing dL5_EAK and EAK16-II exhibited at least 4-fold higher fluorescence intensity compared to mixtures containing dL5 and EAK16-II. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of particulates, presumably FAPs, scattered on the membrane fibrils. The evidence suggests a system of materials that can be developed into in situ forming local sensors by immobilizing dL5 into coacervate, on which MG can be detected. It is envisioned that dL5 membranes can be established in diseased locales to monitor infiltration and migration of inflammatory cells marked with antibodies conjugated to MG.
Project description:We demonstrate the effectiveness of a genetically encoded Malachite Green (MG) binding fluorogen activating protein (FAP) for live cell stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy (STED). Both extracellular and intracellular FAPs were tested in living cells using fluorogens with either membrane expressed FAP or as an intracellular FAP-actin fusion. Structures with FWHM of 110-122nm were observed. Depletion data however suggests a resolution of 70nm with the given instrument.
Project description:Color bind: We have developed a probe TMR-para-MG that switches its fluorescence emission upon binding to a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP). In cells that express FAP, this dye labels target sites in one color and mitochondria in another color, thus it might be a suitable tool for monitoring changes in mitochondrial membrane potential.
Project description:Fluorogen-activating-proteins (FAPs) are a novel platform of fluorescence biosensors utilized for protein discovery. The technology currently demands molecular manipulation methods that limit its application and adaptability. Here, we highlight an alternative approach based on universal affinity reagents for protein detection. The affinity reagents were engineered as bi-partite fusion proteins, where the specificity moiety is derived from IgG-binding proteins-Protein A or Protein G-and the signaling element is a FAP. In this manner, primary antibodies provide the antigenic selectivity against a desired protein in biological samples, while FAP affinity reagents target the constant region (Fc) of antibodies and provide the biosensor component of detection. Fluorescence results using various techniques indicate minimal background and high target specificity for exogenous and endogenous proteins in mammalian cells. Additionally, FAP-based affinity reagents provide enhanced properties of detection previously absent using conventional affinity systems. Distinct features explored in this report include: (1) unfixed signal wavelengths (excitation and emission) determined by the particular fluorogen chosen, (2) real-time user controlled fluorescence on-set and off-set, (3) signal wavelength substitution while performing live analysis, and (4) enhanced resistance to photobleaching.
Project description:Crosslinking of IgE bound Fc?RI on mast cells and basophils by multivalent antigen leads to degranulation and the release of key inflammatory mediators that stimulate the allergic response. Here, we present and characterize the use of fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) for single particle tracking of Fc?RI to investigate how receptor mobility is influenced after IgE-induced changes in mast cell behavior. FAPs are genetically encoded tags that bind a fluorogen dye and increase its brightness upon binding up to 20,000-fold. We demonstrate that, by titrating fluorogen concentration, labeling densities from ensemble to single particle can be achieved, independent of expression level and without the need for wash steps or photobleaching. The Fc?RI ?-subunit fused to a FAP (FAP-?) provides, for the first time, an IgE-independent probe for tracking this signaling subunit of Fc?RI at the single molecule level. We show that the Fc?RI ?-subunit dynamics are controlled by the IgE-binding ?-subunit and that the cytokinergic IgE, SPE-7, induces mast cell activation without altering Fc?RI mobility or promoting internalization. We take advantage of the far-red emission of the malachite green (MG) fluorogen to track Fc?RI relative to dynamin-GFP and find that immobilized receptors readily correlate with locations of dynamin recruitment only under conditions that promote rapid endocytosis. These studies demonstrate the usefulness of the FAP system for single molecule studies and have provided new insights into the relationship among Fc?RI structure, activity, and mobility.
Project description:Agonist-promoted G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) endocytosis and recycling plays an important role in many signaling events in the cell. However, the approaches that allow fast and quantitative analysis of such processes still remain limited. Here we report an improved labeling approach based on the genetic fusion of a fluorogen activating protein (FAP) to a GPCR and binding of a sulfonated analog of the malachite green (MG) fluorogen to rapidly and selectively label cell surface receptors. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrate that this dye does not cross the plasma membrane, binds with high affinity to a dL5** FAP-GPCR fusion construct, activating tagged surface receptors within seconds of addition. The ability to rapidly and selectively label cell surface receptors with a fluorogenic genetically encoded tag allows quantitative imaging and analysis of highly dynamic processes like receptor endocytosis and recycling.
Project description:We demonstrate selective labeling of cell surface proteins using fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) conjugated to standard immunoglobulins (IgGs). Conjugation was achieved with a polypeptide reagent comprised of an N-terminal photoactivatable Fc-binding domain and a C-terminal FAP domain. The resulting FAP-antibody conjugates were effective agents for protein detection and cell ablation in cultured mammalian cells and for visualizing cell-cell contacts using a tethered fluorogen assay. Because our approach allows FAP-antibody conjugates to be generated for most currently available IgGs, it should have broad utility for experimental and therapeutic applications.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies are one of the most useful and ubiquitous affinity reagents used in the biological sciences. Immunostaining of fixed and live cells for microscopy or cytometry measurements frequently employs fluorescently labeled antibodies, in particular fluorescein-labeled antibodies. This dye emits light at a wavelength overlapping with cellular autofluorescence, making it difficult to measure antibody binding to proteins of relatively low copy number or in cells of high green autofluorescence. A number of high affinity fluorescein binding antibodies and antibody domains have been developed that quench the dye's fluorescence. Using a fluorescein-binding recombinant antibody domain genetically fused to a fluorogen activating protein (FAP), we demonstrate a molecular converter capable of binding and quenching fluorescein, while binding and activating a fluorogenic triarylmethane dye. This reagent converts fluorescein conjugates to far-red fluorescent probes, where cellular autofluorescence is low, improving signal-to-background of cell-based antibody binding measurements by ∼7-fold. Microscopy experiments show colocalization of both fluorescein and MG fluorescence. This dual affinity fluorescein-quenching-FAP can also be used to convert fluorescein to the red fluorescing MG fluorogen on biological molecules other than antibodies.
Project description:Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here, we describe an optical tool to study synaptic ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA<sub>A</sub>R) dynamics through adaptable fluorescent-tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a GABA<sub>A</sub>R ?2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (?2<sup>pH</sup>FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates Malachite Green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. ?2<sup>pH</sup>FAP GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters and do not perturb neuronal development. Electrophysiological studies show ?2<sup>pH</sup>FAP GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs respond to GABA and exhibit positive modulation upon stimulation with the benzodiazepine diazepam. Imaging studies using ?2<sup>pH</sup>FAP-transfected neurons and MG dyes show time-dependent receptor accumulation into intracellular vesicles, revealing constitutive endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. Simultaneous analysis of synaptic, surface and lysosomal receptors using the ?2<sup>pH</sup>FAP-MG dye approach reveals enhanced GABA<sub>A</sub>R turnover following a bicucculine-induced seizure paradigm, a finding not detected by standard surface receptor measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the FAP-MG dye system in neurons, demonstrating the versatility to study nearly all phases of GABA<sub>A</sub>R trafficking.
Project description:Previously we used gene-editing to label endogenous EGF receptor (EGFR) with GFP and demonstrate that picomolar concentrations of EGFR ligand drive signaling and endocytosis of EGFR in tumors in vivo (Pinilla-Macua et al., 2017). We now use gene-editing to insert a fluorogen activating protein (FAP) in the EGFR extracellular domain. Binding of the tandem dye pair MG-Bis-SA to FAP-EGFR provides a ratiometric pH-sensitive model with dual fluorescence excitation and a single far-red emission. The excitation ratio of fluorescence intensities was demonstrated to faithfully report the fraction of FAP-EGFR located in acidic endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Coupling native FAP-EGFR expression with the high method sensitivity has allowed development of a high-throughput assay to measure the rates of clathrin-mediated FAP-EGFR endocytosis stimulated with physiological EGF concentrations. The assay was utilized to screen a phosphatase siRNA library. These studies highlight the utility of endogenous pH-sensitive FAP-receptor chimeras in high-throughput analysis of endocytosis.