Efficacy and Safety of Direct-acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C Virus-infected Patients Taking Proton Pump Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is the cornerstone of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Eradication of HCV, predicted by the attainment of a sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks following DAA therapy, is the goal of this treatment. Interestingly, recent studies have reported the possible association between HCV-infected patients with DAA therapy concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and lower odds of achieving SVR. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize all available data and to estimate this potential association. Methods: Comprehensive literature review was conducted by first searching the Medline and Embase databases through March 2017 to identify all studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of DAAs in patients with HCV infection taking PPIs versus those without PPIs. Adjusted point estimates from each study were combined by the generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: Nine cohort studies with 32,684 participants met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The use of PPIs concomitant with DAAs among HCV-infected patients was associated with lower odds of achieving SVR compared with non-PPI users (pooled odds ratio (OR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.88, I2 = 24%). Subgroup analysis addressed the association between PPIs use and SVR12 demonstrated the association of PPI users showing lower odds of achieving SVR12 compared with those with no use of PPIs (pooled OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.9, I2 = 33%). Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significantly increased risk of failure to achieve SVR in HCV-infected patients taking DAA with PPIs compared to non-PPI users. Providers should consider whether PPI therapy is indicated for patients and withdraw of PPI therapy in the absence of indications, especially while on DAA therapy.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. HCV cure has been linked to improved patient outcomes. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), HCV cure has become the goal, as defined by sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after completion of therapy. Historically, African-Americans have had lower SVR12 rates compared to White people in the interferon era, which had been attributed to the high prevalence of non-CC interleukin 28B (IL28B) type. Less is known about the association between race/ethnicity and SVR12 in DAA-treated era. The aim of the study is to evaluate the predictors of SVR12 in a diverse, single-center Veterans Affairs population. We conducted a retrospective study of patients undergoing HCV therapy with DAAs from 2014 to 2016 at the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of SVR12, adjusting for age, HCV genotype, DAA regimen and duration, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, fibrosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score, homelessness, mental health, and adherence. Our cohort included 1068 patients, out of which 401 (37.5%) were White people and 400 (37.5%) were African-American. Genotype 1 was the most common genotype (83.9%, N = 896). In the adjusted models, race/ethnicity and the presence of fibrosis were statistically significant predictors of non-SVR. African-Americans had 57% lower odds for reaching SVR12 (adj.OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 1.5-4.1) compared to White people. Advanced fibrosis (adj.OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.26-0.68) was also a significant predictor of non-SVR. In a single-center VA population on DAAs, African-Americans were less likely than White people to reach SVR12 when adjusting for covariates.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may be influenced by the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs). This study aimed to assess if NS5A baseline RAS-guided treatment enhances the rate of sustained viral response (SVR) in naïve HCV-infected patients in clinical practice. All HCV-infected patients who initiated treatment with interferon (IFN)-free DAA-based regimens between March 2016 and May 2017 in 17 Spanish hospitals and who had evaluable SVR 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of therapy were included. Patients had to be DAA naïve, with the exception of sofosbuvir with/without IFN. In one hospital, participants received therapy guided by the presence of NS5A-RASs (RGT population). Patients enrolled in the remaining hospitals, without baseline RASs testing, constituted the control population. A total of 120 and 512 patients were included in the RGT and control populations, respectively. Nine (7.5%) individuals in the RGT population showed baseline NS5A-RASs. All of them achieved SVR12. The SVR12 rate in the RGT population was 97.2% (three relapses) whereas it was 98.8% (six relapses) in the control population (p?=?0.382). Our findings suggest that testing for baseline NS5A-RASs in naïve HCV-infected patients does not enhance the rate of SVR to DAA-based IFN-free therapy in clinical practice.
Project description:Acid-reducing agents (ARAs) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) that increase gastric pH can alter the bioavailability of antiviral drugs, particularly relevant in patients with advanced liver disease caused by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seeking therapy. Using integrated data from six phase 3 studies, we report the safety and efficacy of the 3-direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen containing ombitasvir (OBV, an NS5A inhibitor), ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir (PTV/r, an NS3/4A protease inhibitor), and dasabuvir (DSV, an NS5B polymerase inhibitor) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for HCV genotype 1 patients taking concomitant ARAs and PPIs.Treatment-naïve or peginterferon/RBV treatment-experienced patients with or without compensated cirrhosis received OBV/PTV/r and DSV with or without weight-based RBV. Rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification, 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety were evaluated in patients who were receiving concomitant ARAs.Among 2,053 patients enrolled and dosed with study drug, 410 (20%) were receiving concomitant ARAs; of these, 308 (15%) were taking concomitant PPIs. Rates of SVR12 were 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93.5-97.4%) among patients receiving an ARA, and 96.3% (95% CI 95.3-97.2%) in patients not receiving a concomitant ARA. Similarly, among patients receiving a PPI or not, SVR12 was achieved in 95.1% (95% CI 92.1-97.0%) and 96.4% (95% CI 95.5-97.2%), respectively. Response rates were high regardless of treatment regimen (with or without RBV), and among patients receiving a standard or high dose of PPIs. Regarding safety, adverse events and serious adverse events were more frequently reported in patients taking concomitant ARAs, though baseline population differences may have played a role.In phase 3 trials of OBV/PTV/r plus DSV and RBV in HCV genotype 1-infected patients, SVR12 rates were high regardless of ARA/PPI use or PPI dose. These data support the co-administration of this regimen with ARAs including PPIs.
Project description:Exhaustion of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-specific T cells and abnormal B cell function is a hallmark of chronic HCV infection. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are effective in achieving sustained virologic response (SVR), however, whether successful DAA treatment reconstitute T follicular helper (TFH)-B cell axis in HCV patients is unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the immunological changes in global and HCV-specific CD4?+?CXCR5?+?TFH, CD4?+?CXCR5-T and B cells in 20 HCV patients who achieved SVR with Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir for 12 weeks and compared with 15 healthy controls (HC). Global and HCV-specific CD4?+?CXCR5?+?TFH, CD4?+?CXCR5-T and CD19?+?B cells had significant phenotypic and functional reconstitution post DAA therapy. Reconstitution of effector, central and terminally differentiated memory cell population and increased ICOS and BCL6 expression was seen in HCV patients at SVR12. HCV-specific cytokines were also improved post DAA. Exhausted and regulatory B cells were declined whereas memory B cells were expanded post DAA therapy. Importantly, frequencies of TFH cells were significantly associated with HCV RNA reduction, expansion of memory B and plasmablasts, while negatively associated with exhausted/regulatory B cells. Our results demonstrate that SVR with DAA therapy is effective in the reconstitution of phenotypic and functional abnormalities of TFH-B cell axis.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Kanto Rosai Hospital.All patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who underwent DAA prescription were enrolled in this study. The present study was a single center retrospective analysis using patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 2. Resistance analysis was performed by using direct sequencing and cycleave PCR in genotype 1 patients treated with interferon (IFN)-free DAA. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 wk after therapy (SVR12).A total of 117 patients participated in the study, including 135 with genotype 1 and 42 with genotype 2. Of the 135 patients with genotype 1, 16 received protease inhibitor + IFN + ribavirin and all achieved SVR. Of the 119 patients who received IFN-free DAA (in different combinations), 102 achieved SVR and 9 failed (7/9 were on daclatasvir/asunaprevir and 2/9 on ledipasvir/sofosbuvir). Efficacy analysis was done only for 43 patients who received daclatasvir/asunaprevir. From this analysis, Y93 resistance-associated substitutions were significantly correlated with SVR.The SVR rate was 98% for genotype 1 and 100% for genotype 2. However, caution is needed for HCV NS5A resistance-associated substitutions that are selected by HCV NS5A inhibitors because cerebrovascular adverse events are induced by some DAA drugs.
Project description:Occult infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is defined as the presence of the HCV genome in either liver tissue or peripheral blood monocytes, despite constant negative results from tests for HCV RNA in serum. We investigated whether patients who maintained a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents for recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation had occult HCV infections. We performed a prospective study of 134 patients with recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation who were treated with DAAs, with or without ribavirin, from 2014 through 2016 (129 patients achieved an SVR12). In >10% of the patients who achieved SVR12 (n = 14), serum levels of aminotransferases did not normalize during or after DAA therapy, or they normalized transiently but then increased sharply after DAA therapy. Of these 14 patients, 9 were assessed for occult HCV infection by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This analysis revealed that 55% of these patients (n = 5) had an occult infection, with the detection of negative strand viral genome, indicating viral replication. These findings indicate the presence of occult HCV infection in some patients with abnormal levels of serum aminotransferases, despite SVR12 to DAAs for HCV infection after liver transplantation.
Project description:Six distinct genetic variants (genotypes 1?-?6) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist globally. Certain genotypes are more prevalent in particular countries or regions than in others but, globally, genotype 3 (GT3) is the second most common. Patients infected with HCV GT1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 recover to a greater extent, as measured by sustained virological response (SVR), following treatment with regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) than after treatment with older regimens based on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN). GT3, however, is regarded as being more difficult to treat as it is a relatively aggressive genotype, associated with greater liver damage and cancer risk; some subgroups of patients with GT3 infection are less responsive to current licensed DAA treatments. Newer DAAs have become available or are in development.According to PRISMA guidance, we conducted a systematic review (and descriptive statistical analysis) of data in the public domain from relevant clinical trial or observational (real-world) study publications within a 5-year period (February 2011 to May 2016) identified by PubMed, Medline In-Process, and Embase searches. This was supplemented with a search of five non-indexed literature sources, comprising annual conferences of the AASLD, APASL, CROI, EASL, and WHO, restricted to a 1-year period (April 2015 to May 2016).Of the all-oral regimens, the efficacy (SVR12???90%) of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir- and velpatasvir-based regimens in clinical trials supports and reinforces their recommendation by guidelines. Other promising regimens comprise grazoprevir + elbasvir + sofosbuvir, and ombitasvir + paritaprevir/ribavirin + sofosbuvir. Newer regimens incorporating pibrentasvir + glecaprevir or grazoprevir + ruzasvir + MK-3682 (uprifosbuvir), offer all-oral, ribavirin-free SVR12 rates consistently greater than 95%. Observational studies report slightly lower overall SVR rates but reflect corresponding clinical trial data in terms of treatments most likely to achieve good responses.On the basis of SVR12, we established that for treating GT3 infections (i) regimens incorporating newer DAAs are more effective than those comprising older DAAs, and (ii) ribavirin may be of less benefit in newer DAA regimens than in older DAA regimens. The analysis provides evidence that DAA regimens can replace Peg-IFN-based regimens for GT3 infection.
Project description:Background:Recent approval and adoption of pangenotypic direct acting antivirals (DAAs) necessitated a revision of the 2015 World Health Organization guidelines for the management of persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods:We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and relevant conference proceedings to identify randomized and non-randomized trials, as well as prospective observational studies of DAAs. The proportions of persons with events were pooled for sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12), discontinuations due to adverse events (DAEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and all-cause mortality. Analyses were stratified by HCV genotype and antiviral treatment experience, with subgroup analyses based on presence of cirrhosis and HIV-HCV coinfection. Findings:The evidence base consisted of 238 publications describing 142 studies. In the overall analysis, which included all persons irrespective of treatment experience or comorbidities, the pooled proportion achieving SVR12 exceeded 0.94 for all pangenotypic regimens across genotypes 1, 2, and 4. Some heterogeneity may have led to lower SVR rates in persons with genotype 3 infection. High SVR12 (>0.90) was observed in persons with genotype 1 infection with cirrhosis, though evidence varied and was limited for genotypes 2-4. Evidence was sparse for persons with HIV-HCV coinfection. All regimens were associated with small proportions of persons with DAEs, SAEs, or all-cause mortality. Interpretation:Based on this and other supporting evidence, the WHO issued updated guidelines with a conditional recommendation, based on moderate quality evidence, for the use of pangenotypic DAA regimens for persons with chronic HCV infection aged 18 years and older (July 2018). Funding:This study was funded by the World Health Organization.
Project description:The approval of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led to the expansion of therapy to include patients with cirrhosis who have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data on the use of DAAs in HCV+ patients with HCC is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of all-oral-DAA regimens in HCV+ cirrhotic patients who have or had HCC compared to those without HCC.A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all cirrhotic patients who were treated for HCV with DAAs at our institution between January 2014 and November 2015.A total of 421 HCV+ patients with cirrhosis were identified, of whom 33% had active or a history of HCC. Failure to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) occurred in 21% of patients with HCC compared to 12% of patients without HCC (p=0.009). Of the 29 patients with HCC who did not achieve SVR, 27 (93%) occurred when an active tumor was present. DAA therapy in the presence of an inactive tumor or after removal of tumor (resection/transplant) resulted in excellent SVR rates, similar to those without HCC (p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, the primary predictor of DAA treatment failure was the presence of active HCC at the time of HCV treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio=8.5, 95% confidence interval=3.90-18.49).The presence of active HCC tumor at the initiation of HCV therapy is significantly associated with all-oral DAA treatment failure. HCV treatment after curative therapies for HCC resulted in excellent SVR.The new medications for hepatitis C have excellent cure rates. However, our study shows that in patients with both liver cancer and hepatitis C, they do not achieve these cure rates. Patients with liver cancer are almost 8 times more likely to fail hepatitis C treatment than patients without liver cancer.
Project description:Background:Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) results in sustained virologic response (SVR) in > 90% of patients. However, some patients required retreatment with newer DAA options. Treatment was selected after consultation with a clinical pharmacy specialist. Methods:A retrospective chart review of patients at the West Palm Beach Veterans Affairs Medical Center (WPBVAMC) in Florida retreated from January 2015 to December 2019 was conducted. Data collected included HCV genotype, previous therapy, newly prescribed medications, and treatment outcomes. Results:Since 2015, > 900 patients have been treated at WPBVAMC, including 22 patients who had previously failed interferon combined with DAA regimens and 46 patients who needed retreatment after failure with an all-oral therapy. This review documents the outcomes of retreatment with DAA after initial failure to achieve SVR Of 28 patients treated with a boceprevir-based regimen, 10 ended in failure. All 10 were retreated, and all achieved SVR with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Of 53 patients treated with a sofosbuvir-based interferon regimen, 12 failed treatment. All 12 were retreated and all achieved SVR. Thirty patients were retreated after failure with an all-oral DAA. Of 27 tested, 21 achieved SVR. All patients who failed therapy again had cirrhosis. Conclusions:Veterans retreated with DAAs for HCV infection had a high success rate. Repeat failures of DAAs were rare, but cirrhosis seems to be common among these patients.