Data quality and 30-day survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the UK out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry: a data linkage study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes (OHCAO) project aims to understand the epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) across the UK. This data linkage study is a subproject of OHCAO. The aim was to establish the feasibility of linking OHCAO data to National Health Service (NHS) patient demographic data and Office for National Statistics (ONS) date of death data held on the NHS Personal Demographics Service (PDS) database to improve OHCAO demographic data quality and enable analysis of 30-day survival from OHCA. DESIGN AND SETTING:Data were collected from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 as part of a prospective, observational study of OHCA attended by 10 English NHS Ambulance Services. 28 729 OHCA cases had resuscitation attempted by Emergency Medical Services and were included in the study. Data linkage was carried out using a data linkage service provided by NHS Digital, a national provider of health-related data. To assess data linkage feasibility a random sample of 3120 cases was selected. The sample was securely transferred to NHS Digital to be matched using OHCAO patient demographic data to return previously missing demographic data and provide ONS date of death data. RESULTS:A total of 2513 (80.5%) OHCAO cases were matched to patients in the NHS PDS database. Using the linkage process, missing demographic data were retrieved for 1636 (72.7%) out of 2249 OHCAO cases that had previously incomplete demographic data. Returned ONS date of death data allowed analysis of 30-day survival status. The results showed a 30-day survival rate of 9.3%, reducing unknown survival status from 46.1% to 8.5%. CONCLUSIONS:In this sample, data linkage between the OHCAO registry and NHS PDS database was shown to be feasible, improving demographic data quality and allowing analysis of 30-day survival status.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data for 2005-2014 were linked to birth registration and birth notification data (previously known as NHS Numbers for Babies or NN4B) to bring together some key demographic and clinical data items not otherwise available at a national level. The linkage algorithm that was previously used to link 2005-2007 data was revised to improve the linkage rate and reduce the number of duplicate HES records. METHODS:Birth registration and notification linked records from the Office for National Statistics ('ONS birth records') were further linked to Maternity HES delivery and birth records using the NHS Number and other direct identifiers if the NHS Number was missing. RESULTS:For the period 2005-2014, over 94% of birth registration and notification records were correctly linked to HES delivery records. Two per cent of the ONS birth records were incorrectly linked to the HES delivery record and 5% of ONS birth records were linked to more than one HES delivery record. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was spent in quality assuring these files. CONCLUSION:The linkage rate for birth registration and notification records to HES delivery records steadily improved from 2005 to 2014 due to improvement in the quality and completeness of patient identifiers in both HES and birth notification data.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is an accepted treatment option for severe obesity. Previous analysis of the independently collected Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data for outcomes after bariatric surgery demonstrated a 30-day postoperative mortality rate of 0·3 per cent in the English National Health Service (NHS). However, there have been no published mortality data for bariatric procedures performed since 2008. This study aimed to assess mortality related to bariatric surgery in England from 2009.HES data were used to identify all patients who had primary bariatric surgery from 2009 to 2016. Clinical codes were used selectively to identify all primary bariatric procedures but exclude revision or conversion procedures and operations for malignant or other benign disease. The primary outcome measures were HES in-hospital and Office for National Statistics (ONS) 30-day mortality after discharge.A total of 41 241 primary bariatric procedures were carried out in the NHS between 2009 and 2016, with 29 in-hospital deaths (0·07 per cent). The 30-day mortality rate after discharge was 0·08 per cent (32 of 41 241). Both the in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates after discharge demonstrated a downward trend over the study period.Overall in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates remain very low after primary bariatric surgery. An increased uptake of bariatric surgery within the English NHS has been safe.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This research aimed to answer the following questions: What are the costs of prehospital advanced life support (ALS) and prehospital critical care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)? What is the cost-effectiveness of prehospital ALS? What improvement in survival rates from OHCA would prehospital critical care need to achieve in order to be cost-effective? SETTING:A single National Health Service ambulance service and a charity-funded prehospital critical care service in England. PARTICIPANTS:The patient population is adult, non-traumatic OHCA. METHODS:We combined data from previously published research with data provided by a regional ambulance service and air ambulance charity to create a decision tree model, coupled with a Markov model, of costs and outcomes following OHCA. We compared no treatment for OHCA to the current standard of care of prehospital ALS, and prehospital ALS to prehospital critical care. To reflect the uncertainty in the underlying data, we used probabilistic and two-way sensitivity analyses. RESULTS:Costs of prehospital ALS and prehospital critical care were £347 and £1711 per patient, respectively. When costs and outcomes of prehospital, in-hospital and postdischarge phase of OHCA care were combined, prehospital ALS was estimated to be cost-effective at £11 407/quality-adjusted life year. In order to be cost-effective in addition to ALS, prehospital critical care for OHCA would need to achieve a minimally economically important difference (MEID) in survival to hospital discharge of 3%-5%. CONCLUSION:This is the first economic analysis to address the question of cost-effectiveness of prehospital critical care following OHCA. While costs of either prehospital ALS and/or critical care per patient with OHCA are relatively low, significant costs are incurred during hospital treatment and after discharge in patients who survive. Knowledge of the MEID for prehospital critical care can guide future research in this field. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN18375201.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remain poor. Outcomes associated with community interventions that address bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain unclear and need further study.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine community interventions and their association with bystander CPR and survival after OHCA.<h4>Data sources</h4>Literature search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases from database inception to December 31, 2018, was conducted. Key search terms included cardiopulmonary resuscitation, layperson, basic life support, education, cardiac arrest, and survival.<h4>Study selection</h4>Community intervention studies that reported on comparisons with control and differences in survival following OHCA were included. Studies that focused only on in-hospital interventions, patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, only dispatcher-assisted CPR, or provision of automated external defibrillators were excluded.<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effects model. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Thirty-day survival or survival to hospital discharge and bystander CPR rate.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 4480 articles were identified; of these, 15 studies were included for analysis. There were broadly 2 types of interventions: community intervention alone (5 studies) and community intervention combined with changes in health services (10 studies). Four studies involved notification systems that alerted trained lay bystanders to the location of the OHCA in addition to CPR skills training. Meta-analysis of 9 studies including 21?266 patients with OHCA found that community interventions were associated with increased survival to discharge or 30-day survival (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57; I2?=?33%) and greater bystander CPR rate (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.54; I2?=?82%). Compared with community intervention alone, community plus health service intervention was associated with a greater bystander CPR rate compared with community alone (community plus intervention: OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26-2.40 vs community alone: OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.31) (P?=?.01). Survival rate, however, was not significantly different between intervention types: community plus health service intervention OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.09-2.68 vs community only OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50 (P?=?.21).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this study, while the evidence base is limited, community-based interventions with a focus on improving bystander CPR appeared to be associated with improved survival following OHCA. Further evaluations in diverse settings are needed to enable widespread implementation of such interventions.
Project description:Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global health problem with low survival. Regional variation in survival has heightened interest in combining cardiac arrest registries to understand and improve OHCA outcomes. While individual OHCA registries exist in Australian and New Zealand ambulance services, until recently these registries have not been combined. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the rationale and methods of the Australian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (Aus-ROC) OHCA epidemiological registry (Epistry).The Aus-ROC Epistry is designed as a population-based cohort study. Data collection started in 2014. Six ambulance services in Australia (Ambulance Victoria, SA Ambulance Service, St John Ambulance Western Australia and Queensland Ambulance Service) and New Zealand (St John New Zealand and Wellington Free Ambulance) currently contribute data. All OHCA attended by ambulance, regardless of aetiology or patient age, are included in the Epistry. The catchment population is approximately 19.3 million persons, representing 63% of the Australian population and 100% of the New Zealand population. Data are collected using Utstein-style definitions. Information incorporated into the Epistry includes demographics, arrest features, ambulance response times, treatment and patient outcomes. The primary outcome is 'survival to hospital discharge', with 'return of spontaneous circulation' as a key secondary outcome.Ethics approval was independently sought by each of the contributing registries. Overarching ethics for the Epistry was provided by Monash University HREC (Approval No. CF12/3938-2012001888). A population-based OHCA registry capturing the majority of Australia and New Zealand will allow risk-adjusted outcomes to be determined, to enable benchmarking across ambulance providers, facilitate the identification of system-wide strategies associated with survival from OHCA, and allow monitoring of temporal trends in process and outcomes to improve patient care. Findings will be shared with participating ambulance services and the academic community.
Project description:Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the cornerstone intervention to optimize the survival rates.The main aim of this study was to determine and compare the incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CPR in a referral university hospital following in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Northern Jordan.Retrospective observational study of adults referred to King Abdulla University Hospital who received CPR between January 2014 and January 2015. Data were obtained from the medical recorded of included patients. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with survival to discharge.A total of 79 OHCA and 257 IHCA were included in the study. The overall survival rate for OHCA was 2.97%. The survival rate increased to 4.3% if CPR performed before arriving the hospital. Only 22% of the OHCA cases had CPR performed mainly due to lack of knowledge and skills of bystanders. The survival rate for IHCA was 14.88%. In this study, patient survival was not associated with age, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, cancer status, hypertension, or heart failure.This is the first study to describe the incidence and outcome of adult IHCA and OHCA in Jordan. The findings will serve as a benchmark to evaluate future impact of changes in service delivery, organization, and treatment for OHCA and IHCA. Furthermore, findings will urge the regulatory bodies to establish well-structured Emergency Medical Service system. Educational programs at the national level to improve public awareness of CPR intervention are crucial to improve survival rates.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the trends in incidence and mortality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), as well as factors associated with OHCA outcomes in Taiwan. METHODS:Our study included OHCA patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) upon arrival at the hospital. We used national time-series data on annual OHCA incidence rates and mortality rates from 2000 to 2012, and individual demographic and clinical data for all OHCA patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) care from March of 2010 to September of 2011. Analytic techniques included the time-series regression and the logistic regression. RESULTS:There were 117,787 OHCAs in total. The overall incidence rate during the 13 years was 51.1 per 100,000 persons, and the secular trend indicates a sharp increase in the early 2000s and a decrease afterwards. The trend in mortality was also curvilinear, revealing a substantial increase in the early 2000s, a subsequent steep decline and finally a modest increase. Both the 30-day and 180-day mortality rates had a long-term decreasing trend over the period (p<0.01). For both incidence and mortality rates, a significant second-order autoregressive effect emerged. Among OHCA patients with MV, 1-day, 30-day and 180-day mortality rates were 31.3%, 75.8%, and 86.0%, respectively. In this cohort, older age, the female gender, and a Charlson comorbidity index score ? 2 were associated with higher 180-day mortality; patients delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas had higher death risk. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, both the 30-day and the 180-day mortality rates after OHCA had a long-term decreasing trend, while the 1-day mortality had no long-term decline. Among OHCA patients requiring MV, those delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas tended to have higher mortality, suggesting a need for effort to further standardize and improve in-hospital care across hospitals and to advance pre-hospital care in non-metropolitan areas.
Project description:The data provided in this article are related to the research article "The expanding repertoire of G4 DNA structures" . Secondary structures of G-rich oligonucleotides (ONs) that represent "imperfect" G-quadruplex (G4) motifs, i.e., contain truncated or interrupted G-runs, were analyzed by optical methods. Presented data on ON structures include circular dichroism (CD) spectra, thermal difference spectra (TDS) and UV -melting curves of the ONs; and rotational relaxation times (RRT) of ethidium bromide (EtBr) complexes with the ONs. TDS, CD spectra and UV-melting curves can be used to characterize the topologies and thermal stabilities of the ON structures. RRTs are roughly proportional to the hydrodynamic volumes of the complexes and thus can be used to distinguish between inter- and intramolecular ON structures. Presented data on ON interactions with small molecules include fluorescence emission spectra of the G4 sensor thioflavin T (ThT) in complexes with the ONs, and CD-melting curves of the ONs in the presence of G4-stabilizing ligands N-methylmesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and pyridostatin (PDS). These data should be useful for comparative analyses of classical G4s and "defective"G4s, such as quadruplexes with vacancies or bulges.
Project description:Purpose: Nutrition risk and utilization rate of simple but effective interventions such as oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in community settings in the United States, particularly among older adults, has received little emphasis. We conducted a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults ?55 years of age and living independently to assess their risk of poor nutrition and characteristics in relation to ONS consumption. Methods: Demographic characteristics, activities of daily living (ADL), and health care resource utilization in the past 6 months were also collected via telephone survey. Nutrition risk was assessed with the abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (abPG-SGA) and the DETERMINE Checklist. A logistic regression model tested possible predictors of ONS use. Results: Of 1001 participants surveyed, 996 provided data on ONS use and 11% (n = 114) reported consuming ONS during the past 6 months. ONS users were more likely to be at high nutrition risk than nonusers based on both abPG-SGA (43% vs 24%, P < .001) and DETERMINE Checklist (68% vs 48%, P < .001) scores. ONS users reported less functional independence based on ADL scores (86% vs 92%, P = .03), taking ?3 medications/day (77% vs 53%, P < .001), and utilizing more health care services. Higher nutrition risk (per abPG-SGA), lower body mass index, hospitalization in the past 6 months, and ?3 medications/day were each independently associated with ONS use (P < .05). Conclusions: Although one in four, urban community-dwelling adults (?55 years of age) were classified as at high nutrition risk in our study, only 11% reported consuming ONS-a simple and effective nutrition intervention. Efforts to improve identification of nutrition risk and implement ONS interventions could benefit nutritionally vulnerable, community-dwelling adults.
Project description:Background Healthcare disparities for psychiatric patients are common. Whether these inequalities apply to postresuscitation management in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unknown. We investigated differences in in-hospital cardiovascular procedures following OHCA between patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Methods and Results Using the Danish nationwide registries, we identified patients admitted to the hospital following OHCA of presumed cardiac cause (2001-2015). Psychiatric disorders were identified using hospital diagnoses or redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic drugs. We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of cardiovascular procedures during post-OHCA admission in patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Differences in 30-day and 1-year survival were assessed by multivariable logistic regression in the overall population and among 2-day survivors who received acute coronary angiography (CAG). We included 7288 hospitalized patients who had experienced an OHCA: 1661 (22.8%) had a psychiatric disorder. Compared with patients without psychiatric disorders, patients with psychiatric disorders had lower standardized incidence rates for acute CAG (≤1 day post-OHCA) (IRR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.45-0.57), subacute CAG (2-30 days post-OHCA) (IRR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30-0.52), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation (IRR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.95). Conversely, we did not detect differences in coronary revascularization among patients undergoing CAG (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30). Patients with psychiatric disorders had lower survival even among 2-day survivors who received acute CAG: (odds ratio of 30-day survival, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.91; and 1-year survival, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88). Conclusions Psychiatric patients had a lower probability of receiving post-OHCA CAG and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation compared with nonpsychiatric patients but the same probability of coronary revascularization among patients undergoing CAG. However, their survival was lower irrespective of angiographic procedures.