Development of a clinical pharmacy model within an Australian home nursing service using co-creation and participatory action research: the Visiting Pharmacist (ViP) study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To develop a collaborative, person-centred model of clinical pharmacy support for community nurses and their medication management clients. DESIGN:Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and other stakeholders. SETTING:A large, non-profit home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:Older people referred to the home nursing service for medication management, their carers, community nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, a multidisciplinary stakeholder reference group (including consumer representation) and the project team. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Feedback and reflections from minutes, notes and transcripts from: project team meetings, clinical pharmacists' reflective diaries and interviews, meetings with community nurses, reference group meetings and interviews and focus groups with 27 older people, 18 carers, 53 nurses, 15 GPs and seven community pharmacists. RESULTS:The model was based on best practice medication management standards and designed to address key medication management issues raised by stakeholders. Pharmacist roles included direct client care and indirect care. Direct care included home visits, medication reconciliation, medication review, medication regimen simplification, preparation of medication lists for clients and nurses, liaison and information sharing with prescribers and pharmacies and patient/carer education. Indirect care included providing medicines information and education for nurses and assisting with review and implementation of organisational medication policies and procedures. The model allowed nurses to refer directly to the pharmacist, enabling timely resolution of medication issues. Direct care was provided to 84 older people over a 15-month implementation period. Ongoing feedback and consultation, in line with participatory action research principles, informed the development and refinement of the model and identification of enablers and challenges. CONCLUSIONS:A collaborative, person-centred clinical pharmacy model that addressed the needs of clients, carers, nurses and other stakeholders was successfully developed. The model is likely to have applicability to home nursing services nationally and internationally.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing numbers of older people are receiving support with medicines management from community nursing services (CNSs) to enable them to live in their own homes. Little is known about these people and the support they receive. OBJECTIVES:To explore the characteristics of older people referred for medicines management support, type of support provided, medication errors and adverse medication events (AMEs). METHODS:A retrospective observational study of a random sample of 100 older people referred to a large non-profit CNS for medicines management support over a 3-month period was conducted. Measures were: demographics, referral source, current medical problems, medicines, medication aids, types of medication authorisations used by nurses, frequency of nurse visits and type of support provided, medication errors, AMEs and interdisciplinary teamwork among community nurses, general practitioners and pharmacists. RESULTS:Older people (median 80 years) were referred for medicines support most often by hospitals (39 %). Other referrals were from families/carers, case-managers, palliative care services and general practitioners. Multiple health conditions (median 5) and medicines (median 10) were common; 66 % used ?5 medicines; 48 % used ?1 high-risk medicines-most commonly opiates, anticoagulants and insulin. Medication aids were frequently used, mostly multi-compartment dose administration aids (47 %). Most people received regular community nurse visits (?4 per week) to administer medicines or monitor medicine-taking. Only 16 % had a medication administration chart; for other clients nurses used medicine lists or letters from doctors for medication authorisation. Medication errors occurred in 41 % of people and 13 % had ?1 AME requiring medical consultation or hospitalisation; 9/13 (64 %) AMEs were potentially preventable. There was little evidence of interdisciplinary teamwork or medication review. CONCLUSION:CNS clients had multiple risk-factors for medication misadventure. Deficiencies in medicines management were identified, including low use of medication charts and interdisciplinary medication review. Strategies are needed to improve medicines management in the home-care setting.
Project description:The magnitude of safety risks related to medications of the older adults has been evidenced by numerous studies, but less is known of how to manage and prevent these risks in different health care settings. The aim of this study was to coordinate resources for prospective medication risk management of home care clients ??65 years in primary care and to develop a study design for demonstrating effectiveness of the procedure.Health care units involved in the study are from primary care in Lohja, Southern Finland: home care (191 consented clients), the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. System based risk management theory and action research method was applied to construct the collaborative procedure utilizing each profession's existing resources in medication risk management of older home care clients. An inventory of clinical measures in usual clinical practice and systematic review of rigorous study designs was utilized in effectiveness study design.The new coordinated medication management model (CoMM) has the following 5 stages: 1) practical nurses are trained to identify clinically significant drug-related problems (DRPs) during home visits and report those to the clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacist prepares the cases for 2) an interprofessional triage meeting (50-70 cases/meeting of 2 h) where decisions are made on further action, e.g., more detailed medication reviews, 3) community pharmacists conduct necessary medication reviews and each patients' physician makes final decisions on medication changes needed. The final stages concern 4) implementation and 5) follow-up of medication changes. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure. The developed procedure is feasible for screening and reviewing medications of a high number of older home care clients to identify clients with severe DRPs and provide interventions to solve them utilizing existing primary care resources.The study is registered in the Clinical Trials.gov ( NCT02545257 ). Registration date September 9 2015.
Project description:Given both the increase of nursing home residents forecast and challenges of current interprofessional interactions, we developed and tested measures to improve collaboration and communication between nurses and general practitioners (GPs) in this setting. Our multicentre study has been funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FK 01GY1124).The measures were developed iteratively in a continuous process, which is the focus of this article. In part 1 "exploration of the situation", interviews were conducted with GPs, nurses, nursing home residents and their relatives focusing on interprofessional interactions and medical care. They were analysed qualitatively. Based on these results, in part 2 "development of measures to improve collaboration", ideas for improvement were developed in nine focus groups with GPs and nurses. These ideas were revisited in a final expert workshop. We analysed the focus groups and expert workshop using mind mapping methods, and finally drew up the compilation of measures. In an exploratory pilot study "study part 3" four nursing homes chose the measures they wanted to adopt. These were tested for three months. Feasibility and acceptance of the measures were evaluated via guideline interviews with the stakeholders which were analysed by content analyses.Six measures were generated: meetings to establish common goals, main contact person, standardised pro re nata medication, introduction of name badges, improved availability of nurse/GP and standardised scheduling/ procedure for nursing home visits. In the pilot study, the measures were implemented in four nursing homes. GPs and nurses reviewed five measures as feasible and acceptable, only the designation of a "main contact person" was not considered as an improvement.Six measures to improve collaboration and communication could be compiled in a multistep qualitative process respecting the perspectives of involved stakeholders. Five of the six measures were positively assessed in an exploratory pilot study. They could easily be transferred into the daily routine of other nursing homes, as no special models have to exist in advance. Impact of the measures on patient oriented outcomes should be examined in further research.Not applicable.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nurse-led monitoring of patients for signs and symptoms associated with documented 'undesirable effects' of medicines has potential to prevent avoidable harm, and optimise prescribing.<h4>Intervention</h4>The Adverse Drug Reaction Profile for polypharmacy (ADRe-p) identifies and documents putative adverse effects of medicines commonly prescribed in primary care. Nurses address some problems, before passing ADRe-p to pharmacists and prescribers for review, in conjunction with prescriptions.<h4>Objectives</h4>We investigated changes in: the number and nature of residents' problems as recorded on ADRe-p; prescription regimens; medicines optimisation: and healthcare costs. We explored aetiologies of problems identified and stakeholders' perspectives.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>In three UK care homes, 19 residents completed the study, December 2018 to May 2019. Two service users, three pharmacists, six nurses gave interviews.<h4>Methods</h4>This mixed-method process evaluation integrated data from residents' ADRe-ps and medicines charts, at the study's start and 5-10 weeks later.<h4>Results</h4>We recruited three of 27 homes approached and 26 of 45 eligible residents; 19 completed ADRe-p at least twice. Clinical gains were identified for 17/19 residents (mean number of symptoms 3 SD 1.67, range 0-7). Examples included management of: pain (six residents), seizures (three), dyspnoea (one), diarrhoea (laxatives reduced, two), falls (two of five able to stand). One or more medicine was de-prescribed or dose reduced for 12/19 residents. ADRe administration and review cost ~£30 in staff time. ADRe-p helped carers and nurses bring residents' problems to the attention of prescribers.<h4>Implications</h4>ADRe-p relieved unnecessary suffering. It supported carers and nurses by providing a tool to engage with pharmacists and prescribers, and was the only observable strategy for multidisciplinary team working around medicines optimisation. ADRe-p improved care by: a) regular systematic checks and problem documentation; b) information transfer from care home staff to prescribers and pharmacists; c) recording changes.<h4>Registration</h4>NLM Identifier NCT03955133; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Finland is one of the few countries that has established a national Medicines Information (MI) Strategy. The ultimate goal of the strategy is a well-implemented medication use process resulting in well-informed adherent patients. This study aimed at evaluating the implementation of the strategy 3?years after its launch. DESIGN:The evaluation applied a pragmatic approach and was conducted by interviewing stakeholders involved in the National MI Network enhancing the MI Strategy's implementation. The network comprises national key stakeholders producing and using MI. Data were deductively analysed according to the medication use process of the MI Strategy using the framework method, complemented with inductively derived categories. SETTING:National implementation of the MI Strategy throughout the healthcare system after the first operational period (2012-2014) in 2015. PARTICIPANTS:The members of the National MI Network (n=79/111, participation rate 71%, representing 42/53 stakeholder organisations). OUTCOME MEASURES:A new conceptual framework was developed based on stakeholders' views on well-implemented actions and actions needing development in the medication use process at (1) infrastructure (macro), (2) healthcare professionals (meso) and (3) patient (micro) levels. RESULTS:Medication counselling by community pharmacists was the primary implemented action, followed by physicians' actions while starting a new medication, and advice given by nurses. The major development needs concerned (1) poor access to patient information and its transfer in healthcare, particularly the lack of reconciled medication lists and electronic health records (macro); (2) poorly functioning medication use process in home care and social care units, such as nursing homes (meso); and (3) limited patient involvement in their care (micro). CONCLUSIONS:Far more actions for development than well-established practices in the medication use process were identified. Major challenges found in this evaluation are considered in the ongoing Rational Pharmacotherapy Action Plan 2018-2022 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
Project description:Demand by nursing home residents for involvement in their medical care, or, patient-centered care, is expected to increase as baby boomers begin seeking long-term care for their chronic illnesses. To explore the needs in meeting this proposed demand, we used a qualitative descriptive method with content analysis to obtain the joint perspective of key stakeholders on the current state of person-centered medical care in the nursing home. We interviewed 31 nursing home stakeholders: 5 residents, 7 family members, 8 advanced practice registered nurses, 5 physicians, and 6 administrators. Our findings revealed constraints placed by the long-term care system limited medical involvement opportunities and created conflicting goals for patient-centered medical care. Resident participation in medical care was perceived as low, but important. The creation of supportive educational programs for all stakeholders to facilitate a common goal for nursing home admission and to provide assistance through the long-term care system was encouraged.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite growing demand for home care nursing, there is a growing home care workforce shortage, due in part to hospital-centric nursing curricula that lead students to undervalue of home care and community practice setting (Van Iersel et al., 2018a, 2018b). OBJECTIVES:Articulate an international vision for the future of home care education, research, practice, and management shared by experienced home care nurses working in leadership roles. DESIGN:Qualitative content analysis. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS:The sample included 50 home care professionals from 17 countries. METHODS:Home care nurse leaders (in education, research, practice, and management roles) were recruited through professional international nursing networks to participate in a structured online survey about priorities for the future of home care in 2014. Responses were open coded by two independent researchers. Preliminary categories and sub-themes were developed by the research team and revised after a modified member-checking process that included presentation and discussion of preliminary findings at three international nursing meetings in 2015 and 2016. RESULTS:Four major themes emerged reflecting international priorities for the future of home care education, research, practice, and management: 1) Build the evidence base for home care; 2) Design better systems of care; 3) Develop leaders at all levels; and 4) Address payment and policy issues. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, the findings provide a major call to action for nurse educators to re-design existing pre- and post-licensure educational programs to meet the growing demand for home care nurses. Innovations in education that focus on filling gaps in the evidence-base for community nursing practice, and improving access to continuing education and evidence-based resources for practicing home care nurses and nurse managers should be prioritized.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many people with dementia die in nursing homes, but quality of care may be suboptimal. We developed the theory-driven 'Compassion Intervention' to enhance end-of-life care in advanced dementia. OBJECTIVES:To (1) understand how the Intervention operated in nursing homes in different health economies; (2) collect preliminary outcome data and costs of an interdisciplinary care leader (ICL) to facilitate the Intervention; (3) check the Intervention caused no harm. DESIGN:A naturalistic feasibility study of Intervention implementation for 6 months. SETTINGS:Two nursing homes in northern London, UK. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty residents with advanced dementia were assessed of whom nine were recruited for data collection; four of these residents' family members were interviewed. Twenty-eight nursing home and external healthcare professionals participated in interviews at 7 (n=19), 11 (n=19) and 15 months (n=10). INTERVENTION:An ICL led two core Intervention components: (1) integrated, interdisciplinary assessment and care; (2) education and support for paid and family carers. DATA COLLECTED:Process and outcome data were collected. Symptoms were recorded monthly for recruited residents. Semistructured interviews were conducted at 7, 11 and 15 months with nursing home staff and external healthcare professionals and at 7?months with family carers. ICL hours were costed using Department of Health and Health Education England tariffs. RESULTS:Contextual differences were identified between sites: nursing home 2 had lower involvement with external healthcare services. Core components were implemented at both sites but multidisciplinary meetings were only established in nursing home 1. The Intervention prompted improvements in advance care planning, pain management and person-centred care; we observed no harm. Six-month ICL costs were £18?255. CONCLUSIONS:Implementation was feasible to differing degrees across sites, dependent on context. Our data inform future testing to identify the Intervention's effectiveness in improving end-of-life care in advanced dementia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02840318: Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Buurtzorg, a model of community nursing conceived in the Netherlands, is widely cited as a promising and evidence-based approach to improving the delivery of integrated nursing and social care in community settings. The model is characterised by high levels of patient and staff satisfaction, professional autonomy exercised through self-managing nursing teams, client empowerment and holistic, patient centred care. This study aimed to examine the extent to which some of the principles of the Buurtzorg model could be adapted for community nursing in the United Kingdom. METHODS:A community nursing model based on the Buurtzorg approach was piloted from June 2017-August 2018 with a team of nurses co-located in a single general practice in the Borough of Tower Hamlets, East London, UK. The initiative was evaluated using a participatory methodology known as the Researcher-in-Residence model. Qualitative data were collected using participant observation of meetings and semi-structured interviews with nurse team members, senior managers, patients/carers and other local stakeholders such as General Practitioners (GP) and social workers. A thematic framework analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS:Implementation of a community nursing model based on the Buurtzorg approach in East London had mixed success when assessed against its key principles. Patient experience of the service was positive because of the better access, improved continuity of care and longer appointment times in comparison with traditional community nursing provision. The model also provided important learning for developing service integration in community care, in particular, how to form effective collaborations across the care system with other health and social care professionals. However, some of the core features of the Buurtzorg model were difficult to put into practice in the National Health Service (NHS) because of significant cultural and regulatory differences between The Netherlands and the UK, especially the nurses' ability to exercise professional autonomy. CONCLUSIONS:Whilst many of the principles of the Buurtzorg model are applicable and transferable to the UK, in particular promoting independence among patients, improving patient experience and empowering frontline staff, the successful embedding of these aims as normalised ways of working will require a significant cultural shift at all levels of the NHS.
Project description:Despite policy intentions for more healthcare out of hospital, district nursing services face multiple funding and staffing challenges, which compromise the care delivered and policy objectives. OBJECTIVES:What is the impact of the adapted Buurtzorg model on feasibility, acceptability and effective outcomes in an English district nursing service? DESIGN:Mixed methods case study. SETTING:Primary care. PARTICIPANTS:Neighbourhood nursing team (Buurtzorg model), patients and carers, general practitioners (GPs), other health professionals, managers and conventional district nurses. RESULTS:The adapted Buurtzorg model of community nursing demonstrated feasibility and acceptability to patients, carers, GPs and other health professionals. For many patients, it was preferable to previous experiences of district nursing in terms of continuity in care, improved support of multiple long-term conditions (encompassing physical, mental and social factors) and proactive care. For the neighbourhood nurses, the ability to make operational and clinical decisions at team level meant adopting practices that made the service more responsive, accessible and efficient and offered a more attractive working environment. Challenges were reported by nurses and managers in relation to the recognition and support of the concept of self-managing teams within a large bureaucratic healthcare organisation. While there were some reports of clinical effectiveness and efficiency, this was not possible to quantify, cost or compare with the standard district nursing service. CONCLUSIONS:The adapted Buurtzorg model of neighbourhood nursing holds potential for addressing issues of concern to patients, carers and staff in the community. The two interacting innovations, that is, a renewed focus on patient and carer-centred care and the self-managing team, were implemented in ways that patients, carers, other health professionals and nurses could identify difference for both the nursing care and also the nurses' working lives. It now requires longer term investigation to understand both the mechanism for change and also the sustainability.