ALV-J infection induces chicken monocyte death accompanied with the production of IL-1? and IL-18.
ABSTRACT: Immunosuppression induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes serious reproduction problems and secondary infections in chickens. Given that monocytes are important precursors of immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, we investigated the fate of chicken monocytes after ALV-J infection. Our results indicated that most monocytes infected with ALV-J including field or laboratory strains could not successfully differentiate into macrophages due to cells death. And cells death was dependent upon viral titer and accompanied with increased IL-1? and IL-18 mRNA levels. In addition, ALV-J infection up-regulated caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity in monocytes. Collectively, we found that ALV-J could cause cell death in chicken monocytes, especially pyroptosis, which may be a significant reason for ALV-J induced immunosuppression.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression in infected chickens. Macrophages play a central role in host defense against invading pathogens. In this study, we discovered an interesting phenomenon: ALV-J replication is weakened from 3 hours post-infection (hpi) to 36 hpi, which was verified using Western blotting and RT-PCR. To further investigate the interaction between ALV-J and macrophages, transcriptome analysis was performed to analyze the host genes' function in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Compared to the uninfected control, 624 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEG) and 341 down-regulated DEG at 3 hpi, and 174 up-regulated DEG and 87 down-regulated DEG at 36 hpi were identified in chicken MDM, respectively. ALV-J infection induced strong innate immune responses in chicken MDM at 3 hpi, instead of 36 hpi, according to the analysis results of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway. Importantly, the host factors, such as up-regulated MIP-3?, IL-1?, iNOS, K60, IRG1, CH25H, NFKBIZ, lysozyme and OASL were involved in the host defense response during the course of ALV-J infection. On the contrary, up-regulated EX-FABP, IL4I1, COX-2, NFKBIA, TNFAIP3 and the Jak STAT pathway inhibitors including CISH, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are beneficial to ALV-J survival in chicken macrophages. We speculated that ALV-J tropism for macrophages helps to establish a latent infection in chicken MDM from 6 to 36 hpi. The present study provides a comprehensive view of the interactions between macrophages and ALV-J. It suggests the mechanisms of defense of chicken macrophages against ALV-J invasion and how ALV-J escape the host innate immune responses.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.
Project description:The avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) belongs to the chicken retrovirus that causes enormous economic losses in the poultry industry. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are critical for controlling virus infections. Here, we identified 897 type I ISGs induced by interferon-? (IFN-?) in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) by RNA-Seq. In addition, we further identified 152 potential anti-ALV-J chicken type I ISGs. Among these potential anti-ALV-J ISGs, chicken cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (chCH25H) was selected for further antiviral mechanism studies in chicken embryo fibroblast cell lines (DF1). The gene chCH25H is located on chromosome 6 and clustered in a distinct group with mammals CH25H in the phylogenetic tree. The core promoter region of chCH25H was located within -75/-1 sequence. We found that chCH25H was induced by chicken IFN-? and ALV-J in DF1 cells. The overexpression of chCH25H significantly inhibited ALV-J replication in DF1 cells at 48 h post infection (hpi). In addition, ALV-J replication was significantly enhanced in the chCH25H- knockout DF1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chCH25H restricted ALV-J infection through the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), rather than type I and II interferon. Our results identified 152 potential anti-ALV-J chicken type I ISGs and revealed that 25HC, the product of chCH25H, could be used as a natural antiviral agent to control ALV-J infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Avian leukosis (AL), which is caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV), has led to substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. The kit used to detect all ALV-positive chickens in breeder flocks is very important for efficiently controlling AL. However, a new emerging ALV subtype is currently a severe challenge in the poultry industry. RESULTS:In this paper, we compared different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting p27 of ALV in the same batch of meconium samples. Different positive samples were further analyzed by PCR or virus isolation. The results showed that 36 positive samples among the 1812 chicken meconium samples could be detected by a sandwich ELISA (sELISA) kit, but only 17 positive samples could be identified by a commercial kit. To verify this result, cloacal swabs and viruses isolated from the positive chickens (2 days old) were used to detect the presence of p27. The results showed that the positive rate of p27 was 100% for the swabs and 40% for virus isolation. Surprisingly, PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the env gene of ALV in these positive samples belonged to the novel subgroup K (ALV-K). CONCLUSION:These data not only demonstrate the relatively high sensitivity of the sELISA kit but also highlight the challenge of controlling ALV-K.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Since the precise mechanism of the innate immune response induced by ALV-J is unknown, we investigated the antiviral innate immune responses induced by ALV-J in chicks and chickens that had developed tumors. Spleen levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-1?, and interferon-? (IFN-?) were not significantly different between the infected chick groups and the control groups from 1 day post hatch to 7 days post hatch. However, IL-6, IL-1?, and IFN-? protein levels in the three clinical samples with hemangiomas were dramatically increased compared to the healthy samples. In addition, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased sharply in two of three clinical samples. We also found a more than 20-fold up-regulation of ISG12-1 mRNA at 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) and a twofold up-regulation of ZC3HAV1 mRNA at 4 d.p.i. However, there were no statistical differences in ISG12-1 and ZC3HAV1 mRNA expression levels in the tumorigenesis phase. ALV-J infection induced a significant increase of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) at 1 d.p.i. and dramatically increased the mRNA levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in the tumorigenesis phase. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) were decreased in chickens with tumors. These results suggest that ALV-J was primarily recognized by chicken TLR7 and MDA5 at early and late in vivo infection stages, respectively. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 did not induce any significant antiviral innate immune response in 1 week old chicks. However, interferon-stimulated genes were not induced normally during the late phase of ALV-J infection due to a reduction of IRF1 and STAT1 expression.
Project description:Background:Previously, we showed that targeted disruption of viral receptor genes in avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9))-based genome editing confers resistance to ALV subgroups B and J. Here, we used the same strategy to target the receptor expressed by ALV subgroup A (TVA) and generate chicken cells resistant to infection by this virus. Results:CRISPR/Cas9-based disruption of exon 2 within the tva gene of DF-1 fibroblasts conferred resistance to infection by ALV subgroup A regardless of whether frameshift mutations were introduced during editing. Conversely, overexpression of the wild-type TVA receptor (wtTVA) by tva-modified DF-1 clones restored susceptibility to ALV subgroup A. The results confirm that exon 2, which contains the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain of TVA, is critical for virus entry. Furthermore, we sequentially modified DF-1 cells by editing the tva, tvb, and Na+/H+ exchange 1 (chNHE1) genes, which are the specific receptors for ALV subgroups A, B, and J, respectively. Conclusions:Simultaneous editing of multiple receptors to block infection by different subgroups of ALV confirmed that ALV subgroups A, B, and J do not share host receptors. This strategy could be used to generate cells resistant to multiple viral pathogens that use distinct receptors for cell entry.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause several different leukemia-like proliferative diseases in the hemopoietic system of chickens. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles and miRNA expression profiles of ALV-J-infected and uninfected chicken spleens to identify the genes and miRNAs related to ALV-J invasion. In total, 252 genes and 167 miRNAs were differentially expressed in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to control uninfected spleens. miR-23b expression was up-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared with the control spleens, and transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was down-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF1 was a direct target of miR-23b. miR-23b overexpression significantly (P = 0.0022) decreased IRF1 mRNA levels and repressed IRF1-3'-UTR reporter activity. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-23b overexpression strengthened ALV-J replication, whereas miR-23b loss of function inhibited ALV-J replication. IRF1 overexpression inhibited ALV-J replication, and IRF1 knockdown enhanced ALV-J replication. Moreover, IRF1 overexpression significantly (P = 0.0014) increased IFN-β expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-23b may play an important role in ALV-J replication by targeting IRF1.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense in preventing bacterial and viral infections, and dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in innate immunity. Because bone marrow is an organ that is susceptible to ALV-J, the virus may influence the generation of bone marrow-derived DCs. In this study, DCs cultured in vitro were used to investigate the effects of ALV infection. The results revealed that ALV-J could infect these cells during the early stages of differentiation, and infection of DCs with ALV-J resulted in apoptosis. miRNA sequencing data of uninfected and infected DCs revealed 122 differentially expressed miRNAs, with 115 demonstrating upregulation after ALV-J infection and the other 7 showing significant downregulation. The miRNAs that exhibited the highest levels of upregulation may suppress nutrient processing and metabolic function. These results indicated that ALV-J infection of chicken DCs could induce apoptosis via aberrant microRNA expression. These results provide a solid foundation for the further study of epigenetic influences on ALV-J-induced immunosuppression.