Prognostic value of CD133+ CD54+ CD44+ circulating tumor cells in colorectal cancer with liver metastasis.
ABSTRACT: In the previous study, we had showed the expression of CD133+ CD54+ CD44+ cellular subpopulation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) was significantly associated with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to explore whether this subpopulation of CTCs have a prognostic value in CRC patients. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of cellular subpopulations of CTCs with CD133, CD54, and CD44 in 152 CRC patients, between December 2013 and October 2014. The impact of clinicopathological factors and the expression of cellular subpopulations of CTCs on overall survival were then analyzed. CRC patients with liver metastases who underwent resection of the primary tumor accompanied by surgical treatment for metastasis had a better survival than other patients (P < 0.001). The liver metastatic CRC patients with high expression of CD133+ CD54+ (P < 0.001), CD133- CD54+ (P = 0.004), and CD133+ CD44+ CD54+ (P = 0.003) cellular subpopulations of CTCs had a worse survival than those patients with low expression. Multivariable survival analyses identified carcinoembryonic antigen levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.056; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.354-6.897; P = 0.007), treatment strategy (HR = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.056-0.808; P = 0.023), and CD133+ CD44+ CD54+ cellular subpopulation of CTCs (HR = 6.459; 95% CI = 1.461-28.558; P = 0.014) as independent prognostic factors for CRC patients with liver metastasis. CD133+ CD44+ CD54+ cellular subpopulation of CTCs has a prognostic value in CRC patients with liver metastasis, especially in the survival of CRC patients with liver metastasis who did not undergo surgical treatment for metastasis.
Project description:Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM).The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis proved the association between the expression of CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation and the existence of CRC-LM (P<0.001). The combination of abdominal CT/MRI, CEA and the CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation showed increased detection and discrimination rate for liver metastasis, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. Meanwhile, it also show accurate predictive value for liver metastasis (OR=2.898, 95% C.I.1.374-6.110).Flow cytometry and multivariate analysis was performed to detect the expression of cancer initiating cells the correlation between cellular subpopulations and liver metastasis in patients with CRC. The receiver operating characteristic curves combined with the area under the curve were generated to compare the predictive ability of the cellular subpopulation for liver metastasis with current CT and MRI images.The identification, expression and application of CTC subpopulations will provide an ideal cellular predictive marker for CRC liver metastasis and a potential marker for further investigation.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease whose genesis may include metabolic dysregulation. Cancer stem cells are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions since their aberrant expansion may underlie tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. To investigate the actions of metabolic regulators on cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC) in CRC, we determined the effects of soybean-derived bioactive molecules and the anti-diabetes drug metformin (MET), alone and together, on the growth, survival, and frequency of CSC in human HCT116 cells. Effects of MET (60 ?M) and soybean components genistein (Gen, 2 ?M), lunasin (Lun, 2 ?M), ?-conglycinin (?-con, 3 ?M), and glycinin (Gly, 3 ?M) on HCT116 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA/protein expression and on the frequency of the CSC CD133(+)CD44(+) subpopulation by colonosphere assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting/flow cytometry were evaluated. MET, Gen, and Lun, individually and together, inhibited HCT116 viability and colonosphere formation and, conversely, enhanced HCT116 apoptosis. Reductions in frequency of the CSC CD133(+)CD44(+) subpopulation with MET, Gen, and Lun were found to be associated with increased PTEN and reduced FASN expression. In cells under a hyperinsulinemic state mimicking metabolic dysregulation and without and with added PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670, colonosphere formation and frequency of the CD133(+)CD44(+) subpopulation were decreased by MET, Lun and Gen, alone and when combined. Moreover, MET + Lun + Gen co-treatment increased the pro-apoptotic and CD133(+)CD44(+)-inhibitory efficacy of 5-fluorouracil under hyperinsulinemic conditions. Results identify molecular networks shared by MET and bioavailable soy food components, which potentially may be harnessed to increase drug efficacy in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with CRC.
Project description:Intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer remains a major challenge in successful treatment. Failure of cancer therapies can also be accredited to inability to systemically eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent evidence points to the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in expanding the pool of tumor cells with CSCs features. Thus, we assessed expression level as well as heterogeneity of CSCs markers in primary tumors (PT), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-enriched blood fractions in order to correlate them with signs of EMT activation as well as clinicopathological data of breast cancer patients. Level of CSCs markers (ALDH1, CD44, CD133, OCT-4, NANOG) and EMT markers was quantified in PT (N=107), LNM (N=56), and CTCs-enriched blood fractions (N=85). Heterogeneity of CSCs markers expression within each PT and LNM was assessed by calculating Gini Index. Percentage of ALDH1-positive cells was elevated in PT in comparison to LNM (P = .005). However, heterogeneity of the four CSCs markers: ALDH1 (P = .019), CD133 (P = .009), OCT-4 (P = .027), and CD44 (P < .001) was decreased in LNM. Samples classified as mesenchymal (post-EMT) showed elevated expression of CSCs markers (OCT-4 and CD44 in PT; OCT-4 in LNM; ALDH1, OCT-4, NANOG, CD44 in CTCs). Patients with mesenchymal-like CTCs had worse prognosis than patients with epithelial-like or no CTCs (P = .0025). CSCs markers are enriched in PT, LNM, and CTCs with mesenchymal features, but their heterogeneity is decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. Mesenchymal CTCs phenotype correlates with poor prognosis of the patients.
Project description:Inflammation may contribute to the formation, maintenance, and expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and resistance to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the effects of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on colorectal CSC development and metastasis in mice and the correlation between levels of PGE2 and CSC markers in human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens.Colorectal carcinoma specimens and matched normal tissues were collected from patients at the Mayo Clinic (Scottsdale, AZ) and analyzed by mass spectrometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Human primary CRC cells and mouse tumor cells were isolated using microbeads or flow cytometry and analyzed for sphere-formation and by flow cytometry assays. LS-174T cells were sorted by flow cytometry (for CD133(+)CD44(+) and CD133(-)CD44(-) cells) and also used in these assays. NOD-scidIL-2R?(-/-) (NSG) mice were given cecal or subcutaneous injections of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Apc(Min/+) mice and NSG mice with orthotopic cecal tumors were given vehicle (controls), PGE2, celecoxib, and/or Ono-AE3-208. PGE2 downstream signaling pathways were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs, expressed from lentiviral vectors in LS-174T cells, or blocked with inhibitors in human primary CRC cells.Levels of PGE2 correlated with colonic CSC markers (CD133, CD44, LRG5, and SOX2 messenger RNAs) in human colorectal carcinoma samples. Administration of PGE2 to Apc(Min/+) mice increased tumor stem cells and tumor burden, compared with controls. NSG mice given PGE2 had increased numbers of cecal CSCs and liver metastases compared with controls after intracecal injection of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Alternatively, celecoxib, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, reduced polyp numbers in Apc(Min/+) mice, liver metastasis in NSG mice with orthotopic tumors, and numbers of CSCs in Apc(Min/+) and NSG mice. Inhibitors or knockdown of PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p85?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), or nuclear factor (NF)-?B reduced PGE2-induced sphere formation and expansion of LS-174T and/or human primary CRC cells. Knockdown of ERK1 or PI3K p85? also attenuated PGE2-induced activation of NF-?B in LS-174T cells. An EP4 antagonist reduced the ability of PGE2 to induce CSC expansion in orthotopic tumors and to accelerate the formation of liver metastases. Knockdown experiments showed that NF-?B was required for PGE2 induction of CSCs and metastasis in mice.PGE2 induces CSC expansion by activating NF-?B, via EP4-PI3K and EP4-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and promotes the formation of liver metastases in mice. The PGE2 signaling pathway therefore might be targeted therapeutically to slow CSC expansion and colorectal cancer progression.
Project description:The presence of stem and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) features in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) determines their invasiveness, adaptability to the microenvironment, and resistance to proapoptotic signals and chemotherapy. It also allows them to fulfil the role of metastatic "seeds". We evaluated the heterogeneity of stem CTCs by their CD44, ALDH1, and CD133 expression depending on N-cadherin expression in breast-cancer patients. A total of 38 female patients were selected for this study. CTC phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry before any type of treatment. Multiplex immunofluorescence was used for the evaluation of tumor-cell heterogeneity in primary lesions. In patients who had CD44-CD24- CTCs, a subset of cells with the expression of other stem-cell markers (CD133 and ALDH1) were detected. Expression of CD133 and/or ALDH1 may be associated with expression of N-cadherin: all populations of N-cadherin+ CTCs demonstrate stem features; in the absence of N-cadherin expression, true nonstem (CD44-CD24-CD133-ALDH1-) cells are found. The heterogeneity of stem marker expression in CTCs was observed regardless of N-cadherin expression. In our study, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) receptor expression in CTCs did not depend on stemlike traits, but was instead associated with N-cadherin expression. Subpopulations of tumor cells, detected both in tumors and blood, were identified. Breast cancer was characterized by pronounced interpersonal and intrapersonal heterogeneity of CTCs by the presence and combination of various stem features and N-cadherin expression. To complete the characterization of stemlike features of CTCs, we suggest the simultaneous use of the three stem markers.
Project description:CD133 and CD44 are putative cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, their clinical significance is currently unclear. Here, we evaluated primary CRC cell isolates to determine the significance of several CSC markers, including CD133 and CD44, as predictors of tumourigenesis and prognosis.CD133- and CD44-positive cells from fresh clinical samples of 77 CRCs were selected by flow cytometric sorting and evaluated for tumourigenicity following subcutaneous transplantation into NOD/SCID mice. Cancer stem cell marker expression was examined in both xenografts and a complementary DNA library compiled from 167 CRC patient samples.CD44(+), CD133(+) and CD133(+)CD44(+) sub-populations were significantly more tumourigenic than the total cell population. The clinical samples expressed several transcript variants of CD44. Variant 2 was specifically overexpressed in both primary tumours and xenografts in comparison with the normal mucosa. A prognostic assay using qRT-PCR showed that the CD44v2(high) group (n=84, 5-year survival rate (5-OS): 0.74) had a significantly worse prognosis (P=0.041) than the CD44v2(low) group (n=83, 5-OS: 0.88).CD44 is an important CSC marker in CRC patients. Furthermore, CRC patients with high expression of CD44v2 have a poorer prognosis than patients with other CD44 variants.
Project description:Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide a non-invasive accessible source of tumor material from patients with cancer. The cellular heterogeneity within CTC populations is of great clinical importance regarding the increasing number of adjuvant treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas, in order to eliminate residual disease. Moreover, the molecular profiling of these rare cells might lead to insight on disease progression and therapeutic strategies than simple CTCs counting. In the present study we investigated the feasibility to detect KRAS, BRAF, CD133 and Plastin3 (PLS3) mutations in an enriched CTCs cell suspension from patients with colorectal cancer, with the hypothesis that these genes` mutations are of great importance regarding the generation of CTCs subpopulations. Subsequently, we compared CTCs mutational status with that of the corresponding primary tumor, in order to access the possibility of tumor cells characterization without biopsy. CTCs were detected and isolated from blood drawn from 52 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients using a quantum-dot-labelled magnetic immunoassay method. Mutations were detected by PCR-RFLP or allele-specific PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. In 52 patients, discordance between primary tumor and CTCs was 5.77% for KRAS, 3.85% for BRAF, 11.54% for CD133 rs3130, 7.69% for CD133 rs2286455 and 11.54% for PLS3 rs6643869 mutations. Our results support that DNA mutational analysis of CTCs may enable non-invasive, specific biomarker diagnostics and expand the scope of personalized medicine for cancer patients.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a critical role in tumor development, progression, metastasis and recurrence.To evaluate hepatic expression of CD44 and CD133 in Egyptian patients with HCV-induced chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and to assess its correlation with inflammatory activity scores, stages of fibrosis (in chronic hepatitis with or without cirrhosis) and grades of HCC.This prospective case-control study was conducted on eighty subjects who attended the Tropical Diseases Department, Al-Azhar University Hospital, and in collaboration with Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (2014-2016). They were divided as follows: A) Control healthy group: Ten individuals with serologically negative HCV-Ab and HBsAg, and histopathologically normal liver, B) Seventy patients subdivided into 3 groups; Twenty subjects each, as: HCV-Ab+ non-cirrhotic, HCV-Ab+ cirrhotic and HCC. Necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis in non-neoplastic liver biopsies were scored according to the METAVIR scoring system. CD44 and CD133 immunostaining was evaluated in all groups semi-quantitatively using H score. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 22, using independent-samples t-test.Our study showed a significant increase of mean CD44 & CD133 expression values with disease progression among the groups (p<0.05). Their expressions increased significantly with the inflammatory activity scores and stages of fibrosis, reaching the highest values in A3F4 score compared to A1F1 (p<0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase of their expressions across HCC grades (p<0.05), however with no significant correlation with focal lesions size.CSCs clusters exhibiting CD133+ and/or CD44+ profiles were identified in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and HCC. CD133 and CD44 expressions significantly corresponded to the increased inflammatory activity, fibrosis stages and higher tumor grades. Therefore, evaluation of CD44 and CD133 expression profiles as CSCs markers in non-neoplastic liver and HCCs can help in development of novel therapeutic agents for HCC targeting and prevention.
Project description:Fibronectin is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein with several alternatively spliced variants, including extra domain A (EDA), which was demonstrated to promote tumorigenesis via stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Given that CD133(+)/CD44(+) cancer cells are critical in tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), we hypothesize that fibronectin EDA may promote tumorigenesis by sustaining the properties of CD133(+)/CD44(+) colon cancer cells. We found that tumor tissue and serum EDA levels are substantially higher in advanced versus early stage human CRC. Additionally we showed that tumor tissue EDA levels are positively correlated with differentiation status and chemoresistance, and correlated with a poor prognosis of CRC patients. We also showed that in colon cancer cells SW480, CD133(+)/CD44(+) versus CD133(-)/CD44(-) cells express significantly elevated EDA receptor integrin ?9?1. Silencing EDA in SW480 cells reduces spheroid formation and cells positive for CD133 or CD44, which is associated with reduced expressions of embryonic stem cell markers and increased expressions of differentiation markers. Blocking integrin ?9?1 function strongly reversed the effect of EDA overexpression. We also provided evidence suggesting that EDA sustains Wnt/?-catenin signaling activity via activating integrin/FAK/ERK pathway. In xenograft models, EDA-silenced SW480 cells exhibit reduced tumorigenic and metastatic capacity. In conclusion, EDA is essential for the maintenance of the properties of CD133(+)/CD44(+) colon cancer cells.