Transcranial Doppler and Lower Extremity Function in Older Adults: Einstein Aging Study.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measures of mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) in the major cerebral arteries are associated with measures of lower extremity function in community-dwelling older adults.Cross-sectional study.Community sample.Individuals aged 70 and older (mean 79.5, 54% female) without dementia participating in the Einstein Aging Study (N = 200).All participants underwent TCD assessments and tests of lower extremity function at an annual clinic visit. Average MBFV for anterior (left and right anterior and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs)) and posterior (vertebral (VA) and basilar (BA) artery) circulation was measured using a standardized TCD protocol. Lower extremity function was characterized according to gait speed (cm/s) measured using an instrumented walkway, balance according to unipedal stance time (UPST, seconds), and lower extremity strength according to timed repeated chair rise (seconds).Multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and medical comorbidities showed that lower MBFV in the MCA was associated with slower gait speed and chair rise time but not with UPST. Ordinal regression models showed that lower MBFV in the VA and BA is associated with shorter UPST.Low MBFV in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation was associated with worse lower extremity function and balance in older adults. This might be indicative of the importance of age-related changes in cerebral hemodynamics in the function of brain regions involved in specific aspects of physical performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are considered as a risk factor for vascular dementia, data on their impact on cerebral hemodynamics are scarce. We test and compare transcranial Doppler (TCD) features in WML patients with or without associated cognitive impairment. METHODS:A sample of non-demented elderly patients with WMLs was consecutively recruited. Mean blood flow velocity (MBFV), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic blood flow velocity (PSV), end-diastolic blood flow velocity (EDV), and resistivity index (RI) were recorded from the middle cerebral artery bilaterally. Global cognitive functioning, frontal lobe abilities, functional status, and WML severity were also assessed. RESULTS:161 patients satisfying the clinical criteria for vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) were age-matched with 97 presenting WMLs without any cognitive deficit. VCI-ND patients exhibited a decrease in MBFV and EDV, as well as an increase in PI, RI, and PSV. Moreover, a significant correlation between all TCD parameters and the severity of executive dysfunction was observed, whereas PI, RI, and EDV were significantly correlated with the WML load. CONCLUSIONS:VCI-ND showed a hemodynamic pattern indicative of cerebral hypoperfusion and enhanced vascular resistance. These changes may be considered as the TCD correlate of VCI-ND due to microcirculation pathology. TCD provides useful indices of the occurrence and severity of small vessel disease and executive dysfunction in elderly patients at risk of future dementia.
Project description:The reproducibility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound measurements in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and TCD's ability to predict neurological progression is unknown.In 14 individuals with SWS, TCD measured mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, and end-diastolic velocity in the middle, posterior, and anterior cerebral arteries of the affected and unaffected hemisphere. TCD was performed either once (n = 5) or twice in one day (n = 9). We assessed the reproducibility of the measurements performed twice on the same day on subjects and compared the TCD measurements to previously published age-matched controls. Clinically obtained neuroimaging was scored for extent and severity of SWS brain involvement. Patients were prospectively assigned SWS neuroscores.Middle cerebral artery velocity (r = 0.79, P = 0.04, n = 7), posterior cerebral artery velocity (r = 0.90, P = 0.04, n = 5), and anterior cerebral artery pulsatility index (r = 0.82, P = 0.02, n = 7) were reproducible TCD measurements comparing same-day percent side-to-side differences. In subjects with SWS, affected and unaffected mean peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity in the middle, posterior, and anterior cerebral arteries were globally lower compared with age-matched control subjects. Subjects with the lowest affected middle cerebral artery velocity had the greatest worsening in the total neurological score between time 1 and 2 (r = -0.73, P = 0.04, n = 8) and the most severe magnetic resonance imaging involvement of the affected frontal lobe (r = -0.82, P = 0.007, n = 9).TCD may be a reliable measure with potential clinical value, indicating that blood flow may be globally decreased in SWS patients with unilateral brain involvement.
Project description:Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is a reliable and reproducible method for right-to-left shunt (RLS) detection, with high sensitivity. Monitoring the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is an optimal choice, yet for patients with insufficient temporal bone windows or severe stenosis of carotid arteries, an alternative should be established. The aim of the present study was to further establish whether c-TCD with vertebral artery (VA) monitoring is as effective as MCA monitoring for RLS detection. We evaluated 194 subjects for RLS detection with VA and MCA monitoring simultaneously. There was no significant difference between the positive rates of VA and MCA monitoring for RLS detection. c-TCD with VA monitoring could be an alternative for RLS detection, with high sensitivity and specificity both at rest and during the Valsalva manoeuvre.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:We sought to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and actigraphy-defined short sleep duration using transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) blood flow velocity in a subsample of Hispanics/Latinos without stroke and cardiovascular disease. METHODS:The sample consisted of consecutive participants at the Miami site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) with overnight home sleep testing and 7 days of wrist actigraphy in the Sueño sleep ancillary study. Ninety-five participants had sleep data and TCD determined cerebral hemodynamics. We evaluated the association between OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 events/h) and short sleep duration (< 6.8 hours; sample median) with cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) and pulsatility index (PI) for the middle cerebral (MCA) and basilar arteries (BA). RESULTS:Median age was 48 years (range 20-64) with 71% females. Twenty-eight percent of the sample had OSA (AHI ≥ 5 events/h) with median AHI of 10.0 (range 5.0-51.7) events/h. In unadjusted analyses, participants with OSA had lower median CBFV in the BA (30.5 cm/s [interquartile range:10.2] versus 39.4 cm/s [13.3] P < .05), but not the MCA, whereas short sleepers had higher median vascular resistance in the MCA (PI = 0.92 [0.18] versus 0.86 [0.14] P < .05) and BA (PI = 1.0 [0.17] versus 0.93 [0.24] P < .05). After full adjustment, OSA was associated with decreased CBFV (β [SE] = -5.1 [2.5] P < .05) in the BA. Short sleep was associated with increased PI (β [SE] = 0.05 [0.02] P < .05) in the MCA. CONCLUSIONS:In this sample of Hispanic/Latinos, OSA was associated with decreased daytime blood flow velocity in the BA, whereas actigraphy-defined short sleep duration was associated with increased cerebrovascular pulsatility in the MCA.
Project description:Motor impairment is common in the elderly population. Disrupted white matter tracts and the resultant loss of connectivity between cortical regions play an essential role in motor control. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we investigated the effect of white matter microstructure on upper-extremity and lower-extremity motor function in a community-based sample. A total of 766 participants (57.3?±?9.2 years) completed the assessment of motor performance, including 3-m walking speed, 5-repeat chair-stand time, 10-repeat hand pronation-supination time, and 10-repeat finger-tapping time. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and structural network connectivity parameters were calculated based on DTI. Lower FA and higher MD were associated with poor performance in walking, chair-stand, hand pronation-supination, and finger-tapping tests, independent of the presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities volume, and brain atrophy. Reduced network density, network strength, and global efficiency related to slower hand pronation-supination and finger-tapping, but not related to walking speed and chair-stand time. Disrupted white matter integrity and reduced cerebral network connectivity were associated with poor motor performance. Diffusion-based methods provide a more in-depth insight into the neural basis of motor dysfunction.
Project description:Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have elevated cerebral blood velocity relative to healthy peers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cerebral blood velocity, measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, age, and gender with cognitive function in children with SCA in Nigeria. Eighty-three children (Mage = 9.10, SD = 1.90 years; 55% female) with SCA in Nigeria completed cognitive assessments and a TCD ultrasound. The association between TCD velocity and measures of perceptual reasoning (Raven's Progressive Matrices), working memory (WISC-IV Digit Span), and executive planning (Tower of London, TOL) were assessed. Results showed that elevated TCD velocity significantly predicted lower scores on TOL Time Violations and Total Problem-Solving Time when controlling for BMI, hemoglobin level, and parent education, suggesting that TCD velocity is related to the efficiency of executive function. Further, age was negatively related to children's performance on the Ravens Matrices and TOL Total Correct, and boys showed greater deficits on the TOL Total Correct relative to girls. Moderation analyses for gender showed that there was a conditional negative association between TCD velocity and Digit Span for boys, but not for girls. Findings suggest that children with SCA in Nigeria with elevated TCD velocity are at risk for deficits in efficiency of executive planning, and boys with elevated TCD velocity are particularly at increased risk for deficits in auditory working memory. Implications of this study are important for interventions to reduce cerebral blood velocity and the use of TCD in this population.
Project description:Subclinical atherosclerotic plaques are common in patients with pontine infarctions (PIs) but without basilar artery (BA) stenosis. We hypothesized that BA plaque locations may differ by PI type and vertical location as well as vertebrobasilar artery geometry.Ninety-six patients with PI but without BA stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography were enrolled. PIs were classified by type (paramedian, deep, or lateral) and vertical location (rostral, middle, or caudal). Patients underwent high-resolution MRI to evaluate BA plaque location (anterior, posterior, or lateral). The mid-BA angle on anteroposterior view and angle between the BA and dominant vertebral artery (BA-VA angle) on lateral view were measured.The PIs were paramedian (72.9%), deep (17.7%), and lateral (9.4%) type with a rostral (32.3%), middle (42.7%), and caudal (25.0%) vertical location. The BA plaque locations differed by PI type (P=0.03) and vertical location (P<0.001); BA plaques were most frequent at the posterior wall in paramedian (37.1%) and caudal (58.3%) PIs and at the lateral wall in lateral (55.5%) and middle (34.1%) PIs. The BA-VA and mid-BA angles differed by BA plaque and PI vertical location; the greatest BA-VA angle was observed in patients with posterior plaques (P<0.001) and caudal PIs (P<0.001). Greatest mid-BA angles were observed with lateral BA plaques (P=0.03) and middlelocated PIs (P=0.03).Greater mid-BA angulation may enhance lateral plaque formation, causing lateral and middle PIs, whereas greater BA-VA angulation may enhance posterior plaque formation, causing paramedian or caudal PIs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1-5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method.<h4>Results</h4>All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (? = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (? = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients.
Project description:Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is a critical element in cerebrovascular pathophysiology, particularly in large vessel disease, but the best method to use for hemodynamic assessment is not clear. We examined 4 different blood-flow related measures in patients with unilateral high-grade carotid artery disease, assessing asymmetry between the occluded vs non-occluded side, and the correlations among the measures.Thirty-three patients (age 50-93, 19 M) with unilateral 80-100% ICA occlusion but no stroke underwent: 1) mean flow velocity (MFV) in both middle cerebral arteries by transcranial Doppler (TCD), 2) quantitative resting CBF using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI, 3) vasomotor reactivity (VMR) in response to 5% CO2 inhalation, and 4) dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) assessing the counter-regulation of blood flow to spontaneous changes in blood pressure using TCD monitoring and finger photoplethysmography. Paired t-tests and Pearson correlations assessed side-to-side differences within each measure, and correlations between measures.CBF (p=0.001), MFV (p<0.001), VMR (p=0.008), and DCA (p=0.047) all showed significantly lower values on the occluded side. The 4 measures were independent of each other on correlation analysis, even when controlling for age and anterior circle of Willis collateral (all partial correlations <0.233 and p-values >0.468).These 4 measures showed high sensitivity to the occluded carotid artery, but their dissociation suggests that any given measure only partially characterizes the hemodynamic state. Additional research is needed to explore the multifaceted biology of cerebral blood flow regulation.
Project description:Cerebral blood flow velocity(CBFV) is an important parameter for study of cerebral hemodynamics. However, a simple and highly similar mathematical model has not yet been established for analyzing CBFV. To alleviate this issue, through TCD examination in 100 geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease (46 males and 54 females), we established a representative eighth-order Fourier function Vx(t) that simulates the CBFV. The measured TCD waveforms were compared to those derived from Vx(t), an illustrative Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to determine the validity. The results showed that the TCD waves could been reconstructed for patients with different CBFVs by implementing their variable heart rates and the formulated maximum/minimum of Vx(t). Comparisons between derived and measured TCD waveforms suggest that the two waveforms are very similar. The results confirm that CBFV can be well-modeled through an eighth-order Fourier function. This function Vx(t) can be used extensively for a prospective study of cerebral hemodynamics in geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease.