Cognitive profiles in childhood and adolescence differ between adult psychotic and affective symptoms: a prospective birth cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Differences between verbal and non-verbal cognitive development from childhood to adulthood may differentiate between those with and without psychotic symptoms and affective symptoms in later life. However, there has been no study exploring this in a population-based cohort.The sample was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, and consisted of 2384 study members with self-reported psychotic experiences and affective symptoms at the age of 53 years, and with complete cognitive data at the ages of 8 and 15 years. The association between verbal and non-verbal cognition at age 8 years and relative developmental lag from age 8 to 15 years, and both adult outcomes were tested with the covariates adjusted, and mutually adjusted for verbal and non-verbal cognition.Those with psychotic experiences [thought interference (n = 433), strange experience (n = 296), hallucination (n = 88)] had lower cognition at both the ages of 8 and 15 years in both verbal and non-verbal domains. After mutual adjustment, lower verbal cognition at age 8 years and greater verbal developmental lag were associated with higher likelihood of psychotic experiences within individuals, whereas there was no association between non-verbal cognition and any psychotic experience. In contrast, those with case-level affective symptoms (n = 453) had lower non-verbal cognition at age 15 years, and greater developmental lag in the non-verbal domain. After adjustment, lower non-verbal cognition at age 8 years and greater non-verbal developmental lag were associated with higher risk of case-level affective symptoms within individuals.These results suggest that cognitive profiles in childhood and adolescence differentiate psychiatric disease spectra.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Studies have linked cognitive functioning to everyday social functioning in psychotic disorders, but the nature of the relationships between cognition, social cognition, symptoms, and social functioning remains unestablished. Modelling the contributions of non-social and social cognitive ability in the prediction of social functioning may help in more clearly defining therapeutic targets to improve functioning.<h4>Method</h4>In a sample of 745 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, the associations between cognition and social cognition at baseline on the one hand, and self-reported social functioning three years later on the other, were analysed. First, case-control comparisons were conducted; associations were subsequently further explored in patients, investigating the potential mediating role of symptoms. Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 233 patients with recent-onset psychosis.<h4>Results</h4>Information processing speed and immediate verbal memory were stronger associated with social functioning in patients than in healthy controls. Most cognition variables significantly predicted social functioning at follow-up, whereas social cognition was not associated with social functioning. Symptoms were robustly associated with follow-up social functioning, with negative symptoms fully mediating most associations between cognition and follow-up social functioning. Illness duration did not moderate the strength of the association between cognitive functioning and follow-up social functioning. No associations were found between (social) cognition and follow-up social functioning in patients with recent-onset psychosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although cognitive functioning is associated with later social functioning in psychotic disorder, its role in explaining social functioning outcome above negative symptoms appears only modest. In recent-onset psychosis, cognition may have a negligible role in predicting later social functioning. Moreover, social cognition tasks may not predict self-reported social functioning.
Project description:Understanding whether and how the schizophrenia polygenic risk score (SZ PRS) predicts course of illness could improve diagnosis and prognostication in psychotic disorders. We tested whether the SZ PRS predicts symptoms, cognition, illness severity, and diagnostic changes over the 20 years following first admission. The Suffolk County Mental Health Project is an inception cohort study of first-admission patients with psychosis. Patients were assessed six times over 20 years, and 249 provided DNA. Geographically- and demographically-matched never psychotic adults were recruited at year 20, and 205 provided DNA. Symptoms were rated using the Schedule for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Cognition was evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Illness severity and diagnosis were determined by consensus of study psychiatrists. SZ PRS was significantly higher in first-admission than never psychotic groups. Within the psychosis cohort, the SZ PRS predicted more severe negative symptoms (??=?0.21), greater illness severity (??=?0.28), and worse cognition (??=?-0.35), across the follow-up. The SZ PRS was the strongest predictor of diagnostic shifts from affective to non-affective psychosis over the 20 years (AUC?=?0.62). The SZ PRS predicts persistent differences in cognition and negative symptoms. The SZ PRS also predicts who among those who appear to have a mood disorder with psychosis at first admission will ultimately be diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. These findings show potential for the SZ PRS to become a tool for diagnosis and treatment planning.
Project description:Importance:It remains uncertain whether people with psychotic disorders experience progressive cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging after first hospitalization. This information is essential for prognostication in clinical settings, deployment of cognitive remediation, and public health policy. Objective:To examine long-term cognitive changes in individuals with psychotic disorders and to compare age-related differences in cognitive performance between people with psychotic disorders and matched control individuals (ie, individuals who had never had psychotic disorders). Design, Setting, and Participants:The Suffolk County Mental Health Project is an inception cohort study of first-admission patients with psychosis. Cognitive functioning was assessed 2 and 20 years later. Patients were recruited from the 12 inpatient facilities of Suffolk County, New York. At year 20, the control group was recruited by random digit dialing and matched to the clinical cohort on zip code and demographics. Data were collected between September 1991 and July 2015. Analysis began January 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures:Change in cognitive functioning in 6 domains: verbal knowledge (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised vocabulary test), verbal declarative memory (Verbal Paired Associates test I and II), visual declarative memory (Visual Reproduction test I and II), attention and processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written and oral; Trail Making Test [TMT]-A), abstraction-executive function (Trenerry Stroop Color Word Test; TMT-B), and verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test). Results:A total of 705 participants were included in the analyses (mean [SD] age at year 20, 49.4 [10.1] years): 445 individuals (63.1%) had psychotic disorders (211 with schizophrenia spectrum [138 (65%) male]; 164 with affective psychoses [76 (46%) male]; 70 with other psychoses [43 (61%) male]); and 260 individuals (36.9%) in the control group (50.5 [9.0] years; 134 [51.5%] male). Cognition in individuals with a psychotic disorder declined on all but 2 tests (average decline: d?=?0.31; range, 0.17-0.54; all P?<?.001). Cognitive declines were associated with worsening vocational functioning (Visual Reproduction test II: r?=?0.20; Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written: r?=?0.25; Stroop: r?=?0.24; P?<?.009) and worsening negative symptoms (avolition: Symbol Digit Modalities Test-written: r?=?-0.24; TMT-A: r?=?-0.21; Stroop: r?=?-0.21; all P?<?.009; inexpressivity: Stroop: r?=?-0.22; P?<?.009). Compared with control individuals, people with psychotic disrders showed age-dependent deficits in verbal knowledge, fluency, and abstraction-executive function (vocabulary: ??=?-0.32; Controlled Oral Word Association Test: ??=?-0.32; TMT-B: ??=?0.23; all P?<?.05), with the largest gap among participants 50 years or older. Conclusions and Relevance:In individuals with psychotic disorders, most cognitive functions declined over 2 decades after first hospitalization. Observed declines were clinically significant. Some declines were larger than expected due to normal aging, suggesting that cognitive aging in some domains may be accelerated in this population. If confirmed, these findings would highlight cognition as an important target for research and treatment during later phases of psychotic illness.
Project description:22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Approximately 30% of individuals with 22qDS develop psychotic illness in adolescence or young adulthood. Given that deficits in social cognition are increasingly viewed as a central aspect of idiopathic schizophrenia, we sought to investigate abilities in this domain as a predictor of psychotic symptoms in 22qDS participants. We assessed multiple domains of social and non-social cognition in 22qDS youth to: 1) characterize performance across these domains in 22qDS, and identify whether 22qDS participants fail to show expected patterns of age-related improvements on these tasks; and 2) determine whether social cognition better predicts positive and negative symptoms than does non-social cognition. Task domains assessed were: emotion recognition and differentiation, Theory of Mind (ToM), verbal knowledge, visuospatial skills, working memory, and processing speed. Positive and negative symptoms were measured using scores obtained from the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS). 22qDS participants (N=31, mean age: 15.9) showed the largest impairment, relative to healthy controls (N=31, mean age: 15.6), on measures of ToM and processing speed. In contrast to controls, 22qDS participants did not show age-related improvements on measures of working memory and verbal knowledge. Notably, ToM performance was the best predictor of positive symptoms in 22qDS, accounting for 39% of the variance in symptom severity. Processing speed emerged as the best predictor of negative symptoms, accounting for 37% of the variance in symptoms. Given that ToM was a robust predictor of positive symptoms in our sample, these findings suggest that social cognition may be a valuable intermediate trait for predicting the development of psychosis.
Project description:Neurocognitive deficits are associated with impaired global functioning and psychotic symptoms. However, whether symptoms can mediate the relationship between neurocognition and global functioning in adolescent psychosis is unclear. Here, we investigated if symptoms assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), mediated the relationship between neurocognitive performance and global functioning in adolescents with non-affective early-onset psychotic disorders (EOP). Sixty-one adolescent EOP patients (age 12-18 years) from 2 Norwegian clinical cohorts were included. Linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between neurocognitive domains from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and global functioning. PANSS symptoms were analyzed using the Wallwork/Fortgang five-factor model. Using the INDIRECT macro for SPSS, mediation effects were tested using bootstrapping with 95% bias corrected confidence intervals. Verbal learning was positively associated with global functioning (P?<?0.001) and negatively associated with the disorganized symptom factor (P?=?0.002), controlling for age, sex and cohort. Testing of indirect effects, controlling for age, sex and cohort, showed that the Negative (point estimate?=?1.56, 95% CI?0.22, 3.47) and Disorganized (point estimate?=?1.24, 95% CI?0.05, 3.69) symptom factors significantly mediated the relationship between verbal learning and global functioning. We found that verbal learning, negative and disorganized symptoms influenced global functioning in adolescents with EOP, while reality-distorted positive symptoms did not. These results suggest that assessing these domains in EOP is helpful for planning treatment and rehabilitation programs focusing on functional outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) have been reported to be useful in predicting incident dementia among cognitively normal older persons. However, the literature has not been conclusive on the differential utilities of the various NPS in predicting the subtypes of dementia. This study compared the risks of Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementia associated with the various NPS, among cognitively normal older persons. METHODS:This cohort study included 12,452 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers across USA, who were ??60?years and had normal cognition at baseline. Participants completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire at baseline and were followed up almost annually for incident dementia (median follow-up?=?4.7?years). Symptom clusters of NPS-as identified from exploratory and confirmatory factor-analyses-were included in the Cox regression to investigate their associations with incident dementia. RESULTS:The various NPS showed independent yet differential associations with incident dementia. Although psychotic symptoms were rarely endorsed by the participants, they predicted much higher risk of dementia (HR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0-6.4) than affective symptoms (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8) or agitation symptoms (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). Psychotic symptoms predicted all dementia subtypes, while affective and agitation symptoms differentially predicted some subtypes. Across dementia subtypes, psychotic symptoms had relatively higher risk estimates than affective or agitation symptoms, with the risk estimates being particularly high in non-Alzheimer's dementia. CONCLUSIONS:Among cognitively normal individuals, the presence of NPS may warrant greater clinical vigilance as precursors to dementia and its subtypes. The findings highlight the need for further research to enrich our understanding on the neurobiological links between various NPS and dementia subtypes. They may also change the clinical approach in managing late-life psychotic symptoms, requiring a greater emphasis on dementia surveillance in the diagnostic criteria of late-life psychotic disorders.
Project description:Self-stigma in mental illness is linked to negative clinical and functional outcomes, but little is known about its correlates specifically in psychotic disorders. Here we investigated the role of clinical symptoms, cognition, and vocational status as correlates of self-stigma in 98 individuals with psychotic disorders (36 Black American, 32 White Hispanic, 11 White Non-Hispanic, 11 Asian American). A principal component analysis of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale yielded three components: Experiential Stigma, Stereotype Endorsement, and Stigma Resistance. Higher Experiential Stigma was associated with greater severity of affective symptoms and lower vocational status. Higher Stigma Resistance was associated with higher social and non-social cognition, and higher vocational status. Stereotype Endorsement did not significantly correlate with any predictor variable. Linear regression models showed that 13% of the variance in Experiential Stigma was explained by affective symptoms and vocational status, and 20% of the variance in Stigma Resistance was explained by non-social cognition and vocational status. These findings provide new information about the correlates of self-stigma in an ethnically and racially diverse psychotic disorder sample. Such information may lead to a better understanding of self-stigma mechanisms in this population.
Project description:Current measures of social cognition have shown inconsistent findings regarding the effects of healthy aging. Moreover, no tests are currently available that allow clinicians and researchers to examine cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) and understanding of social norms within the same test. To address these limitations, we present the Edinburgh Social Cognition Test (ESCoT) which assesses cognitive and affective ToM and inter- and intrapersonal understanding of social norms. We examined the effects of age, measures of intelligence and the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) on the ESCoT and established tests of social cognition. Additionally, we investigated the convergent validity of the ESCoT based on traditional social cognition measures. The ESCoT was administered alongside Reading the Mind in Films (RMF), Reading the Mind in Eyes (RME), Judgement of Preference and Social Norm Questionnaire to 91 participants (30 aged 18-35 years, 30 aged 45-60 years and 31 aged 65-85 years). Poorer performance on the cognitive and affective ToM ESCoT subtests were predicted by increasing age. The affective ToM ESCoT subtest and RMF were predicted by gender, where being female predicted better performance. Unlike the ESCoT, better performance on the RMF was predicted by higher verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning abilities, while better performance on the RME was predicted by higher verbal comprehension scores. Lower scores on inter-and intrapersonal understanding of social norms were both predicted by the presence of more autism-like traits while poorer interpersonal understanding of social norms performance was predicted by increasing age. These findings show that the ESCoT is a useful measure of social cognition and, unlike established tests of social cognition, performance is not predicted by measures of verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning. This is particularly valuable to obtain an accurate assessment of the influence of age on our social cognitive abilities.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) have been recognized to increase the risk of dementia among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear whether the risk is shared across the various NPS or driven primarily by selected few symptoms. This study sought to provide confirmatory evidence on the comparative risk of dementia across the various NPS in MCI. DESIGN:Cohort study (median follow-up 4.0 years; interquartile range 2.1-6.4 years). SETTING:Alzheimer's Disease Centers across the United States. PARTICIPANTS:Participants ?60 years of age and diagnosed with MCI at baseline (n = 8530). MEASURES:Participants completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire at baseline and were followed up almost annually for incident dementia. Symptom clusters of NPS, as identified from confirmatory factor analyses, were included in Cox regression to investigate their comparative risks of dementia. RESULTS:Three symptom clusters of NPS were identified among participants with MCI, namely hyperactivity, affective, and psychotic symptoms. The risk of dementia was present among participants with affective symptoms [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.9] and psychotic symptoms (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), but not among those with hyperactivity symptoms (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.3). The risk was higher when affective symptoms and psychotic symptoms co-occurred (HR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.2), with one-half of the participants in this group developing dementia within 2.7 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The findings illustrate the potential usefulness of NPS as a convenient prognostic tool in the clinical management of MCI. They also suggest the need for future research to focus on affective/psychotic symptoms in MCI when studying the neurobiological links between NPS and neurodegenerative processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychotic disorders, but the profile of impairment across adulthood, particularly in African-American populations, remains unclear. METHODS:Using cross-sectional data from a case-control study of African-American adults with affective (n = 59) and nonaffective (n = 68) psychotic disorders, we examined cognitive functioning between early and middle adulthood (ages 20-60) on measures of general cognitive ability, language, abstract reasoning, processing speed, executive function, verbal memory, and working memory. RESULTS:Both affective and nonaffective psychosis patients showed substantial and widespread cognitive impairments. However, comparison of cognitive functioning between controls and psychosis groups throughout early (ages 20-40) and middle (ages 40-60) adulthood also revealed age-associated group differences. During early adulthood, the nonaffective psychosis group showed increasing impairments with age on measures of general cognitive ability and executive function, while the affective psychosis group showed increasing impairment on a measure of language ability. Impairments on other cognitive measures remained mostly stable, although decreasing impairments on measures of processing speed, memory and working memory were also observed. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest similarities, but also differences in the profile of cognitive dysfunction in adults with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders. Both affective and nonaffective patients showed substantial and relatively stable impairments across adulthood. The nonaffective group also showed increasing impairments with age in general and executive functions, and the affective group showed an increasing impairment in verbal functions, possibly suggesting different underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms.