Adenosine A2A receptor promotes collagen type III synthesis via ?-catenin activation in human dermal fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation promotes the synthesis of collagen type I and type III (Col1 and Col3), mediators of fibrosis and scarring. The A2A receptor modulates collagen balance via cAMP/PKA/p38-MAPK/Akt pathways. Wnt signalling is important in fibrosis and the cAMP and Wnt pathways converge. Because the A2A receptor is Gs-linked and increases cAMP, we determined whether A2A receptors and Wnt signalling interact. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Total ?-catenin, de-phosphorylated ?-catenin (canonical activation, de-phospho ?-catenin) and phosphorylated ?-catenin at Ser552 (non-canonical activation, p-Ser552 ?-catenin) levels were determined in primary human dermal fibroblasts, cytosol and nucleus, by western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy, before and after stimulation by A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680, with/without A2A receptor-selective antagonist (SCH56261) pretreatment. ?-Catenin was knocked down by transfection with scrambled-siRNA or specific-siRNA, and Col1 and Col3 levels determined by western blots. KEY RESULTS:CGS21680 stimulation rapidly (15 min) increased cellular ?-catenin levels. Both de-phospho ?-catenin and p-Ser552 ?-catenin levels were also increased. CGS21680 stimulated the translocation of total de-phospho and p-Ser552 ?-catenin to the nucleus. A2A receptor-stimulation increased Col1 synthesis similarly in ?-catenin knockeddown and scrambled cells. However, ?-catenin knockdown abolished the increase in Col3 synthesis induced in A2A receptor-stimulated fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:A2A receptor stimulation promotes Col3 synthesis via the activation of canonical and non-canonical ?-catenin, consistent with a role for A2A receptors in dermal fibrosis and scarring.
Project description:Activation of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) promotes fibrosis and collagen synthesis. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear, not least because cAMP, its principal effector, has been found to inhibit TGF?1-induced collagen synthesis. Here, we show that in primary normal human dermal fibroblasts, A2AR stimulation with CGS21680 elicits a modest cAMP increase (150 ± 12% of control; EC50 54.8 nM), which stimulates collagen1 (Col1) and collagen3 (Col3), but maximal cAMP resulting from direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin (15,689 ± 7038% of control; EC50 360.7 nM) inhibits Col1 and increases Col3. Similar to Col1 expression, fibroblast proliferation increased following physiological cAMP increases by CGS21680 but was inhibited by cAMP increases beyond the physiological range by forskolin. The A2AR-mediated increase of Col1 and Col3 was mediated by AKT, while Col3, but not Col1, expression was dependent on p38 and repressed by ERK. TGF?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and increased Col3 expression, which was prevented by Smad3 depletion. In contrast, CGS21680 did not activate Smad2/3, and Smad2/3 knockdown did not prevent CGS21680-induced Col1 or Col3 increases. Our results indicate that cAMP is a concentration-dependent switch for collagen production via noncanonical, AKT-dependent, Smad2/3-independent signaling. These observations explain the paradoxical effects of cAMP on collagen expression.
Project description:Adenosine is a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive metabolite that is a potent modulator of tissue repair. However, the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-mediated promotion of collagen synthesis is detrimental in settings such as scarring and scleroderma. The signaling cascade from A2AR stimulation to increased collagen production is complex and obscure, not least because cAMP and its downstream molecules PKA and Epac1 have been reported to inhibit collagen production. We therefore examined A2AR-stimulated signaling for collagen production by normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Collagen1 (Col1) and collagen3 (Col3) content after A2AR activation by CGS21680 was studied by western blotting. Contribution of PKA and Epac was analyzed by the PKA inhibitor PKI and by knockdowns of the PKA-C?, -C?, -C?, Epac1, and Epac2. CGS21680 stimulates Col1 expression at significantly lower concentrations than those required to stimulate Col3 expression. A2AR stimulates Col1 expression by a PKA-dependent mechanism since PKA inhibition or PKA-C? and -C? knockdown prevents A2AR-mediated Col1 increase. In contrast, A2AR represses Col3 via PKA but stimulates both Col1 and Col3 via an Epac2-dependent mechanism. A2AR stimulation with CGS21680 at 0.1 ?M increased Col3 expression only upon PKA blockade. A2AR activation downstream signaling for Col1 and Col3 expression proceeds via two distinct pathways with varying sensitivity to cAMP activation; more highly cAMP-sensitive PKA activation stimulates Col1 expression, and less cAMP-sensitive Epac activation promotes both Col1 and Col3 expression. These observations may explain the dramatic change in Col1:Col3 ratio in hypertrophic and immature scars, where adenosine is present in higher concentrations than in normal skin.
Project description:The axonal guidance proteins semaphorin (Sema)4D and Sema3A play important roles in communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. As stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast function, we asked whether A2AR regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast expression of Semas. In vivo bone formation and Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1 protein expression were studied in a murine model of wear particle-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast/osteoblast differentiation were studied in vitro as the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+/Alizarin Red+ cells after challenge with CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, 1 µM) or ZM241385 (A2AR antagonist, 1 µM), with or without Sema4D or Sema3A (10 ng/ml). Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1, and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) expression was studied by RT-PCR and Western blot. ?-Catenin activation and cytoskeleton changes were studied by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. In mice with wear particles implanted over the calvaria, CGS21680 treatment increased bone formation in vivo, reduced Sema4D, and increased Sema3A expression compared with mice with wear particle-induced osteolysis treated with vehicle alone. During osteoclast differentiation, CGS21680 abrogated RANKL-induced Sema4D mRNA expression (1.3 ± 0.3- vs. 2.5 ± 0.1-fold change, P < 0.001, n = 4). PlexinA1, but not Neuropilin-1, mRNA was enhanced by CGS21680 treatment. CGS21680 enhanced Sema3A mRNA expression during osteoblast differentiation (8.7 ± 0.2-fold increase, P < 0.001, n = 4); PlexinB1 mRNA was increased 2-fold during osteoblast differentiation and was not altered by CGS21680. Similar changes were observed at the protein level. CGS21680 decreased RANKL, increased OPG, and increased total/nuclear ?-catenin expression in osteoblasts. Sema4D increased Ras homolog gene family, member A phosphorylation and focal adhesion kinase activation in osteoclast precursors, and CGS21680 abrogated these effects. In summary, A2AR activation diminishes secretion of Sema4D by osteoclasts, inhibits Sema4D-mediated osteoclast activation, and enhances secretion of Sema3A by osteoblasts, increasing osteoblast differentiation and diminishing inflammatory osteolysis.-Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Shah, L., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation modulates expression of semaphorins 4D and 3A, regulators of bone homeostasis.
Project description:Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10-60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1-100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ?3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist ?,?-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1.
Project description:Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) stimulation promotes the synthesis of collagens I and III, and we have recently demonstrated that there is crosstalk between the A2aR and WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway. In in vitro studies, A2aR signaling for collagen III expression was mediated by WNT/?-catenin signaling in human dermal fibroblasts; we further verified whether the crosstalk between A2aR and Wnt/?-catenin signaling was involved in diffuse dermal fibrosis in vivo. Wnt-signaling reporter mice (Tcf/Lef:H2B-GFP) were challenged with bleomycin and treated with the selective A2aR antagonist istradefylline (KW6002) or vehicle. Dermal fibrosis was quantitated and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin in fibroblasts was assessed by double-staining for Green fluorescent protein or dephosphorylated ?-catenin or ?-catenin phosphorylated at Ser552, and vimentin. KW6002 significantly reduced skin thickness, skinfold thickness, breaking tension, dermal hydroxyproline content, myofibroblast accumulation, and collagen alignment in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis. Also, there was increased expression of Tcf/Lef:H2B-GFP reporter in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, an effect that was diminished by treatment with KW6002. Moreover, KW6002 significantly inhibited nuclear translocation of Tcf/Lef:H2B-GFP reporter, as well as dephosphorylated ?-catenin and ?-catenin phosphorylated at Ser552. Our work supports the hypothesis that pharmacologic blockade of A2aR inhibits the WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway, contributing to its capacity to inhibit dermal fibrosis in diseases such as scleroderma.
Project description:Binding assays and assays of activation of adenylate cyclase with the agonists 5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (NECA) and CGS21680 have been used to compare adenosine receptors in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in rat striatum. The [3H]NECA binding showed two components, whereas [3H]CGS21680 bound to one component in both tissues. The Kd value for the high affinity site labeled with [3H]NECA in PC12 cell membranes (2.3 nM) was lower than that in striatum (6.5 nM). The [3H]CGS21680 binding site showed a Kd value of 6.7 nM and 11.3 nM in PC12 cells and striatum, respectively. In the presence of GTP the KD values of [3H]NECA and [3H]CGS21680 for the high affinity site were increased severalfold, whereas the low affinity sites for [3H]NECA were no longer detected with filtration assays. A comparison of the ability of a series of agonists and antagonists to inhibit high affinity binding of [3H]NECA to A2 receptors in PC12 cell and striatal membranes indicated that agonists had higher affinities and antagonists had lower affinities in PC12 cells, compared with affinities in striatal membranes. Analysis of activation of adenylate cyclase in PC12 cell membranes suggested that the dose-dependent stimulation by NECA involved two components, whereas CGS21680 stimulated via one component. The maximal stimulation by NECA significantly exceeded that caused by CGS21680. In intact PC12 cells, NECA caused a greater accumulation of AMP than did CGS21680, as was the case in membranes. In striatal membranes, NECA and CGS21680 showed similar maximal stimulations of adenylate cyclase. Both NECA and CGS21680 were more potent in PC12 cell membranes than in striatal membranes, in agreement with binding data. However, in contrast to binding data, antagonists were not less potent versus stimulation of adenylate cyclase by NECA or CGS21680 in PC12 cell membranes, compared with striatal membranes. In toto, the results suggest that A2A receptors in striatum are virtually identical to the A2A receptors in PC12 cells. But, in addition to an A2A receptor, it appears that a lower affinity functional receptor, probably an A2B receptor, is present in PC12 cells and PC12 cell membranes, whereas such a functional low affinity receptor is not detectable in striatal membrane.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare differences in expressions and relationships between key genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism and tissue cellularity in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP).A total of 80 biopsies (anterior cuff, posterior cuff, and/or leading edge) were obtained from 30 women: n = 10 premenopausal without POP (controls), n = 10 premenopausal with POP, and n = 10 postmenopausal with POP. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assess gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), collagen types I (COL1) and III (COL3), relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), matrix metallopeptidase 2, and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitors 2 and 3. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to assess cellularity of the connective tissue layer. Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation, or linear regression analyses were used, as appropriate.Bone morphogenetic protein 1 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients with POP compared with controls. Bone morphogenetic protein 1 expression was correlated with COL1 expression in all groups but only correlated with TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 expression in controls. Similarly, COL3 expression was correlated with RXFP1 expression in women with POP but not in controls. The degree of dependence (slope of the regression line) between COL1 and COL3 expressions was significantly elevated in premenopausal women with POP compared with the other 2 groups. The slopes between COL1-COL3, COL3-matrix metallopeptidase 2, COL1-RXFP1, and COL3-RXFP1 expressions were significantly lower in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women with POP. No differences were found in overall tissue cellularity.Bone morphogenetic protein 1 expression may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of POP. The finding that BMP1 expression was correlated with COL1 expression in all groups suggests a conserved association between BMP1 and collagen synthesis in the vaginal wall. The elevated slope between COL1 and COL3 expressions may be associated with early (premenopausal) development of POP. The expression of RXFP1 in postmenopausal women and its altered intergene regulation suggests a role for RXFP1 in connective tissue metabolism outside pregnancy.
Project description:In previous studies, we have shown that the inactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor exacerbates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced white matter lesions (WMLs) by enhancing neuroinflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of the adenosine A2A receptor remains unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that cystatin F, a potent endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor, is selectively expressed in immune cells in association with inflammatory demyelination in central nervous system diseases. To understand the expression of cystatin F and its potential role in the effect of A2A receptor on WMLs induced through chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, we investigated cystatin F expression in the WMLs of A2A receptor gene knockout mice, the littermate wild-type mice and wild-type mice treated daily with the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 or both CGS21680 and A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The results of quantitative-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that cystatin F mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated in the WMLs after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In addition, cystatin F expression in the corpus callosum was significantly increased in A2A receptor gene knockout mice and markedly decreased in mice treated with CGS21680 on both the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, SCH58261 counteracted the attenuation of cystatin F expression produced by CGS21680 after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Moreover, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cystatin F was co-localized with the activated microglia marker CD11b. In conclusion, the cystatin F expression in the activated microglia is closely associated with the effect of the A2A receptors, which may be related to the neuroinflammatory responses occurring during the pathological process.
Project description:Wound healing is an important outcome of tissue damage and can be stimulated by adenosine released from cells during events such as tissue injury, ischaemia or tumour growth. The aim of this research was to determine the potency and efficacy of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor agonists on the rate of wound healing and cell proliferation in human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Real-time PCR data showed that only adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor mRNA were expressed in this cell line. All three adenosine receptor agonists, CPA, CGS21680 and NECA, significantly increased the rate of wound healing in human EAhy926 endothelial cells with the following order of potency CGS21680>CPA>NECA and efficacy CPA>NECA>CGS21680. The selective adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor antagonists, DPCPX, ZM241385 and MRS1754 (all at 10 nM), reversed the effects of their respective agonists. EAhy926 endothelial cell proliferation was also significantly increased with the adenosine A1 and A2B receptor agonists, CPA and NECA. Western blot analysis demonstrated that adenosine A2A and A1 receptor protein levels were highly expressed compared with the adenosine A2B receptors in the EAhy926 endothelial cell lines. While all three adenosine A1, A2A and A2B receptor subtypes contribute to cell proliferation and wound healing in human EAhy926 endothelial cells, treatments selectively targeting receptor subtypes may further enhance wound healing.
Project description:Oroxylin A is a flavone isolated from a medicinal herb reported to be effective in reducing the inflammatory and oxidative stresses. It also modulates the production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cortical neurons by the transactivation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). As a neurotrophin, BDNF plays roles in neuronal development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and neural protection from the harmful stimuli. Adenosine A2A receptor colocalized with BDNF in brain and the functional interaction between A2A receptor stimulation and BDNF action has been suggested. In this study, we investigated the possibility that oroxylin A modulates BDNF production in cortical neuron through the regulation of A2A receptor system. As ex-pected, CGS21680 (A2A receptor agonist) induced BDNF expression and release, however, an antagonist, ZM241385, prevented oroxylin A-induced increase in BDNF production. Oroxylin A activated the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signaling pathway, which is inhibited by ZM241385 and the blockade of the signaling pathway abolished the increase in BDNF production. The physiological roles of oroxylin A-induced BDNF production were demonstrated by the increased neurite extension as well as synapse formation from neurons. Overall, oroxylin A might regulate BDNF production in cortical neuron through A2A receptor stimulation, which promotes cellular survival, synapse formation and neurite extension.